Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 48 in total

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  1. Cutting WA
    BMJ, 1992 Oct 03;305(6857):788-9.
    PMID: 1422355
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  2. Suarn S, Nor Adam M
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1993 Jun;48(2):117-23.
    PMID: 8350785
    Sixty-one serologically positive HIV infected drug abusers admitted to the Drug Ward, General Hospital, Kota Bharu, were interviewed for possible risk behaviour and AIDS awareness. Fifty-eight subjects were IV abusers while the other 3 were non-IV abusers. All the IV abusers had shared injecting equipment with no regard for sterility. There was non-usage of condoms among those sexually active. Though AIDS awareness was high, there was a lack of risk behaviour change. The drug abusers appear to be a problem group in HIV control measures. Educating the drug abusers and commitment by them to alter risk behaviour is needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  3. Hooi LS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1993 Jun;48(2):232-5.
    PMID: 8350803
    Four cases of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) infection, probably following living unrelated donor renal transplantation done in India, are reported. One of them subsequently developed Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  4. Poshyachinda V
    Forensic Sci. Int., 1993 Nov;62(1-2):15-28.
    PMID: 8300028
    Opium dependence was indigenous to countries in the Golden Triangle area in south-east Asia (SA). Heroin epidemics developed in most SA countries in the 1960s and early 1970s and remained a significant problem particularly in Myanmar, Thailand and Malaysia until now. In contrast, the island countries in SA seemed quite free from opiate abuse. Intravenous injection (IV) of drugs appeared after the heroin epidemic and currently prevails in countries with a significant opiate abuse problem. IV of opium was particularly common in the highly urbanized cities in Vietnam. Most SA countries started HIV seroscreening in IV drug users (IVDU) around the middle of the 1980s. Rapid epidemic spread of HIV infection was observed in 1988-89 in Thailand and Myanmar. The Highest prevalence of more than 80% was reported from a study of IVDUs in Yangon, Myanmar, followed by Thailand at about 40%. Although HIV infected IVDUs were identified at the same time in Malaysia and later in Singapore and the Philippines, there was no evidence of such a rapid and severe epidemic.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  5. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec., 1993 Dec 10;68(50):371-5.
    PMID: 8305295
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  6. Poshyachinda V
    Bull Narc, 1993;45(1):77-90.
    PMID: 8305908
    Opium has been produced and consumed since the nineteenth century in the areas of Asia currently referred to as the Golden Crescent and the Golden Triangle. In the 1970s and 1980s, most countries from Afghanistan to Japan experienced a heroin epidemic of varying degrees of severity. Opium and heroin abuse appeared to be more severe in countries and areas where those drugs were produced, an exception being Hong Kong, which has had a large population of heroin abusers for more than two decades. Drug injecting was far more common in countries of the Golden Triangle than in those of the Golden Crescent. In Myanmar and Thailand, for example, up to 90 per cent of chronic heroin abusers practised intravenous injection, which appeared to spread to heroin abusers in nearby territories such as the State of Manipur in India. Yunnan province in China, as well as Malaysia and Viet Nam. Amphetamine abuse was more frequent in Japan and the Republic of Korea for a number of years, while illicit production and consumption in the Philippines have recently shown significant increases. The injection of amphetamines was common only in the Republic of Korea. The prevalence of injecting among institutionalized methamphetamine abusers was reported at about 90 per cent. Most countries in Asia first reported cases of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the mid-1980s. An extremely rapid spead of the epidemic and high prevalence, at rates of from 30 to 90 per cent, of HIV infection among the sample of intravenous heroin abusers were observed in a few countries with a high prevalence of intravenous injecting, such as India (in the State of Manipur), Myanmar and Thailand. The rest had either few reported cases or none at all, even though needle-sharing was found to be common. Great caution should be exercised in interpreting prevalence because of vast differences in methods of assessment. Given the vulnerability of intravenous drug abusers to rapid transmission of HIV infection, the prevention of drug injecting is of paramount importance in arresting the spread of the epidemic. Efforts to contain drug abuse, though difficult, are a principal means of achieving that end.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  7. Singh S, Crofts N
    AIDS Care, 1993;5(3):273-81.
    PMID: 8218462 DOI: 10.1080/09540129308258610
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has spread widely among injecting drug users (IDUs) in countries to the north and west of the 'Golden Triangle' region of South-East Asia; it is likely to have spread southwards to Malaysia as well. In order to assess HIV seroprevalence among IDUs in north-east Malaysia and describe risk factors for HIV infection in this population, we performed a cross-sectional seroepidemiological study among 210 IDUs recruited at the detoxification ward of the General Hospital in the capital city of the north-eastern Malaysian state, Kelantan. Subjects were sequential entrants to the detoxification ward, interviewed about HIV risk behaviour, and tested for antibody to HIV and to syphilis. Nearly a third (62/210, 30%) of these IDUs were HIV seropositive. Three-quarters (159/210) had travelled to Thailand in the preceding 5 years, of whom 32% (51/159) were HIV seropositive; this was associated with injecting in Thailand, but not with sexual contact there. Of those who had not left Malaysia in the preceding 5 years, 26% (11/43) were HIV seropositive, a rate not significantly different from those who had travelled. Travel within Malaysia was common (144/210, 69%) among IDUs interviewed, as was unsafe injecting and unsafe sexual behaviour (20% had shared injecting equipment and 21% had had unprotected intercourse) in other states. In every locale, rates of unsafe injecting behaviour were high (55% sharing in last month), even among those who knew they were HIV infected, and rates of condom usage were low (93% of 160 sexually active IDUs had never used a condom). Syphilis was not associated with HIV infection, but with contact with Thai prostitutes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  8. Wolffers I, Fernandez I
    Lancet, 1995 Nov 11;346(8985):1303.
