Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 48562 in total

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  1. Andrea B
    20 Century Br Hist, 2009;20(1):53-73.
    PMID: 19569309
    This article examines the rationale behind the Heath government's 1970 decision to negotiate a Five Power Defence agreement with Australia, New Zealand, Singapore and Malaysia and to maintain a small British military contingent in Southeast Asia as a part of this new politico-military framework. It argues that while its overriding foreign policy concern was to end Britain's problematic relationship with the European Economic Community and to make membership of this grouping the cornerstone of its foreign policy, the Heath government was careful not to cast Britain's post-imperial future in purely European terms. The successful negotiation of the Five Power Defence Arrangements in 1970-71 was instrumental in achieving this by ensuring that London would maintain close links with key Commonwealth partners in the Asian region. In what was not only an attempt to neutralize potential domestic opposition to Britain's entry into the EEC, but also a lingering reluctance to do away with the rhetoric of Britain as a leading power with extra-European interests, Heath was eager to show that by making a contribution to the stability of Southeast Asia, Britain still had a role to play outside Europe.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  2. Kaiser E, Jaganathan SK, Supriyanto E, Ayyar M
    3 Biotech, 2017 Jul;7(3):174.
    PMID: 28660462 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-017-0830-6
    Atrial septal defect (ASD) constitutes 30-40% of all congenital heart diseases in adults. The most common complications in the treatment of ASD are embolization of the device and thrombosis formation. In this research, an occluding patch was developed for ASD treatment using a well-known textile technology called electrospinning. For the first time, a cardiovascular occluding patch was fabricated using medical grade polyurethane (PU) loaded with bioactive agents namely chitosan nanoparticles (Cn) and collagen (Co) which is then coated with heparin (Hp). Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents and changes in the absorbance due to the inclusion of active ingredients in the patch. The contact angle analysis demonstrated no significant decrease in contact angle compared to the control and the composite patches. The structure of the electrospun nanocomposite (PUCnCoHp) was examined through scanning electron microscopy. A decrease in nanofiber diameter between control PU and PUCnCoHp nanocomposite was observed. Water uptake was found to be decreased for the PUCnCoHp nanocomposite against the control. The hemocompatibility properties of the PUCnCoHp ASD occluding patch was inferred through in vitro hemocompatibility tests like activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and hemolysis assay. It was found that the PT and APTT time was significantly prolonged for the fabricated PUCnCoHp ASD occluding patch compared to the control. Likewise, the hemolysis percentage was also decreased for the PUCnCoHp ASD patch against the control. In conclusion, the developed PUCnCoHp patch demonstrates potential properties to be used for ASD occlusion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  3. Lim MM, Sultana N
    3 Biotech, 2016 Dec;6(2):211.
    PMID: 28330282 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-016-0531-6
    The development of nano-sized scaffolds with antibacterial properties that mimic the architecture of tissue is one of the challenges in tissue engineering. In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) and PCL/gelatine (Ge) (70:30) nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated using a less toxic and common solvent, formic acid and an electrospinning technique. Nanofibrous scaffolds were coated with silver (Ag) in different concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO3) aqueous solution (1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 %) by using dipping method, drying and followed by ultraviolet (UV) photoreduction. The PCL/Ge (70:30) nanofibrous scaffold had an average fibre diameter of 155.60 ± 41.13 nm. Characterization showed that Ag was physically entrapped in both the PCL and PCL/Ge (70:30) nanofibrous scaffolds. Ag(+) ions release study was performed and showed much lesser release amount than the maximum toxic concentration of Ag(+) ions in human cells. Both scaffolds were non-toxic to cells and demonstrated antibacterial effects towards Gram-positive Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli). The Ag/PCL/Ge (70:30) nanofibrous scaffold has potential for tissue engineering as it can protect wounds from bacterial infection and promote tissue regeneration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  4. Lim CK, Seow TW, Neoh CH, Md Nor MH, Ibrahim Z, Ware I, et al.
