Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1124 in total

  1. Hor SY, Lee SC, Wong CI, Lim YW, Lim RC, Wang LZ, et al.
    Pharmacogenomics J, 2008 Apr;8(2):139-46.
    PMID: 17876342
    Previously studied candidate genes have failed to account for inter-individual variability of docetaxel and doxorubicin disposition and effects. We genotyped the transcriptional regulators of CYP3A and ABCB1 in 101 breast cancer patients from 3 Asian ethnic groups, that is, Chinese, Malays and Indians, in correlation with the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of docetaxel and doxorubicin. While there was no ethnic difference in docetaxel and doxorubicin pharmacokinetics, ethnic difference in docetaxel- (ANOVA, P=0.001) and doxorubicin-induced (ANOVA, P=0.003) leukocyte suppression was observed, with Chinese and Indians experiencing greater degree of docetaxel-induced myelosuppression than Malays (Bonferroni, P=0.002, P=0.042), and Chinese experiencing greater degree of doxorubicin-induced myelosuppression than Malays and Indians (post hoc Bonferroni, P=0.024 and 0.025). Genotyping revealed both PXR and CAR to be well conserved; only a PXR 5'-untranslated region polymorphism (-24381A>C) and a silent CAR variant (Pro180Pro) were found at allele frequencies of 26 and 53%, respectively. Two non-synonymous variants were identified in HNF4alpha (Met49Val and Thr130Ile) at allele frequencies of 55 and 1%, respectively, with the Met49Val variant associated with slower neutrophil recovery in docetaxel-treated patients (ANOVA, P=0.046). Interactions were observed between HNF4alpha Met49Val and CAR Pro180Pro, with patients who were wild type for both variants experiencing least docetaxel-induced neutropenia (ANOVA, P=0.030). No other significant genotypic associations with pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of either drug were found. The PXR-24381A>C variants were significantly more common in Indians compared to Chinese or Malays (32/18/21%, P=0.035) Inter-individual and inter-ethnic variations of docetaxel and doxorubicin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics exist, but genotypic variability of the transcriptional regulators PAR, CAR and HNF4alpha cannot account for this variability.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  2. Tee ES, Kandiah M, Ali J, Kandiah V, Zahari MR, Kuladevan R, et al.
    Malays J Reprod Health, 1984 Jun;2(1):32-50.
    PMID: 12267519
    The study presents recent data on the prevalence and pattern of nutritional anemia in the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. A total of 309 pregnant women in their third trimester, of Malay, Chinese and Indian origin from the lower socio-economic strata were randomly selected for the study. Hematological indices (including Hb, PCV, MCHC, and TRBC), serum iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin, serum folate as well as protein and albumin were determined. Based on Hb and PCV values, 30-40 percent of the women could be considered anemic; approximately 50 percent of them presented with unsatisfactory serum iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin values; 60.9 percent had low serum folate levels; and about 30 percent may be considered to be of poor protein nutriture. Anemia in the study population was seen to be related mostly to iron and to a lesser extent, folate deficiency. Hematological, iron, folate and protein status was observed to be the poorest amongst the Indian women, better in the Malay group and generally the best amongst the Chinese women. Birth records of 169 of these women revealed that all of them had live births. Nearly all the infants were delivered by normal vaginal delivery (NVD) The mean gestational age was 38.6 weeks. One of the infants had a birth weight of <2.0 kg; incidence of low birth weight, <2.5 kg, was 8.3 percent. Although there was a trend of deteriorating hematological, iron and protein status of women from the 0, 1 -3 and >=4 parity groups, these differences were not statlstlcally significant.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  3. Low JS, Chin YM, Mushiroda T, Kubo M, Govindasamy GK, Pua KC, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(1):e0145774.
    PMID: 26730743 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145774
    BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a neoplasm of the epithelial lining of the nasopharynx. Despite various reports linking genomic variants to NPC predisposition, very few reports were done on copy number variations (CNV). CNV is an inherent structural variation that has been found to be involved in cancer predisposition.

