Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 271 in total

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  1. Yip CH, Jayaram G, Alhady SF
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2000 Sep;55(3):363-7.
    PMID: 11200718
    A total of 676 palpable breast lumps seen in the Breast Clinic, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur from August 1993 to August 1994 were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology. Fifty-four were reported as inadequate, 501 benign, 95 malignant and 26 suspicious. One hundred and eighty-seven aspirates had histological correlation, while 34 of the malignant aspirates had clinical correlation. The majority of the other 455 patients were followed up for a period of 60 to 72 months without any malignancies becoming apparent. For analysis, only the 221 cases with histological or clinical correlation were included, (the suspicious category was included into the positive group and the inadequate cases were excluded), giving a sensitivity of 91.7%, a specificity of 91.7% and a diagnostic accuracy of 91.7%. Breast cytology was an accurate and rapid method of diagnosis of breast diseases, and in a busy surgical unit with limited operating time, it allowed for the triage of patients with breast complaints in deciding which cases needed early open biopsy. A negative cytology does not exclude the possibility of cancer, as there was a false negative rate of 11%. However by utilising a diagnostic triad of clinical examination, radiological assessment and fine needle aspiration cytology, the risk of missing a malignancy is small.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology*
  2. Tan GH, Bhoo-Pathy N, Taib NA, See MH, Jamaris S, Yip CH
    Cancer Epidemiol, 2015 Feb;39(1):115-7.
    PMID: 25475062 DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2014.11.005
    Changes in the American Joint Commission on Cancer staging for breast cancer occurred when the 5th Edition was updated to the 6th Edition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology*
  3. Wahab AA, Salim MI, Ahamat MA, Manaf NA, Yunus J, Lai KW
    Med Biol Eng Comput, 2016 Sep;54(9):1363-73.
    PMID: 26463520 DOI: 10.1007/s11517-015-1403-7
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally, and the number of young women diagnosed with this disease is gradually increasing over the years. Mammography is the current gold-standard technique although it is known to be less sensitive in detecting tumors in woman with dense breast tissue. Detecting an early-stage tumor in young women is very crucial for better survival chance and treatment. The thermography technique has the capability to provide an additional functional information on physiological changes to mammography by describing thermal and vascular properties of the tissues. Studies on breast thermography have been carried out to improve the accuracy level of the thermography technique in various perspectives. However, the limitation of gathering women affected by cancer in different age groups had necessitated this comprehensive study which is aimed to investigate the effect of different density levels on the surface temperature distribution profile of the breast models. These models, namely extremely dense (ED), heterogeneously dense (HD), scattered fibroglandular (SF), and predominantly fatty (PF), with embedded tumors were developed using the finite element method. A conventional Pennes' bioheat model was used to perform the numerical simulation on different case studies, and the results obtained were then compared using a hypothesis statistical analysis method to the reference breast model developed previously. The results obtained show that ED, SF, and PF breast models had significant mean differences in surface temperature profile with a p value <0.025, while HD breast model data pair agreed with the null hypothesis formulated due to the comparable tissue composition percentage to the reference model. The findings suggested that various breast density levels should be considered as a contributing factor to the surface thermal distribution profile alteration in both breast cancer detection and analysis when using the thermography technique.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  4. Alhabshi SM, Rahmat K, Abu Hassan H, Westerhout CJ, Chandran PA
    Jpn J Radiol, 2013 May;31(5):342-8.
    PMID: 23385379 DOI: 10.1007/s11604-013-0183-y
    Phyllodes tumour or cystosarcoma phyllodes is a rare stromal breast tumour that is usually benign but on rare occasions can turn malignant. Non-specificity of the imaging features on sonography and mammography makes it difficult to distinguish malignant from benign counterparts solely based on imaging. The final diagnosis is still highly dependent on histopathological assessment. Herein, we describe two cases of malignant phyllodes tumour with emphasis on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features using advanced MR applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology*
  5. Norsa'adah B, Rampal KG, Rahmah MA, Naing NN, Biswal BM
    BMC Cancer, 2011;11:141.