    3 Biotech, 2016 Dec;6(2):195.
    PMID: 28330267 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-016-0513-8
    Sanitary landfilling is the most common way to dispose solid urban waste; however, improper landfill management may pose serious environmental threats through discharge of high strength polluted wastewater also known as leachate. The treatment of landfill leachate to fully reduce the negative impact on the environment, is nowadays a challenge. In this study, an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was proposed for the treatment of locally obtained real landfill leachate with initial ammoniacal nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of 1800 and 3200 mg/L, respectively. ASBR could remove 65 % of ammoniacal nitrogen and 30 % of COD during seven days of treatment time. Thereafter, an effective adsorbent, i.e., zeolite was used as a secondary treatment step for polishing the ammoniacal nitrogen and COD content that is present in leachate. The results obtained are promising where the adsorption of leachate by zeolite further enhanced the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and COD up to 96 and 43 %, respectively. Furthermore, this combined biological-physical treatment system was able to remove heavy metals, i.e. aluminium, vanadium, chromium, magnesium, cuprum and plumbum significantly. These results demonstrate that combined ASBR and zeolite adsorption is a feasible technique for the treatment of landfill leachate, even considering this effluent's high resistance to treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  5. AlMatar M, Makky EA
    3 Biotech, 2016 Jun;6(1):4.
    PMID: 28330073 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-015-0323-4
    Fungi are important natural product sources that have enormous potential for the production of novel compounds for use in pharmacology, agricultural applications and industry. Compared with other natural sources such as plants, fungi are highly diverse but understudied. However, research on Cladosporium cladosporioides revealed the existence of bioactive products such as p-methylbenzoic acid, ergosterol peroxide (EP) and calphostin C as well as enzymes including pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG) and chlorpyrifos hydrolase. p-Methylbenzoic acid has ability to synthesise 1,5-benzodiazepine and its derivatives, polyethylene terephthalate and eicosapentaenoic acid. EP has anticancer, antiangiogenic, antibacterial, anti-oxidative and immunosuppressive properties. Calphostin C inhibits protein kinase C (PKC) by inactivating both PKC-epsilon and PKC-alpha. In addition, calphostin C stimulates apoptosis in WEHI-231 cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. Based on the stimulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress in some types of cancer, calphostin C has also been evaluated as a potential photodynamic therapeutic agent. Methylesterase (PME) and PG have garnered attention because of their usage in the food processing industry and significant physiological function in plants. Chlorpyrifos, a human, animal and plant toxin, can be degraded and eliminated by chlorpyrifos hydrolase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  6. Bello B, Mustafa S, Tan JS, Ibrahim TAT, Tam YJ, Ariff AB, et al.
    3 Biotech, 2018 Aug;8(8):346.
    PMID: 30073131 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-018-1362-4
    This paper deliberates the extraction, characterization and examination of potential application of soluble polysaccharides of palm kernel cake (PKC) as a prebiotic. The PKC was defatted and crude polysaccharide was obtained through water, citric acid or NaOH extraction. The physiochemical properties of the extracted polysaccharides viz. total carbohydrates, protein content, solubility rate, monosaccharides composition, structural information and thermal properties were also determined. The extracted soluble polysaccharides were further subjected to a digestibility test using artificial human gastric juice. Finally, their prebiotic potential on two probiotics, namely Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lb. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 were evaluated in vitro. It was observed that PKC contained ash (5.2%), moisture (7.4%), carbohydrates (65.8%), protein (16.5%) and fat (5.1%). There were significant differences (P  95%). Protein content in SCPW, SCPCA and SCPN are 0.72, 0.40 and 0.58, respectively, and the peaks which indicated the presence of protein were observed at approximately 1640 cm-1 (amide I). FTIR spectroscopy revealed that the polysaccharides extracts were linked to β and α-glycosidic bonds and thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) showed the main degradation temperature of SP is about 121 to 125 °C. The SP were found to be highly resistance (> 96%) to hydrolysis when subjected to artificial human gastric juice. The prebiotics potentials of the polysaccharides on probiotics in vitro demonstrated an increase in proliferation of Lb. plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lb. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 with decrease in the pH of the medium and producing organic acids.All the above findings strongly indicated that polysaccharides extracted from PKC, an industrial waste, have a potential to be exploited as novel prebiotics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  7. Adzitey F, Ali GR, Huda N, Ahmad R