    METHODS: A discovery cohort of Malaysian Chinese descent (NPC patients, n = 140; Healthy controls, n = 256) were genotyped using Illumina® HumanOmniExpress BeadChip. PennCNV and cnvPartition calling algorithms were applied for CNV calling. Taqman CNV assays and digital PCR were used to validate CNV calls and replicate candidate copy number variant region (CNVR) associations in a follow-up Malaysian Chinese (NPC cases, n = 465; and Healthy controls, n = 677) and Malay cohort (NPC cases, n = 114; Healthy controls, n = 124).

    RESULTS: Six putative CNVRs overlapping GRM5, MICA/HCP5/HCG26, LILRB3/LILRA6, DPY19L2, RNase3/RNase2 and GOLPH3 genes were jointly identified by PennCNV and cnvPartition. CNVs overlapping GRM5 and MICA/HCP5/HCG26 were subjected to further validation by Taqman CNV assays and digital PCR. Combined analysis in Malaysian Chinese cohort revealed a strong association at CNVR on chromosome 11q14.3 (Pcombined = 1.54x10-5; odds ratio (OR) = 7.27; 95% CI = 2.96-17.88) overlapping GRM5 and a suggestive association at CNVR on chromosome 6p21.3 (Pcombined = 1.29x10-3; OR = 4.21; 95% CI = 1.75-10.11) overlapping MICA/HCP5/HCG26 genes.

    CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated the association of CNVs towards NPC susceptibility, implicating a possible role of CNVs in NPC development.

    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  4. Chia YC, Lim HM, Ching SM
    BMC Fam Pract, 2014;15:172.
    PMID: 25388219 DOI: 10.1186/s12875-014-0172-y
    BACKGROUND: Initiation of statin therapy as primary prevention particularly in those with mildly elevated cardiovascular disease risk factors is still being debated. The 2013 ACC/AHA blood cholesterol guideline recommends initiation of statin by estimating the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk using the new pooled cohort risk score. This paper examines the use of the pooled cohort risk score and compares it to actual use of statins in daily clinical practice in a primary care setting.
    METHODS: We examined the use of statins in a randomly selected sample of patients in a primary care clinic. The demographic data and cardiovascular risk parameters were captured from patient records in 1998. The pooled cohort risk score was calculated based on the parameters in 1998. The use of statins in 1998 and 2007, a 10-year interval, was recorded.
    RESULTS: A total of 847 patients were entered into the analysis. Mean age of the patients was 57.2 ± 8.4 years and 33.1% were male. The use of statins in 1998 was only 10.2% (n = 86) as compared to 67.5% (n = 572) in 2007. For patients with LDL 70-189 mg/dl and estimated 10-year ASCVD risk ≥7.5% (n = 190), 60% (n = 114) of patients were on statin therapy by 2007. There were 124 patients in whom statin therapy was not recommended according to ACC/AHA guideline but were actually receiving statin therapy.
    CONCLUSIONS: An extra 40% of patients need to be treated with statin if the 2013 ACC/AHA blood cholesterol guideline is used. However the absolute number of patients who needed to be treated based on the ACC/AHA guideline is lower than the number of patients actually receiving it in a daily clinical practice. The pooled cohort risk score does not increase the absolute number of patients who are actually treated with statins. However these findings and the use of the pooled cohort risk score need to be validated further.
    Study site: Primary care clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  5. Goh KL, Razlan H, Hartono JL, Qua CS, Yoong BK, Koh PS, et al.
    J Dig Dis, 2015 Mar;16(3):152-8.
    PMID: 25512092 DOI: 10.1111/1751-2980.12223
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cancer in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics and clinical presentations of patients in a multiracial population consisting of three major Asian races: Malays, Chinese and Indians.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  6. Shaharir SS, Gafor AH, Said MS, Kong NC
    Int J Rheum Dis, 2015 Jun;18(5):541-7.
    PMID: 25294584 DOI: 10.1111/1756-185X.12474
    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease and glucocorticoid is the mainstay of treatment in SLE. The reported incidence of steroid-induced diabetes mellitus (SDM) ranged between 1-53%. We sought to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SDM in patients with SLE.

