Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

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  1. Hassali MA, Arief M, Saleem F, Khan MU, Ahmad A, Mariam W, et al.
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2017 Apr-Jun;15(2):929.
    PMID: 28690695 DOI: 10.18549/PharmPract.2017.02.929
    OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to evaluate the practices and attitudes of young Malaysian adults towards the use of antibiotics, and to determine the socioeconomic factors associated with the antibiotic use.

    METHODS: A survey was carried in Cheras community by approaching a conveniently selected sample of 480 participants. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection.

    RESULT: Of 480 participants approached, 400 agreed to participate in this study, giving a response rate of 83.3%. The study results showed that 42.75% of the participants exhibited poor attitudes towards antibiotic usage. Chinese race and high income were significantly associated with the positive attitudes towards antibiotic usage. It is shown that the practice of the participants towards antibiotics was relatively poor. The majority of participants agreed that they do not consult a doctor for minor illnesses (64%). The main reason for not consulting a doctor was the high fees of consultation (34.25%) and the inconvenience of visit (29.25%). However, a large proportion of respondents (77.5%) agreed that there is a need to enhance antibiotic education among public.

    CONCLUSION: The study results identified some crucial gaps in the attitudes and practices of Cheras community about the use of antibiotics. Thus, improving the public knowledge and changing their attitude towards antibiotic use along with proper interventions to regulate the ease of their availability would play a significant role for the effective use of antibiotics in the community.
  2. Bhagavathula AS, Bandari DK, Elnour AA, Ahmad A, Khan MU, Baraka M, et al.
    Springerplus, 2015;4:769.
    PMID: 26688783 DOI: 10.1186/s40064-015-1541-2
    We intended to assess knowledge, attitude, perception, misconception and views (KAP-MV) of family members of PLWHA. A cross-sectional retrospective study conducted in Anti-retroviral centre of Mahatma Gandhi Memorial-MGM hospital, Warangal, Telangana, South-India from July to September 2014. A questionnaire containing 41 items was distributed among adult family members accompanying patients living with HIV/AIDS-PLWHA. Level of KAP-MV was categorized into poor (0-28), average (29-55) and good (56-82). Analysis was performed by Pearson's Chi square, analysis of variance and Spearman's correlation test on 41 variables using SPSS version 21 and p 
  3. Khan MU, Ahmad A, Salman S, Ayub M, Aqeel T, Haq NU, et al.
    J Relig Health, 2017 Apr;56(2):635-648.
    PMID: 27640195 DOI: 10.1007/s10943-016-0308-6
    Pakistan is one of the two countries where polio remains endemic. Among multiple reasons of polio prevalence, false religious beliefs are accounted as major barriers towards polio immunization in Pakistan. Within this context, religious scholars are now engaged in polio immunization campaigns to dismantle the myths and battle the resurgence of polio in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes and perceived barriers of Muslim scholars towards polio immunization in Pakistan. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of Muslim scholars was conducted in Quetta and Peshawar divisions of Pakistan. From October to December 2015, a convenience sample of 770 Muslim scholars was recruited from the local mosques and religious institutions to participate in this study. Knowledge, attitudes, and perceived barriers were assessed by using self-administered, anonymous and pretested questionnaire. Descriptive and regression analyses were used to express the results with p 
  4. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Kumar BD, Kumar GS, Rodriguez SP, Patel I
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 10 1;7(4):302-8.
    PMID: 26692742 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.158438
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the beliefs, attitudes and self-use of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) medicines among senior pharmacy students.

    METHODOLOGY: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among pharmacy students in four pharmacy schools located in Andhra Pradesh in South India. This study was conducted from the August to September 2014. The study population included all pharmacy students enrolled in Doctor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Pharmacy and Diploma in Pharmacy programs in studied pharmacy schools. The pretested AYUSH survey had 8 questions on AYUSH related beliefs and 8 question on AYUSH related attitudes. The survey also asked participants about AYUSH related knowledge, frequency of use of AYUSH and the reason for using AYUSH. The data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test were employed to study the association between the independent and dependent variables.