    3 Biotech, 2013 Dec;3(6):521-527.
    PMID: 28324423 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-013-0115-7
    Salmonella species are important foodborne pathogens that can cause illness and death in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relatedness of 115 Salmonella strains isolated from ducks and their environment using random amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (RAPD). The analysis of Salmonella strains by RAPD produced DNA fingerprints of different sizes for differentiation purposes, and cluster analysis at a coefficient of 0.85 grouped the Salmonella strains into various clusters and singletons. S. Typhimurium were grouped into nine clusters and ten singletons, S. Hadar were grouped into seven clusters and nine singletons, S. Enteritidis were grouped into four clusters and five singletons, S. Braenderup were grouped into five clusters and four singletons, S. Albany were grouped into two clusters and seven singletons, and S. Derby were grouped into two clusters and four singletons at a coefficient of 0.85 with discriminatory index (D) ranging from 0.879 to 0.957. With the exception of S. Typhimurium strains which were grouped into three major groups (genotypes) by RAPD analysis, the rest were grouped into two major genotypes. RAPD was a useful genotyping tool for determining the genetic relatedness of the duck Salmonella strains. Comparison of the genetic relatedness among foodborne pathogens and their sources of isolation are important to trace their source and possibly the source of human infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  8. Pern YC, Lee SY, Ng WL, Mohamed R
    3 Biotech, 2020 Mar;10(3):103.
    PMID: 32099744 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-020-2072-2
    Tree species in the Aquilarieae tribe of the Thymelaeaceae family produce agarwood, a natural product highly valued for its fragrance, but the species are under threat due to indiscriminate harvesting. For conservation of these species, molecular techniques such as DNA profiling have been used. In this study, we assessed cross-amplification of microsatellite markers, initially developed for three Aquilaria species (A.crassna, A.malaccensis, and A.sinensis), on ten other agarwood-producing species, including members of Aquilaria (A.beccariana, A.hirta, A.microcarpa, A.rostrata, A.rugosa, A.subintegra, and A.yunnanensis) and Gyrinops (G.caudata, G.versteegii, and G.walla), both from the Aquilarieae tribe. Primers for 18 out of the 30 microsatellite markers successfully amplified bands of expected sizes in 1 sample each of at least 10 species. These were further used to genotype 74 individuals representing all the 13 studied species, yielding 13 cross-amplifiable markers, of which only 1 being polymorphic across all species. At each locus, the number of alleles ranged from 7 to 23, indicating a rather high variability. Four markers had relatively high species discrimination power. Our results demonstrated that genetic fingerprinting can be an effective tool in helping to manage agarwood genetic resources by potentially supporting the chain-of-custody of agarwood and its products in the market.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  9. Adzitey F, Huda N, Ali GR
    3 Biotech, 2013 Apr;3(2):97-107.
    PMID: 28324565 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-012-0074-4
    In recent times, several foodborne pathogens have become important and a threat to public health. Surveillance studies have provided data and a better understanding into the existence and spread of foodborne pathogens. The application of molecular techniques for detecting and typing of foodborne pathogens in surveillance studies provide reliable epidemiological data for tracing the source of human infections. A wide range of molecular techniques (including pulsed field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, random amplified polymorphism deoxyribonucleic acid, repetitive extragenic palindromic, deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing, multiplex polymerase chain reaction and many more) have been used for detecting, speciating, typing, classifying and/or characterizing foodborne pathogens of great significance to humans. Farm animals including chickens, cattle, sheep, goats and pigs, and others (such as domestic and wild animals) have been reported to be primary reservoirs for foodborne pathogens. The consumption of contaminated poultry meats or products has been considered to be the leading source of human foodborne infections. Ducks like other farm animals are important source of foodborne pathogens and have been implicated in some human foodborne illnesses and deaths. Nonetheless, few studies have been conducted to explore the potential of ducks in causing foodborne outbreaks, diseases and its consequences. This review highlights some common molecular techniques, their advantages and those that have been applied to pathogens isolated from ducks and their related sources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  10. Shanmugapriya, Sasidharan S