    A total of 100 SLE patients attending the Nephrology/SLE and Rheumatology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) who received corticosteroid treatment were recruited. The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was based on the 2010 American Diabetes Association's criteria. Prevalent cases of SDM were also included. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with SDM.

    Thirteen of them (13%) developed SDM, with the median onset of diagnosis from commencement of glucocorticoid treatment being 8 years (range 0.5-21 years). Although only seven Indians were recruited into the study, three of them (42.9%) had SDM compared to Malays (9.3%) and Chinese (12.8%) (P ≤ 0.05). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that higher numbers of system or organ involvement in SLE, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and daily prednisolone of ≥ 1 mg/kg/day were the important associated factors of SDM (P ≤ 0.05). Meanwhile, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) use was associated with reduced SDM prevalence (P < 0.05).

    The prevalence of SDM among SLE patients was 13% and Indians were more prone to develop SDM compared to other races. Higher numbers of system involvement, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and the use of oral prednisolone of ≥ 1 mg/kg/day were associated with SDM, while HCQ use potentially protects against SDM.

    © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

    SLE drug treatment; clinical aspects; systemic lupus erythematous
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  7. Chia YC, Ching SM
    BMC Fam Pract, 2014;15:131.
    PMID: 24997591 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-15-131
    Patients with resistant hypertension are subjected to a higher risk of getting stroke, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure and renal failure. However, the exact prevalence of resistant hypertension in treated hypertensive patients in Malaysia is not known. This paper examines the prevalence and determinants of resistant hypertension in a sample of hypertensive patients.

    Study site: Primary care clinic, Universiti Malaya Medical Centre
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  8. Liam CK, Pang YK, Chua KT
    Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 2014 Jun;32(2):145-52.
    PMID: 25003728 DOI: 10.12932/AP0359.32.2.2013
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate Malaysian patients' satisfaction levels and asthma control with Symbicort SMART® in the primary care setting.
    METHOD: This is a cross-sectional, multicentre study involving adult patients with persistent asthma who were prescribed only Symbicort SMART in the preceding one month prior to recruitment. Patients' satisfaction with Symbicort SMART and asthma control were evaluated using the self-administered Satisfaction with Asthma Treatment Questionnaire (SATQ) and the Asthma Control Test (ACT).
    RESULTS: Asthma was controlled (ACT score >20) in 189 (83%) of 228 patients. The mean overall SATQ score for patients with controlled asthma was 5.65 indicating a high satisfaction level, which was positively correlated with high ACT scores. There were differences in asthma control based on ethnicity, number of unscheduled visits and treatment compliance.
    CONCLUSIONS: Symbicort SMART resulted in a high satisfaction level and asthma control among Malaysian patients treated in the primary care setting and it is an effective and appealing treatment for asthmatic patients.
    Study site: General practice clinics, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  9. Ngai M, Lin V, Wong HC, Vathsala A, How P
    Clin. Nephrol., 2014 Oct;82(4):231-9.
    PMID: 25161115 DOI: 10.5414/CN108182
    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism and mineral and bone disorder (MBD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency, and the association between vitamin D status and MBD in a multi-ethnic CKD population in Southeast Asia.

    METHODS: Predialysis CKD patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Patient demographics, medical/medication histories, and laboratory parameters (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), creatinine, phosphate (P), calcium, albumin, and intact-PTH (i-PTH)) were collected and compared among patients with various CKD stages. The association between 25(OH)D and these parameters was determined by multiple linear regression.

