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  1. Ariffin WA, Choo KE, Karnaneedi S
    Med J Malaysia, 1992 Sep;47(3):231-4.
    PMID: 1491651
    Three sisters with cassava poisoning are described. A review of the toxic properties of cassava is presented together with discussion on the methods of its preparation, its adverse effects on man, its detoxification in the body, and the treatment of its poisoning.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vomiting/etiology
  2. Cheo SW, Low QJ, Tan YA, Chia YK
    Clin Med (Lond), 2020 05;20(3):e20-e21.
    PMID: 32414735 DOI: 10.7861/clinmed.2020-0019
    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare inflammatory disorder of the nervous system which can be potentially debilitating. Its prevalence is estimated to be around 0.5-10 per 100,000 population with predilection towards Asians and females. It can be diagnosed based on core clinical characteristics, serum aquaporin antibodies and neuroimaging features. It is important to pick up the diagnosis of NMOSD as the treatment is different from other demyelinating disease. Here, we illustrate a case of NMOSD presented with intractable vomiting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vomiting/etiology
  3. Chou YM, Seak CJ, Goh ZNL, Seak JC, Seak CK, Lin CC
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2018 Jun;97(25):e11056.
    PMID: 29923997 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000011056
    RATIONALE: Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening acute complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (eDKA) is however challenging to identify in the emergency department (ED) due to absence of marked hyperglycemia, often leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. eDKA has been recently found to be associated with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, one of the newest classes of antidiabetics, though there are very limited reports implicating dapagliflozin as the offending agent in ED patients. Here we report a type 2 diabetic patient who presented to the ED with eDKA secondary to dapagliflozin administration.

    PATIENT CONCERNS: A 61-year-old Asian female with underlying type 2 DM presented to our ED with body weakness, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, and mild abdominal pain for the past 2 days. These symptoms were preceded by poor oral intake for 1 week due to severe toothache. Dapagliflozin was recently added to her antidiabetic drug regimen of metformin and glibenclamide 2 weeks ago.

    DIAGNOSES: Arterial blood gases showed a picture of severe metabolic acidosis with an elevated anion gap, while ketones were elevated in blood and positive in urine. Blood glucose was mildly elevated at 180 mg/dL. Serum lactate levels were normal. Our patient was thus diagnosed with eDKA.

    INTERVENTION: Our patient was promptly admitted to the intensive care unit and treated for eDKA through intravenous rehydration therapy with insulin infusion.

    OUTCOMES: Serial blood gas analyses showed gradual resolution of the patient's ketoacidosis with normalized anion gap and clearance of serum ketones. She was discharged uneventfully on day 4, with permanent cessation of dapagliflozin administration.