    3 Biotech, 2020 May;10(5):206.
    PMID: 32346497 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-020-02193-6
    MicroRNAs are endogenous small non-coding-RNAs that control gene expression and cancer development. Previous studies reported that Polyalthia longifolia treatment induced apoptotic cell death in HeLa cells by down-regulation of miR-221-5p. Hence, the current study was conducted to validate the down-regulated miR-221-5p in HeLa cells. Functional analysis of miR-221-5p was conducted through the gain-of-function, and loss-of-function approach and the miRNA expression was quantified by a real-time polymerase chain reaction. The P. longifolia treatment significantly (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  11. Zhang J, Gopinath SCB
    3 Biotech, 2020 Feb;10(2):35.
    PMID: 31988829 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-019-2030-z
    Cortisol is a stress hormone released from the adrenal glands and is responsible for both hyperglycemia and hypertension during pregnancy. These factors make it mandatory to detect the levels of cortisol during pregnancy to identify and treat hypoglycemia and hypertension. In this study, cortisol levels were quantified with an aptamer-conjugated gold nanorod using an electrochemical interdigitated electrode sensor. The surface uniformity was analyzed by high-power microscopy and 3D-nanoprofiler imaging. The detection limit was determined to be 0.01 ng/mL, and a linear regression indicated that the sensitivity range was in the range of 0.01-0.1 ng/mL, based on a 3σ calculation. Moreover, the specificity of the aptamer was determined by a binding analysis against norepinephrine and progesterone, and it was clearly found that the aptamer specifically recognizes only cortisol. Further, the presence of cortisol was detected in the serum in a dose-dependent manner. This method is useful to detect and correlate multiple pregnancy-related diseases by quantifying the levels of cortisol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  12. Zainal Abidin H, Mohd Lutfi N, Phang YY, Zarina FMI, Hamidah I, Saedah A, et al.
    A A Pract, 2020 Jul;14(9):e01281.
    PMID: 32909720 DOI: 10.1213/XAA.0000000000001281
    Hepatoblastoma is the most frequently occurring malignant tumor of the liver in children (ages ≤5 years). The formation of bronchobiliary fistula is a rare complication. We present a case report that describes the associated anesthetic challenges that we encountered for the treatment of this pathology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  13. Wong JSL, Nasruddin AB, Selveindran NM, Latif KA, Kassim F, Nair SB, et al.
    AACE Clin Case Rep, 2021 02 01;7(3):220-225.
    PMID: 34095493 DOI: 10.1016/j.aace.2021.01.008
    Objective: Primary hypophysitis refers to the isolated inflammation of the pituitary gland not associated with other secondary causes. Among its histopathologic subtypes, xanthomatous is the rarest.

    Methods: We describe a 22-year-old woman with xanthomatous hypophysitis (XH), its clinical progression over 8 years as well as the treatment effects of prednisolone and azathioprine. Our patient was first referred for severe short stature and delayed puberty at the age of 14 years.

    Results: Investigations revealed multiple pituitary deficiencies. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a pituitary mass whereby a partial resection was performed. A full resection was not feasible due to the location of the mass. The histopathologic analysis of the tissue was consistent with XH. The results of secondary workout for neoplasm, infection, autoimmune, and inflammatory disorders were negative. After surgery, a progressive enlargement of the mass was observed. Two courses of prednisolone were administered with a significant reduction in the mass size. Azathioprine was added due to the unsustained effects of prednisolone when tapered off and the concern of steroid toxicity with continued use. No further increase in the mass size was noted after 6 months on azathioprine.

    Conclusion: Glucocorticoid and immunotherapy are treatment options for XH; however, more cases are needed to better understand its pathogenesis and clinical progression.

    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  14. Liew KB, Tan YT, Peh KK
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2012 Mar;13(1):134-42.