    PMID: 7475751
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  9. Wai BH, Singh S, Varma SL
    Addiction, 1996 Mar;91(3):435-8.
    PMID: 8867206
    One hundred and seventy-one drug-dependent females in a drug rehabilitation centre were studied to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection among them. Twenty-four (14%) were positive on the Western Blot test. The presence of HIV infection was significantly correlated with syphilis (p < 0.03) and age (p < 0.001); 83% of those who were HIV positive were intravenous drug users. The need for harm reduction programmes to prevent spread of HIV infection among injecting drug users is stressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  10. Dore GJ, Kaldor JM, Ungchusak K, Mertens TE
    Med. J. Aust., 1996 Nov 4;165(9):494-8.
    PMID: 8937371
    The incidence of new HIV infections in Asia and the Pacific will soon pass that in Africa and is projected to increase into the next century. The AIDS epidemic arising from these infections will have enormous consequences for the health and socioeconomic development of a region encompassing more than half the world's population.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  11. Choon SE, Sapiah W, Ismail Z, Balan V
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1997 Dec;52(4):318-24.
    PMID: 10968107
    A study was conducted in the Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru to determine a local population's knowledge of HIV and their sexual behaviour in relation to it. A total of 231 men and 217 women were interviewed. The sexual culture seen is one of relatively late age of first sexual intercourse, low level of partner change and low level of condom use. Men reported a higher involvement in risk behaviour. Nearly all the respondents (95.8%) have heard of HIV/AIDS but had incorrect perceptions of its mode of transmission and its associations with risk groups. This study enable us to gain background information about our patients sexual behaviour and HIV knowledge. There is a need to continue HIV education to improve our public's HIV knowledge and the results of this study provides a baseline against which future educational interventions can be gauged.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  12. Amar HS, Ho JJ, Mohan AJ
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1999 Feb;35(1):63-6.
    PMID: 10234638
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the community prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in women at the time of delivery in a Malaysian setting.

    METHODOLOGY: Cord blood samples from a pilot screening programme for congenital hypothyroidism in 1995 at Ipoh city and surrounding district hospitals were screened anonymously for HIV 1 and 2. HIV status was determined using chemiluminescent technology. Positive samples were retested using the Genelavia Mixt assay.

    RESULTS: A total of 4927 samples were tested. The ethnic breakdown included 51.7% Malays, 18.9% Chinese, 14.3% Indian, 2.3% Others and 12.9% unknown. The geographical distribution of samples was 73.9% urban, 24.2% rural and 1.9% unknown. The seroprevalence of HIV positivity was 3.25 per 1000 deliveries (95% CI: 1.92-5.16). Seroprevalence was higher for samples from rural and Malay mothers.

    CONCLUSION: The high seroprevalence in this study suggests that the spread of HIV is far wider than that anticipated by mandatory national reporting. It also supports antenatal screening and the use of antiretroviral therapy as an important strategy to reduce perinatal transmission.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  13. Ismail R
    Clin. Dermatol., 1999 5 20;17(2):127-35; discussion 105-6.
    PMID: 10330595
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  14. Huang M, Hussein H
    AIDS Educ Prev, 2004 Jun;16(3 Suppl A):100-9.
    PMID: 15262569
    Since the first case of HIV/AIDS was identified in 1986 in Malaysia, the number of infected individuals has increased steadily each year, so that by the end of 2002 the cumulative number of people living with HIV/AIDS was 57,835 (51,256 with HIV and 6,579 with AIDS), with 5,676 AIDS deaths. The epidemic in Malaysia, currently in a concentrated epidemic stage, is primarily fueled by drug use, but there is ample evidence that heterosexual transmission has increased over the last few years. A strategic plan that includes prevention, care, support, and treatment run by both the government and nongovernmental organizations has been in place since the beginning of the epidemic. However, Malaysia will need to take a more pragmatic approach to reduce new infections (which numbered 19 each day in 2002) among the youth on whom the country relies for development. Leaders need to recognize that HIV/AIDS is not just a health issue, but also a socioeconomic concern that can eliminate all the developmental gains achieved over the years. Working together, Malaysians can overcome the epidemic, but there is a need to act quickly and to act in effective ways so that the devastating effects (already evident in the number of AIDS orphans and widows) can be reduced.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  15. Bairy KL, Ganaraja B, Indira B, Thiyagar N, Choo CM, See CK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Mar;60(1):10-4.
