The study was conducted to investigate fatty acid composition, rheological properties and crystal formation of rambutan fat and cocoa butter. The results showed that lauric acid, palmitic acid, and stearic fatty acid in rambutan fat were less than cocoa butter, but oleic acid found almost the same. The crystal formation of cocoa butter was not complex at 25oC, while rambutan fat and their mixture shown complicated network of crystal form. The Newton, Bingham and Casson plastic rheological models was used to describe fat flow in this experiment and the result showed that rambutan fat had higher viscosity than cocoa fat. Based on the results the study recommended that mixture proportion up to 30% rambutan seed fat can be used as a cocoa butter substitute whereas higher proportion completely alters original cocoa butter properties. Therefore, there is feasibility of using the rambutan fat to substitute cocoa butter and the mixtures of the two fats in suitable proportion in chocolate manufacturing.
Fish crackers made from freshwater fishes is a new dimension in fish cracker industry. In this study, three species were chosen based on their general preference and acceptability by Malaysian. Together with other ingredients, these crackers were prepared using standard formulation and tested in laboratory for their proximate analysis and physical characteristic analysis includes linear expansion, oil absorption, color measurement and texture. Sensory analysis for overall acceptability was carried out among trained panelist in the school. The results for proximate composition and physical analysis showed that there were significant differences (p
Fat content and macroscopic properties of fat network formulation result in final products in chocolate industry. The knowledge of physical properties is required in regard to stability of final food products resulting to quality. The study was carried out to investigate the thermal behavior, solid fat content and hardness of Rambutan fat (RF), cocoa butter and mixtures between two fats. The results found that the mixtures can be compatibility; the cocoa butter indicated the higher of solid fat content at room temperature more than RF and other mixtures. The RF had the highest melting point in both non-stabilized and stabilized form among cocoa butter and their mixtures. The hardness behavior showed lower in the mixture 1 and RF. For the phase behavior of crystallization exhibited the similar for all samples whereas the time of crystallization and temperatures were different. Therefore, the RF might be possible source of cocoa butter substitute with suitable proportion in the manufacturing chocolate and confectionery products.
Starch is a biodegradable polymer produced in abundance from many renewable resources. This study examined the influence of citric acid (0-40% w/wt%) ) and water (0-40% w/wt%) as secondary additive and glycerol as plasticizer on the mechanical properties of bio-plastic starch (BPS) from Malaysian sago. The CA content varies from 0 to 40 w/wt% while water was also varied from 0 to 40 w/wt%. FT-IR spectroscopy showed that acid citric improve the properties of BPS and water give negative effects to the carbon hydrogenbond. It is obvious that the addition of the CA at 30 wt/wt% improve the mechanical property of BPS to more than 40% compare to the addition of water.
In this study, RAPD-PCR and ERIC-PCR were used to study the epidemiology of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from cockles in Padang, Indonesia. The Gold Oligo OPAR3 primer produced bands ranged from 1-8 with sizes from 0.2 – 5.0 kb and the Gold Oligo OPAR8 primer produced 1-7 bands with sizes 0.7 – 1.5 kb. Both primers produced twenty five RAPD patterns with a few isolates failed to produce any products. Based on phylogenetic dendrogram, all the isolates can be divided into 6 major clusters with similarity between 0 to 52%. For the ERIC primer, it produced bands ranged from 3-15 with sizes from 0.1 – 5.0 kb and twenty seven different ERIC patterns. Construction of the phylogenetic dendogram showed the isolates can be divided into 4 major clusters with similarity between 56 to 86%. The high diversity of both processes may be due to the multiple contamination sources of V. parahaemolyticus.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the most widely recognized pathogenic Vibrio species due to numerous outbreaks and its’ wide occurrence in marine environment. In this study, 32 isolates of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from cockles were tested for sensitivity to 16 antibiotics and the presence of plasmids. All the isolates were multi-resistance, defined as resistant to atleast three different antibiotics with multiple antibiotic resistance indexes ranging from 0.31 to 0.69, indicating the isolates originate from high risk sources of contamination where antibiotics are often used. In the plasmid profiling test, only 15 isolates (47%) harbored plasmid DNA, which ranged in size from 2.7 to 56.2 kb, separating the isolates into 14 plasmid profiles. Hence, food contaminated with antibiotic resistant V. parahaemolyticus could be a major threat to public health due to the distinct possibility that they can be a significant reservoir of genes encoding antibiotic resistance determinants that can be transferred intra or interspecies. As in many developing countries, raw food hygiene and antimicrobial resistance epidemiology is still in the infancy stage in the locality of the study and thus our data provide a current baseline profile of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid of V. parahaemolyticusfrom cockles in Padang, Indonesia.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram negative bacterium and causes gastrointestinal illness in humans. In this study, twenty five out of fifty cockle samples from Padang, Indonesia produced purple colonies when they were grown on selective medium, CHROMagarTM Vibrio. Specific–PCR for toxR gene detection gave positive results in which a band with 368 base pairs size appeared on the gel for all the isolates that confirmed the presence of V. parahaemolyticus. In the virulence properties test, all the isolates showed negative results for tdh and trh genes detection. The results indicate that the isolates under this study do not contain virulence properties that correlate to the ability of infection and diseases, which means that they are nonpathogenic.