    PMID: 22167416 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-011-9729-4
    The aim of this study was to develop a taste-masked oral disintegrating film (ODF) containing donepezil, with fast disintegration time and suitable mechanical strength, for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, corn starch, polyethylene glycol, lactose monohydrate and crosspovidone served as the hydrophilic polymeric bases of the ODF. The uniformity, in vitro disintegration time, drug release and the folding endurance of the ODF were examined. The in vitro results showed that 80% of donepezil hydrochloride was released within 5 minutes with mean disintegration time of 44 seconds. The result of the film flexibility test showed that the number of folding time to crack the film was 40 times, an indication of sufficient mechanical property for patient use. A single-dose, fasting, four-period, eight-treatment, double-blind study involving 16 healthy adult volunteers was performed to evaluate the in situ disintegration time and palatability of ODF. Five parameters, namely taste, aftertaste, mouthfeel, ease of handling and acceptance were evaluated. The mean in situ disintegration time of ODF was 49 seconds. ODF containing 7 mg of sucralose were more superior than saccharin and aspartame in terms of taste, aftertaste, mouthfeel and acceptance. Furthermore, the ODF was stable for at least 6 months when stored at 40°C and 75% relative humidity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  15. Wong TW, Colombo G, Sonvico F
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2011 Mar;12(1):201-14.
    PMID: 21194013 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-010-9564-z
    Colon cancer is the fourth most common cancer globally with 639,000 deaths reported annually. Typical chemotherapy is provided by injection route to reduce tumor growth and metastasis. Recent research investigates the oral delivery profiles of chemotherapeutic agents. In comparison to injection, oral administration of drugs in the form of a colon-specific delivery system is expected to increase drug bioavailability at target site, reduce drug dose and systemic adverse effects. Pectin is suitable for use as colon-specific drug delivery vehicle as it is selectively digested by colonic microflora to release drug with minimal degradation in upper gastrointestinal tract. The present review examines the physicochemical attributes of formulation needed to retard drug release of pectin matrix prior to its arrival at colon, and evaluate the therapeutic value of pectin matrix in association with colon cancer. The review suggests that multi-particulate calcium pectinate matrix is an ideal carrier to orally deliver drugs for site-specific treatment of colon cancer as (1) crosslinking of pectin by calcium ions in a matrix negates drug release in upper gastrointestinal tract, (2) multi-particulate carrier has a slower transit and a higher contact time for drug action in colon than single-unit dosage form, and (3) both pectin and calcium have an indication to reduce the severity of colon cancer from the implication of diet and molecular biology studies. Pectin matrix demonstrates dual advantages as drug carrier and therapeutic for use in treatment of colon cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  16. Ng SF, Rouse JJ, Sanderson FD, Meidan V, Eccleston GM
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2010 Sep;11(3):1432-41.
    PMID: 20842539 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-010-9522-9
    Over the years, in vitro Franz diffusion experiments have evolved into one of the most important methods for researching transdermal drug administration. Unfortunately, this type of testing often yields permeation data that suffer from poor reproducibility. Moreover, this feature frequently occurs when synthetic membranes are used as barriers, in which case biological tissue-associated variability has been removed as an artefact of total variation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of a full-validation protocol on the performance of a tailor-made array of Franz diffusion cells (GlaxoSmithKline, Harlow, UK) available in our laboratory. To this end, ibuprofen was used as a model hydrophobic drug while synthetic membranes were used as barriers. The parameters investigated included Franz cell dimensions, stirring conditions, membrane type, membrane treatment, temperature regulation and sampling frequency. It was determined that validation dramatically reduced derived data variability as the coefficient of variation for steady-state ibuprofen permeation from a gel formulation was reduced from 25.7% to 5.3% (n = 6). Thus, validation and refinement of the protocol combined with improved operator training can greatly enhance reproducibility in Franz cell experimentation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  17. Alkhader E, Billa N, Roberts CJ
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2017 May;18(4):1009-1018.