    PMID: 16250274
    Occupational risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a matter of concern for health care workers. We conducted a study to gauge the level of awareness amongst HCW (doctors and nurses) working in Hospital Sungai Petani regarding the post-exposure prophylaxis in case of needle stick injuries from confirmed or suspected cases of HIV. Nineteen Doctors (56%) and 13 nurses (25%) were aware of correct risk of transmission. None identified all the four risk fluids correctly. 94% of doctors and 98% of nurses correctly stated that washing the site with soap and water is the initial procedure, but only few (1/10 of doctors and 1/3 of nurses) knew whom to contact immediately after injury. Twenty three doctors (67%) and 41(78%) nurses were aware of the use of Zidovudine but only 10 participants were aware of the use of second drug. Only 6 doctors (17%) and 8 nurses (15%) knew the correct duration of post-exposure prophylaxis. Twenty-three doctors (67%) and 35 nurses (67%) knew that the drugs were available in Hospital Pharmacy and 11 doctors and 12 nurses knew the approximate cost of therapy. On the average about 50% of doctors and nurses have fair knowledge of post exposure prophylaxis against HIV. Ongoing awareness and training are necessary to improve the same.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  16. Kamarulzaman A
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Mar;60(1):1-4.
    PMID: 16250272
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  17. Song A, Richters J, Crawford J, Kippax S
    J Adolesc Health, 2005 Sep;37(3):243.
    PMID: 16109347
    PURPOSE: To examine differences between Australian-born and Asian-born first-year university students in Sydney in their sexual behavior and knowledge about the prevention and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs).
    METHODS: Students were recruited from a stall during the student Orientation Week in both 2002 and 2003 at the University of New South Wales. A short questionnaire was completed and returned anonymously. Data on age, gender, country of birth, sexual behavior, and sexual health knowledge were collected. A score was calculated based on the sum of the correct answers given to 12 HIV/STI transmission and prevention questions. The students were then divided into three groups according to their country of birth (Australia, Asia, and elsewhere) and their knowledge scores were compared. Students born in certain Asian countries were also asked their perception of the HIV epidemic in their home country compared with Australia.
    RESULTS: A total of 1185 first-year students completed the questionnaire. Although older on average, Asian-born students were less likely to have had sexual intercourse and had had fewer sexual partners. They also had consistently poorer HIV/STI knowledge scores than Australian-born students. Students born in China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore but not Thailand underestimated the prevalence of HIV in their country of birth in comparison with Australia.
    CONCLUSION: The combination of poorer knowledge, apparent misconception of the extent of HIV epidemic in their home country (or Australia), and potential later frequent travel indicates a potential risk for later transmission of HIV/STIs. The university is an underused setting for prevention health education.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  18. Root R
    Med Anthropol Q, 2006 Sep;20(3):321-44.
    PMID: 16937620
    Minah Karan, the stigmatizing label appended to Malay factory women in the 1980s, signaled a dangerous female sexuality that risked spreading beyond the factory gates and infecting Malaysia's idea(l)s of its traditional kampung culture. This article narrates how Minah Karan, as the former antihero of development, was reconstituted in the 1990s, with the government's labeling of factories as "high-risk settings" for HIV/AIDS. This is an ethnoetiology based not on any evidential epidemiological data but on the racial and gendered "mixing" that transpires behind factory walls: a fear that the "mixing of the sexes" means ipso facto "sexual mixing" among the races. The article demonstrates how importation of the high-risk label articulates at the local level the new and contested linkages, economic, religious, and scientific, constitutive of globalization. The pragmatic nature and imperatives of this high-risk process are discerned in factory women's accounts of how they negotiate the interactional imperatives of factory work, because transnational structures of productivity violate the social boundaries that have long connoted political stability, moral integrity, ethnic community, and individual safety. The article concludes by questioning whether ethnoetiologies, especially when they concern sexual networks, become social etiologies, because this would locate ethnoetiologies as central to conventional public health praxis rather than as ethnographic exotica in the margins.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  19. Reid G, Kamarulzaman A, Sran SK
    Int. J. Drug Policy, 2007 Mar;18(2):136-40.
    PMID: 17689356
    In Malaysia the response to illicit drug use has been largely punitive with the current goal of the Malaysian government being to achieve a drug-free society by 2015. This paper outlines the results of a desk-based situation assessment conducted over a 3-week period in 2004. Additional events, examined in 2005, were also included to describe more recent policy developments and examine how these came about. Despite punitive drug policy there has been a substantial rise in the number of drug users in the country. Over two-thirds of HIV/AIDS cases are among injecting drug users (IDUs) and there has been an exponential rise in the number of cases reported. Further, data suggest high risk drug use practices are widespread. Harm reduction initiatives have only recently been introduced in Malaysia. The successful piloting of substitution therapies, in particular methadone and buprenorphine, is cause for genuine hope for the rapid development of such interventions. In 2005 the government announced it will allow methadone maintenance programmes to operate beyond the pilot phase and needle and syringe exchange programmes will be established to serve the needs of IDUs.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
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