The physicochemical properties of Musa Acuminata cv. Berangan at different ripening stages
(1, 2 and 3) were evaluated in the study. A visual attribute such as colour usually leads to
misclassification as it can be subjected to different individual interpretation. Therefore, various
measurements were conducted to determine the relationship between ripening stages and
physicochemical properties of the fruit such as colour, pH, total soluble solids content (TSS)
and firmness. Results showed that there were significant changes in physicochemical properties
as ripening stages increased. Results also indicated that the correlations between ripening
stages and firmness and pH values were statistically significant compared to other parameters.
These relationships can be used to predict the related quality attributes of Berangan bananas.
Microbial contamination in food system poses risk towards public health. The usage of synthetic
and chemical preservatives to prevent the contamination has become a growing concern due
to the presence of deleterious and harmful substances that can cause environment and health
problems in prolonged exposure. Thus, there are needs to overcome this problem by using
natural products as food preservatives. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of methanolic
Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) extracts were tested against five foodborne pathogens,
namely Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus
aureus and Candida albicans. The susceptibility test, minimum inhibitory concentrations
(MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) or minimum fungicidal concentration
(MFC) were conducted using the broth microdilution techniques as described by Clinical and
Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). C. citratus extract showed antimicrobial activity against
all tested foodborne pathogens; B. cereus, E. coli O157:H7, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus and C.
albicans with the inhibition zone of 12 mm, 7.5 mm, 11 mm, 10 mm and 9 mm, respectively.
The MIC of C. citratus extract against B. cereus, E. coli O157:H7, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus
and C. albicans was 0.08 mg/ml, 0.63 mg/ml, 0.04 mg/ml, 0.31 mg/ml, and 0.16 mg/ml,
respectively, while the MBC or MFC was 1.25 mg/ml, 2.50 mg/ml, 2.50 mg/ml, 1.25 mg/
ml and 1.25 mg/ml, respectively. Time–kill curves were determined to assess the correlation
between MIC and bactericidal activity of C. citratus extract at concentrations ranging from 0×
MIC to 4× MIC. The bactericidal endpoint for B. cereus, E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus and C.
albicans was at 4× MIC after 2 h, 4× MIC after 2 h, 4× MIC after 30 min and 4× MIC after 4
h, respectively whereas K. pneumoniae was not completely killed after 4 hours of incubation at
4× MIC. The potent antimicrobial activity of C. citratus extract may support its usage as natural
Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hongkong) is an economically important fruit crop grown in Malaysia. During its ripening stages, (C. papaya L.) exhibits different physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacities, and sensory quality results. The objective of this study was to elucidate in detail the antioxidant capacity of C. papaya as determined by total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP),2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and scavenging systemand (ABTS). The study also aimed to study physicochemical changes of papaya fruits based on measured pH, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), moisture and fruit color at five different stages of ripening. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Significant differences were found at different stages of ripening. The pH of the fruit decreased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas TA, moisture, and TSS increased significantly (P < 0.05) during the ripening process. The redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values of fruit color both increased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas
lightness (L*) varied. The total phenol content TPC, TFC, FRAP, DPPH and ABTS values increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the ripening process. Sensory evaluation based on the color, sweetness, sourness, flavor, and overall acceptance for the last three maturity stages was also performed. RS5 had a better score than RS3 or RS4. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.
Thermal imaging is widely utilized in agricultural applications such as examining plant
physiology, yield prediction, irrigation scheduling, bruises and pathogen determination in
fruits and vegetables. There is a need for a cost effective thermal device for this wide range
of applications. In this study, a low-cost prototype thermal device was used to measure the
temperature of FFBs at three maturity levels, that are under-ripe, ripe and over-ripe. The
experiment was repeated using a commercial thermal camera. Then, the mean temperature
obtained from both the prototype and commercial thermal sensors was compared. Our results
showed the prototype thermal device is capable of estimating the mean temperature of oil palm
FFBs with the values analogous to the mean temperature from commercial thermal camera
with R2 = 0.71.
