• 1 Fakultas Ilmu keolahragaan, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Makassar, 90222, Indonesia
  • 2 Institute of Excellent Teachers and Leaders in Education (IETLE), School of Education, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah 06010, Malaysia
  • 3 LPDP Indonesia, Jakarta 10330, Indonesia
  • 4 Universitas Jambi, Jambi, Indonesia
  • 5 Institut Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Budi Utomo Malang, Malang, 65119, Indonesia
  • 6 Sekolah Tinggi Olahraga Kesehatan Bina Guna Medan, Medan, 20241, Indonesia
  • 7 PJKR FKIP Universitas Syiah Kuala, Aceh, 23111, Indonesia
  • 8 PJKR FOK Universitas Negeri Gorontalo, Gorontalo, 96128, Indonesia
Heliyon, 2021 Sep;7(9):e08043.
PMID: 34611566 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08043


This study was conducted to investigate the perspectives of sports science students on factors affecting distance learning in the setting of Indonesian higher education institutions (HEIs). This study proposed an extended technology acceptance model (TAM) with eight variables; experience, enjoyment, self-efficacy, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude, intention to use, and actual use. An online survey was used to collect data from 1291 respondents. The structural model was examined through the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The multi-group analysis (MGA) was conducted to understand the role of geographical areas in moderating all hypothetical relationships. The findings show that the respondents were not excited about online learning due to weak means (below 3) for most items of five variables; enjoyment, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude, and intention to use. All relationships were supported except the relationship between experience and perceived usefulness. The strongest significant relationship emerged between intention to use and actual use. Meanwhile, the least significant relationship was found between self-efficacy and perceived usefulness. Three out of 12 hypotheses were confirmed regarding the differences of geographical areas (rural and urban) regarding all relationship paths. The findings add to a deeper understanding of the acceptability of distance learning during pandemics like COVID-19.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.