    RESULTS: A total of 196 patients with mean ± SD eGFR of 26.4 ± 11.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 was included. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D concentration < 15 ng/mL) and insufficiency (25(OH)D concentration 16 - 30 ng/mL) was found in 29.1% and 57.7% of the patients, respectively. Mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D was 20.8 ± 9.3 ng/mL. Female patients had lower vitamin D concentrations than males (16.9 ng/mL vs. 23.9 ng/mL; p < 0.001). Vitamin D levels were also higher in Chinese (22.3 ng/mL) than Malay (17.3 ng/mL) and Indian (13.1 ng/mL) patients (p < 0.05). Nonadjusted analyses showed higher i-PTH concentration in vitamin D deficient patients (p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Despite being a sun-rich country all year round, the majority (86.8%) of predialysis CKD patients in Singapore have suboptimal vitamin D status. Lower vitamin D concentrations were found in females and in those with darker skin tone. Vitamin D deficient patients also tended to have higher i-PTH levels.

    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  10. Lim CC, Teo BW, Ong PG, Cheung CY, Lim SC, Chow KY, et al.
    Eur J Prev Cardiol, 2015 Aug;22(8):1018-26.
    PMID: 24857889 DOI: 10.1177/2047487314536873
    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on adverse cardiovascular outcomes and deaths in Asian populations. We evaluated the associations of CKD with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a multi-ethnic Asian population.
    DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of 7098 individuals who participated in two independent population-based studies involving Malay adults (n = 3148) and a multi-ethnic cohort of Chinese, Malay and Indian adults (n = 3950).
    METHODS: CKD was assessed from CKD-EPI estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). Incident CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke and CVD mortality) and all-cause mortality were identified by linkage with national disease/death registries.
    RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 4.6% developed CVD and 6.1% died. Risks of both CVD and all-cause mortality increased with decreasing eGFR and increasing albuminuria (all p-trend <0.05). Adjusted hazard ratios (HR (95% confidence interval)) of CVD and all-cause mortality were: 1.54 (1.05-2.27) and 2.21 (1.67-2.92) comparing eGFR <45 vs ≥60; 2.81 (1.49-5.29) and 2.34 (1.28-4.28) comparing UACR ≥300 vs <30. The association between eGFR <60 and all-cause mortality was stronger among those with diabetes (p-interaction = 0.02). PAR of incident CVD was greater among those with UACR ≥300 (12.9%) and that of all-cause mortality greater among those with eGFR <45 (16.5%).
    CONCLUSIONS: In multi-ethnic Asian adults, lower eGFR and higher albuminuria were independently associated with incident CVD and all-cause mortality. These findings extend previously reported similar associations in Western populations to Asians and emphasize the need for early detection of CKD and intervention to prevent adverse outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  11. Ching SM, Pang YK, Price D, Cheong AT, Lee PY, Irmi I, et al.
    Respirology, 2014 Jul;19(5):689-93.
    PMID: 24708063 DOI: 10.1111/resp.12291
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care settings is difficult to achieve chiefly due to lack of availability of spirometry. This study estimated the prevalence of airflow limitation among chronic smokers using a handheld spirometer in this setting.
    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study performed on consecutive patients who were ≥40 years old with ≥10 pack-years smoking history. Face-to-face interviews were carried out to obtain demographic data and relevant information. Handheld spirometry was performed according to a standard protocol using the COPd-6 device (Model 4000, Vitalograph, Ennis, Ireland) in addition to standard spirometry. Airflow limitation was defined as ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 )/forced expiratory volume in 6 s <0.75 (COPd-6) or FEV1 /forced vital capacity <0.7. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine predictors of airflow limitation.
    RESULTS: A total of 416 patients were recruited with mean age of 53 years old. The prevalence of airflow limitation was 10.6% (n = 44) with COPd-6 versus 6% as gauged using standard spirometry. Risk factors for airflow limitation were age >65 years (odds ratio (OR) 3.732 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.100-1.280), a history of 'bad health' (OR 2.524, 95% CI: 1.037-6.142) and low to normal body mass index (OR 2.914, 95% CI: 1.191-7.190).
    CONCLUSIONS: In a primary care setting, handheld spirometry (COPd-6) found a prevalence of airflow limitation of ∼10% in smokers. Patients were older, not overweight and had an ill-defined history of health problems.
    KEYWORDS: Malaysia; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; prevalence; primary care; smoke
    Study site: Public primary health‐care clinic (Klinik Kesihatan), Sepang District, Selangor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  12. Chia PL, Earnest A, Lee R, Lim J, Wong CP, Chia YW, et al.
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2013 Sep;42(9):432-6.
    PMID: 24162317
    INTRODUCTION: In Singapore, the age-standardised event rates of myocardial infarction (MI) are 2- and 3-fold higher for Malays and Indians respectively compared to the Chinese. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and quantity of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and non-calcified plaques across these 3 ethnic groups.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study. We identified 1041 patients (810 Chinese, 139 Malays, 92 Indians) without previous history of cardiovascular disease who underwent cardiac computed tomography for atypical chest pain evaluation. A cardiologist, who was blinded to the patients' clinical demographics, reviewed all scans. We retrospectively analysed all their case records.

