• 1 Centre of Lipids Engineering & Applied Research (CLEAR), Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM, Johor Bahru 81310, Johor, Malaysia
  • 2 Department of Food Bioengineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
Foods, 2021 Sep 24;10(10).
PMID: 34681309 DOI: 10.3390/foods10102260


Noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia) are a source of phenolic bioactive compounds (scopoletin, alizarin, and rutin), which have antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, subcritical water was applied to determine the extraction yields and kinetics of phenolic compounds from noni fruits. The scopoletin and alizarin yields increased with the increase in temperature from 100 to 140 °C, while that of rutin increased up to 120 °C and then decreased at 140 °C. The yields of all the compounds rapidly increased from 1 to 2 mL/min and then slightly up to 3 mL/min of water flow rate. The extraction kinetics were assessed using two mathematical models. The two-site kinetic desorption model had a better fit for all experimental conditions throughout the extraction cycle and best described the extraction kinetics of phenolic compounds from noni fruits. The diffusion coefficients of scopoletin and alizarin at 140 °C and 3 mL/min were 3.7- and 16.2-fold higher than those at 100 °C and 1 mL/min, respectively. The activation energies of alizarin were 2.9- to 8.5-fold higher than those of scopoletin at various flow rates. Thus, subcritical water could be an excellent solvent with higher extraction yields and shorter extraction times using an environmentally friendly solvent.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.