    RESULTS: A total of 428 pharmacy students participated in the survey. 32.2% of the study population was females and 32.5% of the population resided in rural areas. Males were more likely to have positive beliefs about AYUSH when compared to females (odd ratio [OR] = 4.62, confidence interval [CI] = 2.37-8.99, P < 0.001). Similarly, students living in hostels were more positive in their beliefs about AYUSH compared with students living at home (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.12-4.07, P < 0.05). Students living in hostel also had a positive attitude about AYUSH use (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.03-2.93, P < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Pharmacy students held favorable attitude and beliefs about AYUSH use. This baseline survey provides important information about the pharmacy student's perception about AYUSH. Further research is needed to explore the reasons that shape the pharmacy student's beliefs and attitudes about AYUSH.

  5. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Moorthy J, Jamshed SQ, Patel I
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2015 03 15;13(1):523.
    PMID: 25883690
    BACKGROUND: There is limited research on pharmacy specialization based differences with regards to usage of antibiotics.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the knowledge, attitude and practice of Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) and Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students about usage and resistance of antibiotics in Southern India.

    METHODS: This was a cross sectional study involving final year BPharm and PharmD students studying in two private institutions located in Andra Pradesh, India. The study was conducted for the period of 3 months. The questionnaire was divided into 5 components: demographics, knowledge about antibiotic use, attitude towards antibiotic use and resistance, self-antibiotic usage, and possible causes of antibiotic resistance. The study questionnaire was assessed for reliability. Data were analysed by employing Mann Whitney and chi square tests using SPSS version 19.

    RESULTS: The sample size comprised of 137 students. The response rate was 76.11% for the study. There was a significant difference in the knowledge of antibiotic use in BPharm and PharmD students (Mean score: 5.09 vs 6.18, p<0.001). The overall attitude of PharmD students about antibiotic use and resistance was positive compared to BPharm students (Mean score: 3.05 vs 2.23, p<0.05). The self-antibiotic practices was higher in BPharm students than PharmD students (36.4% vs 20%, p<0.05). A significantly high number of PharmD students believed that empirical antibiotic therapy led to antibiotic resistance (19.5% versus 48%, P<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: PharmD students were more knowledgeable about antibiotic usage and resistance compared to BPharm students who did not have accurate and the much needed information about the same. Future interventions should be targeted towards educating the BPharm students so that they can implement the acquired knowledge in their practice.

  6. Khan AN, Khan MU, Shoaib MH, Yousuf RI, Mir SA
    Oman Med J, 2014 Jul;29(4):271-5.
    PMID: 25170408 DOI: 10.5001/omj.2014.71
    OBJECTIVES: To explore the nurses' expectations and experience about pharmacists in private sector hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to September 2012 in five private sector hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. A convenient sample of nurses (n=377) were enrolled in this study. Data was obtained through a previously validated questionnaire. Responses were statistically analyzed using SPSSv.17.

    RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned giving a response rate of 63.6% of which 20 were unusable (n=240). Out of the remaining 220, 24.1% (n=53) responded that they never or rarely interacted with a pharmacist. Respondents who expect pharmacists to collaborate with nurses to solve drug related problems were 45% (n=99). Nurses' experience of pharmacists was not substantial as only 44.5% (n=98) respondents consider pharmacists as a reliable source of clinical drug information.

    CONCLUSION: The role of pharmacists is not well appreciated among nurses in Pakistan. Hence, pharmacists must bridge the observed gap and use a more strategic and consistent approach to build a more positive image in line with other healthcare professionals and in providing patient-centred pharmaceutical care. This research would impress upon the pharmacists the need to redefine their role in the healthcare settings.