    RESULTS: Overall, Malays were most likely to be active smokers (P = 0.02), Indians had the highest prevalence of diabetes mellitus (P = 0.01) and Chinese had the highest mean age (P <0.0001). The overall prevalence of patients with non-calcified plaques as the only manifestation of sub-clinical coronary artery disease was 2.1%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CAC, mean CAC score or prevalence of non-calcified plaques among the 3 ethnic groups. Active smoking, age and hypertension were independent predictors of CAC. Non-calcified plaques were positively associated with male gender, age, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus.

    CONCLUSION: The higher MI rates in Malays and Indians in Singapore cannot be explained by any difference in CAC or non-calcified plaque. More research with prospective follow-up of larger patient populations is necessary to establish if ethnic-specific calibration of CAC measures is needed to adjust for differences among ethnic groups.

    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  13. Chew BH, Ismail M, Lee PY, Taher SW, Haniff J, Mustapha FI, et al.
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2012 Jun;96(3):339-47.
    PMID: 22305940 DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2012.01.017
    Numerous studies with compelling evidence had shown a clear relationship between dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with diabetes mellitus. This was an observational study based on secondary data from the online registry database Adult Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM) looking into the determinants of uncontrolled dyslipidaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Independent predictors were identified using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 303 centres (289 health clinics, 14 hospitals) contributed a total of 70,889 patients (1972 or 2.8% patients were from hospital). About thirty eight percent were reported to have dyslipidaemia. There were 40.7% patients on lipid-lowering agents and of those above age 40 years old, only 38.1% of them were on a statin. Malay ethnicity and younger age groups (<50 years old) were two major determinants of uncontrolled LDL-C, TG and HDL-C. Female gender and uncontrolled blood pressure were determinants of uncontrolled LDL-C, and poor glycaemic control was related independently to high TG. This study has highlighted the suboptimal management of diabetic dyslipidaemia in Malaysia. Pharmacological treatment of dyslipidaemia could be more effective. Healthcare stakeholders in this country, especially in the primary care, have to recognize these shortfalls and take immediate remedial measures.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  14. Qua CS, Goh KL
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2011 Aug;26(8):1333-7.
    PMID: 21443669 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2011.06732.x
    To determine the etiology of liver cirrhosis and risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a multiracial Asian population.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  15. Koay CL, Lim JA, Siar CH
    Oral Dis, 2011 Mar;17(2):210-6.
    PMID: 20796228 DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2010.01724.x
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of tongue lesions in Malaysian dental outpatients from the Klang Valley area.
    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted on 600 Malaysian outpatients (257 men, 343 women, mean age, 37.7 years) attending the Primary Dental Care Unit at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya. Demographic and medical data were recorded for all respondents.
    RESULTS: One hundred eighty-one patients (30.2%) (81 men, 100 women, mean age 42.0 years) were diagnosed with at least one tongue lesion (n = 207) at the time of examination. Of these, 24 patients (4%) had two or more tongue lesions present synchronously. Seven different lesions were diagnosed: fissured tongue (13.8%), crenated tongue (7.8%), pigmented tongue (6.2%), geographic tongue (2.2%), ankyloglossia (1.7%), hairy tongue (1.0%) and median rhomboid glossitis (0.2%). Their racial prevalences were Malays (n = 65, 10.8%), Indians (n = 62, 10.3%), Chinese (n = 53, 8.8%) and other race (n = 1, 0.2%). A significant relationship was observed between crenated tongue and race; between four types of tongue lesions (fissured tongue, geographic tongue, crenated tongue and pigmented tongue) and age; and between fissured tongue and gender (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  16. Ramli R, Rahman NA, Rahman RA, Hussaini HM, Hamid AL
    Dent Traumatol, 2011 Apr;27(2):122-6.