    PMID: 27582072 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-016-0623-y
    In the present study, we report the properties of a mucoadhesive chitosan-pectinate nanoparticulate formulation able to retain its integrity in the milieu of the upper gastrointestinal tract and subsequently, mucoadhere and release curcumin in colon conditions. Using this system, we aimed to deliver curcumin to the colon for the possible management of colorectal cancer. The delivery system comprised of a chitosan-pectinate composite nanopolymeric with a z-average of 206.0 nm (±6.6 nm) and zeta potential of +32.8 mV (±0.5 mV) and encapsulation efficiency of 64%. The nanoparticles mucoadhesiveness was higher at alkaline pH compared to acidic pH. Furthermore, more than 80% release of curcumin was achieved in pectinase-enriched medium (pH 6.4) as opposed to negligible release in acidic and enzyme-restricted media at pH 6.8. SEM images of the nanoparticles after exposure to the various media indicate a retained matrix in acid media as opposed to a distorted/fragmented matrix in pectinase-enriched medium. The data strongly indicates that the system has the potential to be applied as a colon-targeted mucoadhesive curcumin delivery system for the possible treatment of colon cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  18. Nair RS, Morris A, Billa N, Leong CO
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2019 Jan 10;20(2):69.
    PMID: 30631984 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1279-6
    Curcumin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were synthesised and evaluated in vitro for enhanced transdermal delivery. Zetasizer® characterisation of three different formulations of curcumin nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) showed the size ranged from 167.3 ± 3.8 nm to 251.5 ± 5.8 nm, the polydispersity index (PDI) values were between 0.26 and 0.46 and the zeta potential values were positive (+ 18.1 to + 20.2 mV). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images supported this size data and confirmed the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. All the formulations showed excellent entrapment efficiency above 80%. FTIR results demonstrate the interaction between chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and confirm the presence of curcumin in the nanoparticle. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of Cu-NPs indicate the presence of curcumin in a disordered crystalline or amorphous state, suggesting the interaction between the drug and the polymer. Drug release studies showed an improved drug release at pH 5.0 than in pH 7.4 and followed a zero order kinetics. The in vitro permeation studies through Strat-M® membrane demonstrated an enhanced permeation of Cu-NPs compared to aqueous curcumin solution (p ˂ 0.05) having a flux of 0.54 ± 0.03 μg cm-2 h-1 and 0.44 ± 0.03 μg cm-2 h-1 corresponding to formulations 5:1 and 3:1, respectively. The cytotoxicity assay on human keratinocyte (HaCat) cells showed enhanced percentage cell viability of Cu-NPs compared to curcumin solution. Cu-NPs developed in this study exhibit superior drug release and enhanced transdermal permeation of curcumin and superior percentage cell viability. Further ex vivo and in vivo evaluations will be conducted to support these findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  19. Sheshala R, Anuar NK, Abu Samah NH, Wong TW
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2019 Apr 15;20(5):164.
    PMID: 30993407 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-019-1362-7
    This review highlights in vitro drug dissolution/permeation methods available for topical and transdermal nanocarriers that have been designed to modulate the propensity of drug release, drug penetration into skin, and permeation into systemic circulation. Presently, a few of USFDA-approved in vitro dissolution/permeation methods are available for skin product testing with no specific application to nanocarriers. Researchers are largely utilizing the in-house dissolution/permeation testing methods of nanocarriers. These drug release and permeation methods are pending to be standardized. Their biorelevance with reference to in vivo plasma concentration-time profiles requires further exploration to enable translation of in vitro data for in vivo or clinical performance prediction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  20. Ling JTS, Roberts CJ, Billa N
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2019 Mar 05;20(3):136.
    PMID: 30838459 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-019-1346-7
    Surface-modified nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) represent a promising mode of drug delivery used to enhance retention of drugs at absorption site. Formulated chitosan-coated amphotericin-B-loaded NLC (ChiAmp NLC) had a size of 394.4 ± 6.4 nm, encapsulation and loading efficiencies of 86.0 ± 3% and 11.0 ± 0.1% respectively. Amphotericin-B release from NLCs was biphasic with no changes in physical properties upon exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Antifungal properties of Amphotericin-B and ChiAmpB NLC were comparable but ChiAmpB NLC was twice less toxic to red blood cells and ten times safer on HT-29 cell lines. In vitro mucoadhesion data were observed ex vivo, where ChiAmpB NLC resulted in higher retention within the small intestine compared to the uncoated formulation. The data strongly offers the possibility of orally administering a non-toxic, yet effective Amphotericin-B nanoformulation for the treatment of systemic fungal infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
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