  7. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Haque I, Ivan R, Dasari R, Revanker M, et al.
    J Clin Diagn Res, 2015 Feb;9(2):FC10-3.
    PMID: 25859467 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/11264.5608
    Polypharmacy is considered as one of the major risk factors in precipitation of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Patient population at high risk include the elderly and patients with co morbidities as they are usually prescribed with more number of drugs. Critical evaluation of such prescriptions by pharmacist could result in identification and reduction of such problems.
  8. Elkalmi RM, Alkoudmani RM, Elsayed TM, Ahmad A, Khan MU
    J Relig Health, 2016 Dec;55(6):1869-75.
    PMID: 26429730 DOI: 10.1007/s10943-015-0136-0
    The Malaysian official Islamic authorities have issued a "fatwa" (Islamic ruling) regarding smoking practice which prohibits Muslims from smoking because of its potential harm to health. Since the prevalence of smoking among Malaysian students is high, this study was designed to explore the perceptions and opinions of Malaysian Muslim students towards smoking in International Islamic University of Malaysia. A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted among School of Science students in International Islamic University Malaysia. Convenience sampling approach was used to recruit 323 students based on sample size calculation. A content- and face-validated questionnaire was used to collect the data from the participants. Non-smokers highly supported the fatwa on smoking forbiddance than smokers (94 vs 64.3 %, p = 0.001). A significant proportion of non-smokers believed that Islam prohibits smoking because of its potential harm (94.9 vs 71.4 %, p = 0.001). Majority of smokers agreed that addiction is the main barrier towards smoking cessation (78.6 vs 61.5 %, p = 0.019). The results showed positive influences of Islamic beliefs on the non-smokers. Further studies are required to validate these findings by surveying other universities of Malaysia.
  9. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Srikanth AB, Patel I, Nagappa AN, Jamshed SQ
    J Clin Diagn Res, 2015 Jun;9(6):FC01-6.
    PMID: 26266133 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/12921.6023
    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of workload among pharmacy academicians working in public and private sector universities in India. The study also aimed to assess the satisfaction of academicians towards their workload.
  10. Khan MU, Ahmad A, Aqeel T, Akbar N, Salman S, Idress J
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(11):e0142485.
    PMID: 26559184 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142485
    Pakistan accounts for 85.2% of the total polio cases reported worldwide. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are an integral part of immunization campaigns and source of education for the general public. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards polio vaccination among HCWs providing immunisation and education to general public in Quetta and Peshawar divisions of Pakistan.
  11. Khan MU, Ahmad A, Aqeel T, Salman S, Ibrahim Q, Idrees J, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:1100.
    PMID: 26541976 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-2471-1
    Despite the efforts of national and international organizations, polio has not been eradicated from Pakistan. The prevalence of polio in Pakistan is exceptional in global context. Quetta and Peshawar divisions are amongst the most affected regions hit by polio in Pakistan. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions towards polio immunization among residents of Quetta and Peshawar divisions in Pakistan.
  12. Khan MU, Arief M, Ahmad A, Malik S, Gogoi LJ, Kalita M, et al.
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2017 Apr;39(2):473-477.
    PMID: 28260131 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-017-0443-5
    Background Shortage of qualified medical doctors and little or no access to basic medicines and medical facilities are the major rural health concerns in India. Expanding the role of pharmacists to provide prescribing services could improve rural health outcomes. Objective To assess the attitudes of rural population towards pharmacist prescribing and their interest in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services. Setting Rural population of Assam, India. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted for a period of 2 months from March to April 2016 in the State of Assam, India. A multi-stage sampling was used to recruit (n = 410) eligible participants. Main outcome measure Rural population attitudes towards, and interests in using, pharmacist prescribing services. Results The attitudes of participants were generally positive towards pharmacist prescribing. A large proportion of participants (81.5%) agreed that pharmacists should have a prescribing role in rural India. Participants indicated their interest in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services, with greater interests in receiving medications in emergency situations (79.7%) and getting a treatment plan for their medical problem (75.6%). Participants with low income and tertiary education had better attitudes and showed more interest towards expanded pharmacist prescribing services (p 
  13. Patel I, Hussain R, Khan A, Ahmad A, Khan MU, Hassalai MAA
    PMID: 28878929 DOI: 10.1186/s40545-017-0118-6
  14. Adeeb F, Khan MU, Li X, Stack AG, Devlin J, Fraser AD
    Int J Inflam, 2017;2017:8608716.
    PMID: 28660088 DOI: 10.1155/2017/8608716
    Vitamin D plays a significant role in the immune system modulation and may confer a protective role in autoimmune diseases. We conducted a case-control study to compare 25(OH)D levels in patients with BD who were managed at a regional rheumatology programme in the midwest region of Ireland compared to matched controls. Healthy controls were selected from the Irish health system and matched in 1 : 5 ratio for age, sex, and the month of the year. 25(OH)D levels <20 nmol/L were classified as deficient while levels between 20 and 40 nmol/L were classified as insufficient. Differences between groups were assessed using Mann-Whitney test and associations between cases and controls were expressed as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Nineteen patients with BD were compared with 95 controls matched by age, sex, and month of blood draw. 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher in patients in BD than in matched controls (median values: 45 nmol/L versus 22 nmol/L, p < 0.005) and tended to be lower in patients with active disease than in those without (median values: 35 nmol/L (IQR: 22.75-47.25 nm/L) versus 50 nmol/L (IQR: 35-67 nmol/L), p = 0.11). Compared to controls, patients with BD were significantly less likely to have 25(OH)D deficiency or insufficiency (OR: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.03-0.28, p < 0.001). Our findings suggest a possible role for 25(OH)D in modifying the inflammatory response in BD and uncover a potential opportunity to assess whether correction of Vit D deficiency confers protective benefits.
  15. Adeeb F, Ng WL, Khan MU, Devlin J, Stack AG, Fraser AD
    Eur J Rheumatol, 2017 Dec;4(4):254-259.
    PMID: 29308279 DOI: 10.5152/eurjrheum.2017.17046
    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate prescription practices, treatment responses, and serious adverse events of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapies in Behçet's disease (BD).