    PMID: 21281443 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.2010.00968.x
    Aetiology of oral and maxillofacial injuries in this country includes motorvehicle accident (MVA), fall, industrial accidents and others. Among these causes, MVA accident is the predominant cause of injury in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  17. Ng TP, Leong T, Chiam PC, Kua EH
    Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord, 2010;29(2):131-8.
    PMID: 20145399 DOI: 10.1159/000275668
    Ethnic variations in dementia rate have been reported worldwide. Understanding these differences is vital for aetiological research, clinical care and health service planning. While age and gender have been consistently implicated, the reasons behind interethnic variation remain unclear.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  18. Wong YL, Othman S
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2008;20(2):102-16.
    PMID: 19124304 DOI: 10.1177/1010539507311899
    Despite being an emergent major public health problem, little research has been done on domestic violence from the perspectives of early detection and prevention. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to identify domestic violence among female adult patients attending health centers at the primary care level and to determine the relationship between social correlates of adult patients and domestic violence screening and subsequent help/health-seeking behavior if abused. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 710 female adult patients from 8 health centers in Selangor who matched the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study, using a structured questionnaire that included adaptation of a validated 8-item Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST). Statistical tests showed significant differences in ethnicity, income, and education between those screened positive and those screened negative for domestic violence. Of the participants, 92.4% reported that during consultations, doctors had never asked them whether they were abused by their husband/partner. Yet, 67.3% said they would voluntarily tell the doctor if they were abused by their husband/partner. The findings indicate that primary care has an important role in identifying domestic violence by applying the WAST screening tool, or an appropriate adaptation, with women patients during routine visits to the various health centers. Such assessment for abuse could be secondary prevention for the abused women, but more important, it will serve as primary prevention for nonabused women. This approach not only will complement the existing 1-stop crisis center policy by the Ministry of Health that copes with crisis intervention but also will spearhead efforts toward prevention of domestic violence in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  19. Poh R, Muniandy S
    PMID: 17539292
    The role of high-density lipoprotein associated paraoxonase (PON) 1 in protection against oxidative stress associated with the development of complications in diabetes mellitus has been reported. Variations in the PON1 gene, 55LM and 192QR have been described in different populations. These variations are known to be risk factors for heart disease, especially the L and R alleles. We have investigated the prevalence of both polymorphisms in the Malaysian population comprising the three major ethnic groups: Malay, Chinese and Indian, using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction endonuclease digestion. The results show the pooled frequencies of L and R alleles were 0.91 and 0.54, respectively, similar to those in the Asian region. The frequency of the M allele was higher in Indians (p < 0.05), whereas the R allele was higher in both the Chinese and Malays compared to Indians (p < 0.05), indicating ethnic group-dependent genetic differences. The most common genotypic combination was LL/QR, followed by LL/RR. The genotype frequencies for the total Malaysian population showed a significant departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the 55LM (p = 0.013) but not the 192QR (p = 0.056) polymorphisms. A strong linkage disequilibrium between L/55 and R/192 alleles was also observed. In the Malaysian population as a whole, Malays and Chinese showed a higher frequency of the R allele which is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  20. Chew MT
    Angle Orthod, 2006 Sep;76(5):806-9.
    PMID: 17029514
    The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate the spectrum and management of dentofacial deformities in a multiethnic Asian community.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
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