The discovery that c-fos, a proto-oncogene, has a role in pain, has triggered extensive research on the consequences of c-fos expression. It has been shown that c-fos, through its protein form, FOS, leads to expression of dynorphin gene and subsequently dynorphin protein which is implicated in the development of a pain state. This mini review looks at the properties of c-fos and the consequences of its expression following noxious (painful) stimulation.
The emerging threat of Zika virus outbreak with associated neurological abnormalities needs to be assessed in perspective in terms of its ability to cause a pandemic. This article attempts to throw some light on the issue.
Vaginal yeast infection refers to irritation of the vagina due to the presence of opportunistic yeast of the genus Candida (mostly Candida albicans). About 75% of women will have at least one episode of vaginal yeast infection during their lifetime. Several studies have shown that pregnancy and uncontrolled diabetes increase the infection risk. Reproductive hormone fluctuations during pregnancy and elevated glucose levels characteristic of diabetes provide the carbon needed for Candida overgrowth and infection. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vaginal yeast infection among pregnant women with and without diabetes.
Endovascular treatment of wide-necked aneurysms poses a challenge for the endovascular therapist. The Y-stent-assisted technique has been used for stent-assisted coil embolisation for wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms. This technique has been described for basilar tip aneurysms and middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysms using Neuroform and Enterprise stents. We report 2 cases of wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms that were treated with Y-stent-assisted coil embolisation using a new, fully retrievable and detachable intracranial stent (Solitaire AB™). We describe the advantages of a fully retrievable and detachable stent and its feasibility of forming a Y configuration.
A cross sectional study was carried out to evaluate the extent of occupational health problems focusing on some aspects of musculoskeletal symptoms among batik workers in Kelantan, Malaysia. The workers selected must have been in that industry for at least one year. Using cluster sampling, 202 workers were selected from 21 factories. More than half (60.2%) of the workers had been troubled with musculoskeletal symptoms at work. The most common symptoms were pain over the shoulders (41.0%), lower back (34.4%) and ankle (34.4%). Duration of employment, younger age group, prolonged standing and awkward working task were among contributing factors. It is therefore necessary to improve on both ergonomic and psychosocial environments of batik workers in order to prevent these musculoskeletal symptoms.
The epithelioid variant of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours is a rare histological entity, and the occurrence of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in the skull base is even more unusual. We report a case of a 52-year-old man who presented with reduced hearing in the left ear, giddiness and left-sided facial weakness of short duration. He was a known hypertensive. On examination, left-sided 7th to 12th cranial nerve palsies were noted. Computed tomography (CT) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were reported as an ill-defined heterogeneously enhancing mass left skull base suggestive of chondrosarcoma. Left tympanotomy and biopsy of the lesion were carried out. On light microscopy and immunohistochemical examination of the biopsy, a diagnosis of epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour was established. The patient underwent left extended modified radical mastoidectomy and selective neck dissection. Histopathological study of the resected surgical specimen confirmed left-sided extensive tumour involvement of skull base structures, as well as neck nodal metastases.
The existence of any infectious agent in a highly acidic human stomach is contentious, but the chance finding of Helicobacter pylori is by no means an accident. Once H. pylori colonises the gastric mucosa, it can persist for a lifetime, and it is intriguing why our immune system is able to tolerate its existence. Some conditions favour the persistence of H. pylori in the stomach, but other conditions oppose the colonisation of this bacterium. Populations with high and extremely low prevalence of H. pylori provide useful insights on the clinical outcomes that are associated with this type of infection. Adverse clinical outcomes including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer depend on a delicate balance between a harmless inflammation and a more severe kind of inflammation. Is the only good H. pylori really a dead H. pylori? The jury is still out.
Obesity is a fast-emerging epidemic in the Asia-Pacific region, with numbers paralleling the rising global prevalence within the past 30 years. The landscape of gut diseases in Asia has been drastically changed by obesity. In addition to more non-specific abdominal symptoms, obesity is the cause of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, various gastrointestinal cancers (colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, oesophageal adenocarcinoma, gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, pancreatic cancer and gallbladder cancer) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Abnormal cross-talk between the gut microbiome and the obese host seems to play a central role in the pathogenesis, but more studies are needed.
The new millennium has been regarded as a genomic era. A lot of researchers and pathologists are beginning to understand the scientific basis of molecular genetics and relates with the progression of the diseases. Central nervous system (CNS) tumours are among the most rapidly fatal of all cancers. It has been proposed that the progression of malignant tumours may result from multi-step of genetic alterations, including activation of oncogenes, inactivation of tumour suppressor genes and also the presence of certain molecular marker such as telomerase activity. In this paper, we review some recent data from the literature, including our own studies, on the molecular genetics analysis in CNS tumours. Our studies have shown that two types of tumour suppressor genes, p53 and PTEN were involved in the development of these tumours but not in p16 gene among the patients from Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). Telomerase activity also has been detected in various types of CNS tumours. Thus, it is important to assemble all data which related to this study and may provide as a vital information in a new approach to neuro-oncology studies in Malaysia.
