METHODS: A discovery cohort of Malaysian Chinese descent (NPC patients, n = 140; Healthy controls, n = 256) were genotyped using Illumina® HumanOmniExpress BeadChip. PennCNV and cnvPartition calling algorithms were applied for CNV calling. Taqman CNV assays and digital PCR were used to validate CNV calls and replicate candidate copy number variant region (CNVR) associations in a follow-up Malaysian Chinese (NPC cases, n = 465; and Healthy controls, n = 677) and Malay cohort (NPC cases, n = 114; Healthy controls, n = 124).
RESULTS: Six putative CNVRs overlapping GRM5, MICA/HCP5/HCG26, LILRB3/LILRA6, DPY19L2, RNase3/RNase2 and GOLPH3 genes were jointly identified by PennCNV and cnvPartition. CNVs overlapping GRM5 and MICA/HCP5/HCG26 were subjected to further validation by Taqman CNV assays and digital PCR. Combined analysis in Malaysian Chinese cohort revealed a strong association at CNVR on chromosome 11q14.3 (Pcombined = 1.54x10-5; odds ratio (OR) = 7.27; 95% CI = 2.96-17.88) overlapping GRM5 and a suggestive association at CNVR on chromosome 6p21.3 (Pcombined = 1.29x10-3; OR = 4.21; 95% CI = 1.75-10.11) overlapping MICA/HCP5/HCG26 genes.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated the association of CNVs towards NPC susceptibility, implicating a possible role of CNVs in NPC development.
METHODS: Predialysis CKD patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Patient demographics, medical/medication histories, and laboratory parameters (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), creatinine, phosphate (P), calcium, albumin, and intact-PTH (i-PTH)) were collected and compared among patients with various CKD stages. The association between 25(OH)D and these parameters was determined by multiple linear regression.
RESULTS: A total of 196 patients with mean ± SD eGFR of 26.4 ± 11.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 was included. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D concentration < 15 ng/mL) and insufficiency (25(OH)D concentration 16 - 30 ng/mL) was found in 29.1% and 57.7% of the patients, respectively. Mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D was 20.8 ± 9.3 ng/mL. Female patients had lower vitamin D concentrations than males (16.9 ng/mL vs. 23.9 ng/mL; p < 0.001). Vitamin D levels were also higher in Chinese (22.3 ng/mL) than Malay (17.3 ng/mL) and Indian (13.1 ng/mL) patients (p < 0.05). Nonadjusted analyses showed higher i-PTH concentration in vitamin D deficient patients (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Despite being a sun-rich country all year round, the majority (86.8%) of predialysis CKD patients in Singapore have suboptimal vitamin D status. Lower vitamin D concentrations were found in females and in those with darker skin tone. Vitamin D deficient patients also tended to have higher i-PTH levels.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study. We identified 1041 patients (810 Chinese, 139 Malays, 92 Indians) without previous history of cardiovascular disease who underwent cardiac computed tomography for atypical chest pain evaluation. A cardiologist, who was blinded to the patients' clinical demographics, reviewed all scans. We retrospectively analysed all their case records.
RESULTS: Overall, Malays were most likely to be active smokers (P = 0.02), Indians had the highest prevalence of diabetes mellitus (P = 0.01) and Chinese had the highest mean age (P <0.0001). The overall prevalence of patients with non-calcified plaques as the only manifestation of sub-clinical coronary artery disease was 2.1%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CAC, mean CAC score or prevalence of non-calcified plaques among the 3 ethnic groups. Active smoking, age and hypertension were independent predictors of CAC. Non-calcified plaques were positively associated with male gender, age, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus.
CONCLUSION: The higher MI rates in Malays and Indians in Singapore cannot be explained by any difference in CAC or non-calcified plaque. More research with prospective follow-up of larger patient populations is necessary to establish if ethnic-specific calibration of CAC measures is needed to adjust for differences among ethnic groups.