    Material and Methods: Patients with BD satisfying the International Study Group for Behçet's Disease or the International Criteria for Behçet's Disease criteria were recruited from a regional rheumatology program. The choice of anti-TNF, treatment response, and adverse events were specified. Response to treatment was evaluated by the detection of new, worsening, or improving clinical features, and management was benchmarked against current The European League against Rheumatism recommendations published in 2008.

    Results: Out of the total of 22 patients, 18 (81.9%) received anti-TNF therapies, resulting in 14 (77.8%) complete and 4 (22.2%) partial remissions. Eleven (61.1%) patients switched to a second anti-TNF, seven patients (38.9%) required three different anti-TNFs, and one required a fourth anti-TNF to achieve remission. Two patients required retrials before their disease was controlled. Anti-TNF therapy included infliximab (IFX): n=15, 83.3%; adalimumab (ADA): n=9, 50%; golimumab: n=6, 33.3%; etanercept: n=5, 27.8%; and certolizumab pegol: n=2, 11.1%. Secondary failure was observed with IFX (4/15; 26.7%) and ADA (2/9; 22.2%), and these (100%) were manifested after at least 2 years of treatment. Five patients with potentially life-threatening laryngeal involvement received anti-TNFs successfully halting disease progression. Five allergic reactions were encountered, and five serious infections were documented involving three patients aged ≥ 50 years, all with the use of IFX.

    Conclusion: Anti-TNF therapy induced a clinical response in 100% patients and achieved complete remission in 78% patients. It provides an effective alternative option for first-line therapy in severe BD where many conventional immunosuppressive therapies fail. Patients with BD who do not respond to one or more anti-TNFs because of intolerance, ineffectiveness, or secondary failure might benefit from switching to another drug from this group or even a retrial of a previously administered anti-TNF because unsatisfactory results with one biologic is not predictive of response to another anti-TNF. For those with potentially life-threatening destructive laryngeal manifestation, anti-TNF as a first choice may be considered.

  16. Khan MU, Shah S, Ahmad A, Fatokun O
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14:1281.
    PMID: 25510239 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-1281
    With the increase in prevalence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk of acquiring and subsequently transmitting this lethal virus. In view of this, HCWs were evaluated for their knowledge of and attitude towards MERS in Saudi Arabia.
  17. Jamshed SQ, Khan MU, Ahmad A, Elkalmi RM
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 3 10;8(1):34-8.
    PMID: 26957866 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.171686
    BACKGROUND: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is consistently on the rise worldwide. Consumers often consider pharmacists as a major source of information about CAM products and their safety. Due to the limitation of data, it is worth exploring the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students toward CAM.
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students regarding the use of CAM in Malaysia.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted for 3 months among Bachelor of Pharmacy students in a public sector University of Malaysia. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire, comprised four sections, was used to collect the data from 440 participants. Descriptive analysis was used, and Chi-square test was used to test the association between dependent and independent variables.
    RESULTS: Of 440 questionnaire distributed, 287 were returned giving a response rate of (65.2%). The results showed that 38.6% participants gave correct answers when asked about the use of herbal products with digoxin. Majority of the participants were knowledgeable about supplementary therapy (25.3%) while the lack of knowledge was mostly evident in traditional Chinese medicines (73.7%). Majority of the students were either neutral (49.5%) or disagreed that (42.8%) CAM use is unsafe. Females were more in disagreement to the statements than males (P = 0.007). Majority of students also agreed to use CAM therapies for their health and well-being (51.2%).
    CONCLUSION: The study revealed that pharmacy students did not have adequate knowledge of CAM though their attitudes and perceptions were relatively positive.
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