    LESSONS: Life-threatening eDKA as a complication of dapagliflozin is a challenging and easilymissed diagnosis in the ED. Such an ED presentation is very rare, nevertheless emergency physicians are reminded to consider the diagnosis of eDKA in a patient whose drug regimen includes any SGLT2 inhibitor, especially if the patient presents with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dyspnea, lethargy, and is clinically dehydrated. These patients should then be investigated with ketone studies and blood gas analyses regardless of blood glucose levels for prompt diagnosis and treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Vomiting/etiology
  4. Khalid S, Aris MS
    BMJ Case Rep, 2016 Mar 30;2016.
    PMID: 27030452 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2015-213165
    A 25-year-old gravida 2 para 1 with 12-week amenorrhoea presented a second time for recurrent vomiting in pregnancy. She was diagnosed to have a missed miscarriage following absent fetal heart seen in an early scan. She opted for conservative management. However, on the third presentation, her vomiting continued. Repeated transvaginal ultrasound scan showed a fetus with a crown rump length of 19 mm, which is equivalent to 8 weeks and 4 days, with absence of fetal heart pulsation. Thyroid function tests and β human chorionic gonadotropin were then requested. Results showed that the patient's serum β human chorionic gonadotropin level was markedly raised to 147,000. A molar pregnancy was suspected. Her thyroid function tests came back normal. Suction curettage was performed and histopathology confirmed a partial molar pregnancy. On follow-up, the β human chorionic gonadotropin level was normal by 7 weeks after the curettage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vomiting/etiology*
  5. Laidin AZ, Proehoeman R, Mohd Nor M
    Med J Malaysia, 1982 Dec;37(4):349-53.
    PMID: 7167088
    Sixty seven infants were admitted over a 10-year period from 1972 to 1981: 50 males and 17 females. A higher incidence of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis exists in West Malaysia than was previously recognised. However, it remains at less than one tenth of the Western figures. Among the three major races, the condition was commonest in Indians and least in Malays. Most cases presented between the ages of 3 to 8 weeks. Prolonged history of vomiting of more than 3 weeks occurred in 43.3 percent cases, usually among Malay and Indian patients. All patients were treated surgically with 1 death (1.5 percent). The usual postoperative complication was vomiting which occurred in 22.4 percent. Early presentation, adequate preoperative resuscitation and improved anaesthetic techniques can further reduce this mortality and morbidity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vomiting/etiology
  6. Lope RJ, Wong SW, Wu LL
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2010 Apr;46(4):204-6.
    PMID: 20412414 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1754.2009.01662.x
    Children with occipital seizures often have ictal autonomic symptoms such as pallor and vomiting and lack motor manifestations. This has lead to misdiagnosis of occipital seizures in children. The following case report highlights the clinical features of a child with occipital epilepsy misdiagnosed as having migraine. The aetiology of symptomatic occipital epilepsy will be discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vomiting/etiology
  7. O'Holohan DR
    J Trop Med Hyg, 1976 Sep;79(9):191-6.
    PMID: 794512
    In the context of this study the ethnic origin of the patients revealed no noteworthy difference in the clinical reaction to the parasite; neither did age or sex of the patients. Any minor differences whcih appeared in length of history before seeking treatment and frequency of repeat attacks were more a reflection of the cultural pattern of response to illness (i.e. resort to traditional medicines) and the distance between the patient's home and the doctor rather than any altered response on the part of the host to the parasite. However, the fact that about 35 per cent of all the episodes had a history of eight or more days (about 10 per cent more than 30 days) suggest that more "malaria consciousness" is called for in what is after all an endemic malaria area. The value (and necessity) of repeated examination of the blood to detect the parasite is confirmed but it is also encouraging to note that in 84% of cases a single careful examination of the blood revealed the parasite. Since in 49% of our malaria episodes the patient was afebrile when the parasite was discovered, it is obvious that in outpatient practice especially blood should be examined when the patient presents for treatment, irrespective of the presence or absence of pyrexia. As always, a prerequisite to the diagnosis of malaria is an awareness of its possible presence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vomiting/etiology
  8. Sharma S, Abdullah N
    Singapore Med J, 2000 Apr;41(4):147-50.
    PMID: 11063177
    Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving one hundred ASA I-II patients undergoing major gynaecological surgery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/etiology
  9. Tan HL, Blythe A, Kirby CP, Gent R
    Eur J Pediatr Surg, 2009 Apr;19(2):76-8.
    PMID: 19242904 DOI: 10.1055/s-2008-1039199
    Foveolar cell hyperplasia (FCH) has been reported as a rare cause of persistent gastric outlet obstruction in patients with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS), which, if present, requires excision of the gastric foveolar folds to resolve the persistent obstruction. This is a review of patients with IHPS diagnosed on abdominal ultrasound to determine the incidence of FCH in IHPS and to evaluate whether it has a causal role in postoperative vomiting following pyloromyotomy for IHPS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/etiology*
  10. Yusuf A, Ahmad Z, Keng SL
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(1):435-40.
    PMID: 23534769
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in Malaysia. A diagnosis is very stressful for women, affecting all aspects of their being and quality of life. As such, there is little information on quality of life of women with breast cancer across the different ethnic groups in Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of life in Malay and Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer in Kelantan.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive study involved 58 Malays and 15 Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer prior to treatment. Quality of life was measured using the Malay version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its breast-specific module (QLQ-BR23). Socio-demographic and clinical data were also collected. All the data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.

    RESULTS: Most of the women were married with at least a secondary education and were in late stages of breast cancer. The Malay women had lower incomes (p=0.046) and more children (p=0.001) when compared to the Chinese women. Generally, both the Malay and Chinese women had good functioning quality-of-life scores [mean score range: 60.3-84.8 (Malays); 65.0-91.1 (Chinese)] and global quality of life [mean score 60.3, SD 22.2 (Malays); mean score 65.0, SD 26.6 (Chinese)]. The Malay women experienced more symptoms such as nausea and vomiting (p=0.002), dyspnoea (p=0.004), constipation (p<0.001) and breast-specific symptoms (p=0.041) when compared to the Chinese.

    CONCLUSIONS: Quality of life was satisfactory in both Malays and Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer in Kelantan. However, Malay women had a lower quality of life due to high general as well as breast-specific symptoms. This study finding underlined the importance of measuring quality of life in the newly diagnosed breast cancer patient, as it will provide a broader picture on how a cancer diagnosis impacts multi-ethnic patients. Once health care professionals understand this, they might then be able to determine how to best support and improve the quality of life of these women during the difficult times of their disease and on-going cancer treatments.

    Matched MeSH terms: Vomiting/etiology
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