The level of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was estimated by radioimmunoassay in 153 normal healthy Malysians of different ethnic groups. The mean level was 7.5 In1/ml (SD 2.28InU/ml). Among 330 patients with malignant tumors, 11 had increased levels of AFP. The only patient who had hepatoma had a very high level of serum AFP. High levels were also found in three of four patients with dysgerminoma of the ovary, in the only two patients with carcinoma of the testis, and in one patient with secondary carcinoma of the humerus of unknown origin. Lower, but significantly increased levels were observed in one patient (of 48) with breast carcinoma, one patient (of 8) with basal cell carcinoma of the nose, one patient (0f 27) with carcinoma of the lung, and one patient (of 59) with nasopharynegeal carcinoma.
In a 10 year period 1971-1980, the records of 944 individual women with benign breast lumps and 228 with primary carcinomata are reviewed. This study describes the age, ethnic distribution of benign and malignant breast tumours in women in Peninsular Malaysia and compares the pattern with Western experience. There are important variations in the incidence pattern between the different races in Peninsular Malaysia and between them and women in Britain and the United States.
Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology*
This communication describes the quantitative and qualitative analysis of oestrogen receptors in breast tumour biopsies of Malaysian patients. This preliminary investigation establishes certain rigid criteria that makes possible the classification of patients most likely to respond to hormonal therapy. 20 percent of the patients had oestrogen receptor positive tumours while 60 percent were oestrogen receptor negative.
In Singapore, cancer incidence is documented separately for the different Chinese dialect groups, as a means of providing a possible insight into environmental or genetic factors which may be involved in the aetiological process. Thus, it would be useful to determine whether or not the Chinese population in Singapore still comprises distinct dialect groups. In view of this, an investigation into the dialect group of the parents of 792 hospital in-patients (cases and controls) was carried out. It was found that the vast majority of patients (94.2%), most of whom were born before 1940, had parents of the same dialect group. The percentages of within-dialect marriages were only slightly less for offspring born in Singapore or Malaysia as opposed to China, and decreases with time were small. Thus in 1985-87 Chinese cancer patients and controls in Singapore, of the ages represented in this study may indeed be classified according to their father's dialect and this is likely to be the case for at least the next decade or so. This finding will be of use to cancer epidemiologists as well as others studying Chinese dialect group variations in disease patterns.
Locally advanced or recurrent carcinoma of the breast poses difficult management problems. These fungating and discharging tumours severely impair the quality of life in these unfortunate patients. We report two cases successfully treated with omental transposition flaps and split skin grafts. The operation is described in detail and the results discussed. This technique was found to be safe, effective and rewarding.
A 49 year old Malay women presented with pericardial tamponade 18 months following left segmentectomy and local irradiation for carcinoma of the breast. Subsequently she developed complete heart block terminating in cardiac arrest.
Multi-elemental quantitative analyses of 15 paired samples of normal and malignant human breast tissue by instrumental neutron activation analysis are reported. The elements, Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Zn were detected. Significantly elevated concentration levels were found for Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, K, Na, Zn in malignant compared to normal tissue. Although the role of elemental composition in breast cancer is unclear, this finding may be of importance as another parameter for differentiating normal from malignant tissue.
Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology; Breast Neoplasms/chemistry*
Over the past 50 years, a variety of surgical procedures have been advocated for the treatment of operable breast cancer, ranging from local excision to supraradical mastectomy. Today, the surgical treatment of breast cancer remains highly contentious. We review the historical development of breast cancer surgery and analyse the available evidence supporting conservative procedures. We also express our opinions on the treatment of early breast cancer and illustrate the changing patterns of surgery with our experience at National University Hospital.
Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/history*; Breast Neoplasms/surgery
Radiologically guided localization procedures are indicated pre-operatively when breast lesions are nonpalpable. The results of 42 percutaneous hookwire localizations over a period of 3 years are described. Of the total, 7 (17%) were found to be malignant. Biopsy was indicated by mammographically detected mass in 48%, by microcalcifications in 40% and by microcalcifications with an associated mass in 12%.
Forty-eight patients with breast carcinoma were subjected to four quadrant fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology examination of the ipsilateral and contralateral breast in an attempt to detect any accompanying benign proliferative lesion. Mastectomy of ipsilateral and open biopsy of contralateral breast provided material for histopathological study. Cytological evidence of epithelial proliferation was found in 8 (16.6%) cases which included atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH), lobular neoplasia in-situ (LNIS), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and proliferative disease without atypia (PDWA). In lobular proliferative lesions, cytological smears showed configurations of cells that resembled filled up or expanded lobular units. The cytology was not distinctive enough to distinguish the sub-types of lobular proliferations. Likewise, the presence of ductal alterations could be suggested by cytological study but the distinction of proliferative disease without atypia (PDWA) from atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) was not possible on a cytological basis.
The BamHI Z EBV replication activator (ZEBRA) protein is involved in the switch from latency to productive cycle of Epstein-Barr virus. A recombinant ZEBRA protein was synthesized and assessed in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serum IgG response in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. In 100 NPC serum samples that were positive for IgA to the EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA), 75% had IgG anti-ZEBRA antibodies. In contrast, only 3/83 (3.6%) serum samples from healthy donors and 2/50 (4%) from other cancers were positive for IgG to ZEBRA. Interestingly, in a selected group of 100 NPC sera negative for IgA to VCA, 25% contained IgG anti-ZEBRA antibodies. This suggests that the ELISA for IgG anti-ZEBRA may also identify earlier cases of NPC not detected by the conventional immunofluorescence test for IgA to VCA.
A detailed cytomorphologic study was done on fine needle aspiration smears from 651 benign breast lumps. Cytological categorization enabled the distinction of proliferative from non-proliferative and infective lesions in the majority of the cases. Lumpectomy provided the histological diagnosis in 584 cases, most of which were proliferative lesions. Gross cystic disease and fibroadenoma were the most common lesions encountered. Microcysts with apocrine change, sclerosing adenosis, proliferative disease without atypia, atypical ductal hyperplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia, and lobular carcinoma in situ were associated with the dominant lesion in many of the cases. In all these cases, retrospective analysis of the cytological smears was done in an attempt to identify cytological features which may indicate these lesions.
Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology*; Breast Neoplasms/surgery
A patient with carcinoma of the right breast and coincidental primary hyperparathyroidism is presented. The distinction between hypercalcemia of malignant and hyperparathyroid origins is based on biochemical analysis and localisation of parathyroid adenoma on a computer tomogram of the neck.
Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/complications*
The tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) of palm oil consists of tocotrienols and some alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T). Tocotrienols are a form of vitamin E having an unsaturated side-chain, rather than the saturated side-chain of the more common tocopherols. Because palm oil has been shown not to promote chemically-induced mammary carcinogenesis, we tested effects of TRF and alpha-T on the proliferation, growth, and plating efficiency (PE) of the MDA-MB-435 estrogen-receptor-negative human breast cancer cells. TRF inhibited the proliferation of these cells with a concentration required to inhibit cell proliferation by 50% of 180 microgram/mL whereas alpha-T had no effect at concentrations up to 1000 microgram/mL as measured by incorporation of [3H]thymidine. The effects of TRF and alpha-T also were tested in longer-term growth experiments, using concentrations of 180 and 500 microgram/mL. We found that TRF inhibited the growth of these cells by 50%, whereas alpha-T did not. Their effect on the ability of these cells to form colonies also was studied, and it was found that TRF inhibited PE, whereas alpha T had no effect. These results suggest that the inhibition is due to the presence of tocotrienols in TRF rather than alpha T.