We report a case of Wernicke's encephalopathy in a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma with a 3-month history of poor oral intake related to nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy. The patient later developed deep coma while receiving in-patient therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed typical findings of Wernicke's encephalopathy. The patient was treated with thiamine injections, which resulted in subsequent partial recovery of neurological function. This paper stresses the importance of magnetic resonance imaging for prompt diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy.
Two cases of Wernicke's encephalopathy due to hyperemesis gravidarum are described. The first patient presented with bilateral papilloedema, altered sensorium and the second with bilateral retinal haemorrhages, ophthalmoplegia and nystagmus. Both patients were diagnosed with Wernicke's encephalopathy on clinical ground since there were no laboratory facilities to measure red cell transketolase and thiamine pyrophosphate levels. This is a rare but treatable complication of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and due to lack of diagnostic tools, there is often diagnostic uncertainty, delay in commencing appropriate treatment, as well as irreversible damage to the upper brain stem and death.
Dietary health supplements for weight loss seem to be the future nowadays. However, this industry is plagued by lack of regulations and ignorance regarding the constituents of the supplements. Of all the supplements consumed, the ones for weight loss are most commonly found in the market. Reports of liver failure, kidney impairment and worsening of chronic ailments in patients who consume these supplements are surfacing recently which make us question the credibility of these products. The safety of these products lie in the clear stating of the ingredients by the manufacturer, well informed patient, knowledgeable physician and tight regulations from the regulatory board.
The Academy of Sciences Malaysia and the Malaysian Industry-Government group for High Technology has been working hard to project the future of big data and neurotechnology usage up to the year 2050. On the 19 September 2016, the International Brain Initiative was announced by US Under Secretary of State Thomas Shannon at a meeting that accompanied the United Nations' General Assembly in New York City. This initiative was seen as an important effort but deemed costly for developing countries. At a concurrent meeting hosted by the US National Science Foundation at Rockefeller University, numerous countries discussed this massive project, which would require genuine collaboration between investigators in the realms of neuroethics. Malaysia's readiness to embark on using big data in the field of brain, mind and neurosciences is to prepare for the 4th Industrial Revolution which is an important investment for the country's future. The development of new strategies has also been encouraged by the involvement of the Society of Brain Mapping and Therapeutics, USA and the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility.
Sixty primary school children, were measured for for accommodation and, vergence facility, accommodation accuracy, relative accommodation, fusional vergence / reserve and heterophoria.Analysis of Variance revealed that no - single factor was significant by involved among the six age groups for all the above (p>0.05). However, a significant age difference (p<0.05) was found in the fusional reserve. The mean and standard deviation was 20.08 (±6.43) cpm for the monocular accommodation facility, 19.77 (±6.26) cpm for the binocular accommodation facility, 20.18 (±5.00) cpm for the vergence facility, 0.44 (±0.27) D for the accommodation accuracy, -0.28 (±0.82) PD for the heterophoria at distance, -1.84 (±3.9) PD for the near heterophoria, 3.25 (±0.79) D for the negative relative accommodation, and -3.90 (±1.32) D for the positive relative accommodation.There was no age difference in the accommodation and the vergence status between years the ages of 7 and 12 years old but the fusional reserve component of the vergence system varied with age. The vergence and the accommodation findings in our subjects were discussed and compared with previous studies to serve as a guideline in clinical data interpretation and diagnosis for binocular vision problems in Malay children.
Work-family conflict has received increasing attention in recent decades in the area of workplace stressors, which can affect employees' health. However, the dimensionality of the work-family conflict construct among the Malay-speaking population has not been clarified. In order to do so, it is crucial to use an instrument that is appropriate and valid for the Malay-speaking population. As such, the goal of this study was to validate and test the dimensionality of the Malay version of the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate the Malay version of Diabetes Quality of Life (DQOL) questionnaire for Malaysian adult population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).
METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study to validate Malay version of DQOL among the adult diabetic patients. DQOL questionnaire has 46 items consist of three domains, namely Satisfaction Domain, Impact Domain and Worry Domain. Both forward and backward translations from the English version of DQOL into Malay version were performed. After the face validity of the Malay version was established, it was then pilot-tested. Finally, the validity and reliability of the final Malay version of DQOL questionnaire were evaluated.
RESULTS: There were 290 patients participated in this study with a mean (SD) age of 53.1 (10.0) years. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the overall items and the main domains were between 0.846 and 0.941. The Pearson's correlation coefficients for the three domains were between 0.228 and 0.451. HbA1C was found to be positively correlated with Impact Domain (P = 0.006). The Worry Domain was associated with diabetic retinopathy (P = 0.014) and nephropathy (P = 0.033).
CONCLUSION: The Malay version of diabetes quality of life (DQOL) questionnaire was found to be a valid and reliable survey instrument to be used for Malaysian adult patients with diabetes mellitus.