Gelatin from goatskin pretreated with hydrochloric acid and extracted with distilled water at 60oC for 9 hours was characterized and compared to that of bovine skin gelatin (BSG). A yield of 10.26% (wet weight basis) was obtained. Goatskin gelatin (GSG) had high protein (86.58%), suitable moisture (9.58%), low fat (1.46%) and low ash (0.11%) content. The functional properties of GSG including gel strength (301 g bloom) and emulsion activity index (94.27%) were higher than the functional properties of BSG including gel strength (192 g bloom) and emulsion activity index (49.74%). The foaming property of GSG (102%) was lower than that of BSG (164.67%). This study shows that GSG has a high potential for application as a source of commercial gelatin.
Chicken breast muscle powder (CBMP) was treated as a function of heating temperature, heating time and amount of alkali added. The pre-treated CBMP was then blended with modified waxy corn starch (MWCS) and characterized by flow analysis and temperature sweep. Flow analysis revealed that the blend behaved as a shear thickening and time dependent fluid with a yield stress. Statistical analysis showed that only linear and quadratic effects of heating temperature and heating time caused significant effects on flow behaviour index, consistency index and yield stress (p
Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) seeds have always being wasted as agricultural waste. Recent studies revealed that the seeds contain high fiber. The purpose of this study is to develop defatted kenaf seeds yellow noodles (DKSY) and assess the nutritional and physicohemical properties of the noodles. Defatted kenaf flour at 25% and 75% were used to make DKSY noodles and compared to wheat yellow noodles (Control). Fresh DKSY noodles were analyzed for their nutritional and physiochemical properties. The ash and fiber contents increased in order of Control > 25% DKSY > 75% DKSY noodles. While total phenolic contents (TPC) was found to be higher in 75% DKSY noodles (138.30 ± 1.63 mg GAE/100 g) than Control noodles. Colour (L, b) and hardness decreased in order of Control > 25% DKSY > 75% DKSY indicating that DKSY noodles developed less quality than Control noodles. However, cooking loss values were found to be in the same order while cooking values exist in the opposite order indicating that. DKSY noodles have better noodle cooking quality. In conclusion, nutritional properties and noodle cooking quality of yellow noodles increased with higher concentration of defatted kenaf flour but the physicochemical properties were compromised. More research needs to be done in order to develop a formulation that can increase all of the attributes studied.
The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-obesity and lipolysis effects of Strobilanthes
crispus leaves extract (SCE) in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats by administering 1% (w/w) of
SCE in drinking water. Methods: Normal Sprague-Dawley rats were induced obese using a
high-fat (HF) diet formulation for 14 weeks. DIO rats were subsequently treated with 1% (w/w)
SCE while the HF diet was switched to normal rat chow diet. Food intake, water intake and
bodyweight were measured weekly. Other parameters e.g. blood lipid profile were determined
in normal and DIO rats before and after treatment with SCE. Histopathological changes in the
liver were also observed after treatment. Results: Prior to treatment, DIO rats have significantly
Some vegetable oils contain natural antioxidants such as beta carotene and vitamin E namely alpha tocopherol. The objective of this study was to screening the value of α-tocopherol, β-carotene, antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity and toxicological properties of roasted pili nut oil (RPNO) and unroasted pili nut oil (UPNO). The result showed that RPNO contained higher amount of vitamin E and less amount of beta carotene compared to UPNO. RPNO and UPNO scavenged DPPH radicals by 24.66% and 9.52% at concentration of 140 μg/ml. The total phenolic compound (TPC) in UPNO and RPNO were about 19.96 ± 0.52 mg/kg and 12.43 ± 0.69 mg/kg respectively. It was observed that bacteria species exhibited different sensitivities towards RPNO, UPNO, Gentamycin, Ampicillin and Chloramphenicol. Bacillus cereus 14570 was the most sensitive bacterium and all strains of Staphylococcus aureus tested were resistant against both samples RPNO and UPNO. An in vitro toxicological study based on the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) cytotoxicity assay was also performed. In vitro cytotoxicity indicated that both RPNO and UPNO had no effect against HeLa (cervical cancer cell), MCF-7 (breast cancer cell) and HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma cell) cell lines tested.
