METHODS: The genotypes of TCF7L2, DEFB1 and CD14 polymorphism were determined in 240 nephrolithiasis patients and 240 healthy controls by restriction digestion method of PCR. The levels of serum TCF7L2, DEFB1, CD14, uric acid and other biochemical parameters were measured both in nephrolithiasis patients and healthy control.
RESULTS: The patients and control groups showed 30% and 50% 1654 AA DEFB1 genotype respectively. The Allele frequency in case of patient's group was 63.67% while in control group it was 36.33%. The mean serum DEFB1 levels of the patients and control groups attained were 115.66 and 239.43 pg/mL respectively. The allele frequency of TCF7L2 in patients and controls were 44.17% and 70.0% for C-allele, 55.83% and 30.00% for T-allele respectively. The mean of serum TCF7L2 levels were significantly decreased in patients compared to control group.
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings are first of its class that validates a considerable connection of DEFB1 and TCF7L2 gene polymorphisms with nephrolithiasis and could probably act as indicators to estimate the risk associated to nephrolithiasis.
METHODS: A systematic search was conducted for articles published from January 1990 to December 2009 in PubMed/MEDLINE using terms for malaria and 11 target countries (Bhutan, China, North Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Solomon Islands, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vanuatu). The references were collated and categorized according to subject, Plasmodium species, and whether they contained original or derivative data.
RESULTS: 2,700 articles published between 1990 and 2009 related to malaria in the target countries. The annual output of malaria-related papers increased linearly whereas the overall biomedical output from these countries grew exponentially. The percentage of malaria-related publications was nearly 3% (111/3741) of all biomedical publications in 1992 and decreased to less than 1% (118/12171; p < 0.001) in 2009. Thailand had the highest absolute output of malaria-related papers (n = 1211), followed by China (n = 609) and Indonesia (n = 346). Solomon Islands and Vanuatu had lower absolute numbers of publications, but both countries had the highest number of publications per capita (1.3 and 2.5 papers/1,000 population). The largest percentage of papers concerned the epidemiology and control of malaria (53%) followed by studies of drugs and drug resistance (47%). There was an increase in the proportion of articles relating to epidemiology, entomology, biology, molecular biology, pathophysiology and diagnostics from the first to the second decade, whereas the percentage of papers on drugs, clinical aspects of malaria, immunology, and social sciences decreased.
CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of malaria-related publications out of the overall biomedical output from the 11 target Asian-Pacific countries is decreasing. The discovery and evaluation of new, safe and effective drugs and vaccines is paramount. In addition the elimination of malaria will require operational research to implement and scale up interventions.
METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of 452 pregnant women recruited from 3 health clinics in a southern state of Peninsular Malaysia. PA levels at the first, second, and third trimester were assessed using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire. GDM was diagnosed at 24-28 weeks of gestation following the Ministry of Health Malaysia criteria. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify PA trajectories. Three multivariate logistic models were used to estimate the odds of trajectory group membership and GDM.
RESULTS: Two distinct PA trajectories were identified: low PA levels in all intensity of PA and sedentary behavior (Group 1: 61.1%, n = 276) and high PA levels in all intensity of PA as well as sedentary behavior (Group 2: 38.9%, n = 176). Moderate and high intensity PA decreased over the course of pregnancy in both groups. Women in group 2 had significantly higher risk of GDM in two of the estimated logistic models. In all models, significant associations between PA trajectories and GDM were only observed among women with excessive gestational weight gain in the second trimester.
CONCLUSIONS: Women with high sedentary behavior were significantly at higher risk of GDM despite high PA levels by intensity and this association was significant only among women with excessive GWG in the second trimester. Participation in high sedentary behavior may outweigh the benefit of engaging in high PA to mitigate the risk of GDM.