Canarium ovatum oil Engl. (pili nut oil) was extracted by using cold press method and then the
physico-chemical properties of the oil samples, roasted pili nut oil (RPNO) and unroasted pili
nut oil (UPNO) such as iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), acid value (% FFA), solid fat
content (SFC), fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol (TAG) composition were determined.
The percentage of oil yield and iodine value for RPNO and UPNO were showed no significant
different, wheareas there were significantly different for the peroxide value and percentage of
free fatty acid. The solid fat content for RPNO and UPNO were similar to the palm olein oil
and both completely melt at 25°C. Both samples, RPNO and UPNO were contained 50.70%
and 52.59% of oleic acid and were found not contain the trisaturated TAGs.
The peels of pomelo contribute 30% of the fruit weight and yet it has been dump without recognizing the possible nutritional value of the peels. Study has been carried out to identify flavonoid content of the peels and analysed the activity of the flavonoid towards inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Optimization of flavonoid extraction was conducted using aqueous solvent (methanol and ethanol), extraction time (1-3 h) and extraction temperature (50°C-80°) via water bath extraction. The total content of flavonoids was quantitatively determined by using coloration methods with chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al (NO3)3–NaOH and and it was found that the extraction at 65ºC for 2 h in aqueous ethanol was the optimized condition for maximum flavonoids i.e. 190.42mg/L. A spectrophometric analysis was performed to evaluate flavonoid activity towards lipid peroxidation in the fish tissue. There was reduction in Peroxide value (PV) indicated the inhibition of lipid peroxidation in fish treated with pomelo peel as evidence of concurrency of positive flavonoid activity.
Microwave assisted extraction treatments showed the higher pectin yields of 10.07% and 8.83% in pretreated samples by microwave and 9.4% and 8% in the extraction of dried after microwave treatment in lemon peel and apple pomace samples, respectively. Lemon peel pectin in pretreated samples by microwave and extraction of dried after microwave treatment showed the higher degree of esterification 71.8% and 70%, respectively, while apple pomace revealed 68% and 65.4% in same treatments. Furthermore, lemon peel pectin exhibited the highest galacturonic content of 74.5% in extraction of pretreated samples by microwave, while apple pomace pectin indicated the higher galacturonic acid content of 70.5% and 70% in both extraction of dried after microwave treatment and extraction of dried samples. Texture analysis of jellies prepared by various extracted pectin indicated the highest fracturability in the microwave-assisted drying treatment of 33 N and 32.5 N for apple pomace and lemon peel pectin, respectively.
The filamentous spoilage fungi in vegetables can lead to significant impact in food and economic loss. In order to overcome this problem, chemical fungicide has been implemented in vegetable farming and processing but it causes problems towards environment and food safety. Thus, the utilization of natural products such as plants extracts, which exhibit antimicrobial and antifungal activity, is more acceptable to solve this problem. The aim of this study is to investigate the antifungal activity of Boesenbergia rotunda extract against ten filamentous spoilage fungi isolated from five vegetables. The extract was used to treat fungal isolates from vegetables; CRb 002 (Penicillium sp.), CHa 009 (Aspergillus sp.), TMa 001 (Geotrichum sp.), TMa 002 (Aspergillus sp), ONb 001 (Aspergillus sp.), WBb 003 and WBb 004 (Fusarium sp.) WBb 007 (unidentified), WBb 008 (Aureobasidium sp.) and WBb 010 (Penicillium sp.). The results showed that the yield of the extract of B. rotunda using ethanol (95%) was 11.42% (w/v). The 10% of B. rotunda extract exhibited antifungal activities against ten filamentous fungi after 5 days treatment with growth reduction of 41.56%, 30.68%, 86.20%, 50.62%, 26.67%, 47.44%, 50.74%, 36.39%, 42.86%, and 39.39% for WBb 008, WBb 004, WBb 007, WBb 003, CRb 002, WBb 010, CHa 009, TMa 001, ONb 001, and TMa 002, respectively. B. rotunda extract showed highest antifungal activity against fungi isolated from winged bean (WBb 007) with percentage reduction in growth was 86.20%, while the lowest activity was against fungi isolated from the carrot (CRb 002) with 26.67% reduction in growth. Generally, the TPC of fungi in the vegetable samples were reduced after treatment with 5% of B. rotunda extract at 5 min and 10 min of exposure time. The results suggested that B. rotunda extract has high potential to become natural food preservative which can reduce the fungi spoilage of vegetables.