    PMID: 21496310 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-141
    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in Malaysia. Delayed diagnosis is preventable and has major effects on patients' prognosis and survival. The objectives of our study were to identify the magnitude of delayed diagnosis and its associated factors in women with breast cancer in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  6. Fauzi AN, Norazmi MN, Yaacob NS
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2011 Apr;49(4):871-8.
    PMID: 21167897 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.12.010
    Honey is reported to contain various compounds such as phenols, vitamins and antioxidants. The present study investigates the anticancer potential of Tualang honey (Agromas) (TH) in human breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines; as well as in the normal breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10A. The cells were treated with increasing doses of TH (1-10%) for up to 72 h. Increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage from the cell membranes indicates that TH is cytotoxic to all three cancer cells with effective concentrations (EC(50)) of 2.4-2.8%. TH is however, not cytotoxic to the MCF-10A cells. Reactivity with annexin V fluorescence antibody and propidium iodide as analysed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy shows that apoptosis occurred in these cancer cells. TH also reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ(m)) in the cancer cell lines after 24h of treatment. The activation of caspase-3/7 and -9 was observed in all TH-treated cancer cells indicating the involvement of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This study shows that TH has significant anticancer activity against human breast and cervical cancer cell lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology*
  7. Sheikh MK, Khan FA, Imran Abdul Khalid IK, Kumar G
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2009 Mar;19(3):201-2.
    PMID: 19268026 DOI: 03.2009/JCPSP.201202
    The influence of age on various histological types of breast cancer at both age <50 years and >50 years to simulate menopause was studied retrospective from 2002 to 2004 in Malaysia. One hundred and fifty five cases were reviewed. Ninety two cases recorded at age <50 years, 60 (65.2%, 95%CI: 54.6 - 74.8%) were infiltrating ductal carcinoma in 11(12.0%, 95% CI: 6.1-20.4%), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in 9 (9.8%, 95% CI: 4.6-17.8%), medullary carcinoma in 6 (6.5%, 85%CI: 2.4-13.6%), invasive lobular carcinoma in 4 (4.3%, 95%CI: 1.2-10.8%), mucinous carcinoma and poorly differentiated carcinoma in 2 cases (2.2%, 95%CI: 0.3-7.6%). At >50 years of age, 63 cases were recorded. Forty seven (74.6%, 95%CI: 62.0- 84.7%) cases were of infiltrating ductal carcinoma, ductal carcinoma in situ in 9 (14.3%, 95%CI: 6.7-25.4%), mucinous carcinoma in 5 (7.9%, 95%CI: 2.6-17.6%), medullary carcinoma (8.5%) and papillary carcinoma in 1 case each (1.6%, 95%CI: 0.0-8.5%). Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest histology at both age <50 years and >50 years.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology*
  8. Gooi BH, Premnath N, Manjit S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2004 Mar;59(1):112-4.
    PMID: 15535346
    The management of pulmonary metastasis from breast carcinoma is challenging and often consists of palliation of symptoms. Surgical resection of pulmonary metastasis is considered inappropriate in view of the disseminated nature of the disease and limited life expectancy. It can however be a worthwhile option if imaging, including bone scans rule out metastatic disease in other part of the body. We report a patient with pulmonary metastasis from breast carcinoma who was successfully treated with pulmonary wedge resection of the metastatic lesion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology*
  9. Jayaram G, Sthaneshwar P
    Diagn. Cytopathol., 2002 Apr;26(4):222-7.
    PMID: 11933267
    Breast lesions with a significant spindle cell or mesenchymal component are not commonly encountered in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic material and include a heterologous variety of benign and malignant conditions, with phyllodes tumors (PTs) being the foremost differential diagnostic consideration. This study comprises 28 tumors diagnosed histologically as PT in which FNAC material was available for review. Histological sections and cytological smears from these cases were retrieved and subjected to detailed morphological review. Cytological parameters assessed included ratio of stroma to epithelium, pattern characteristics and cytological characteristics of the stromal, and epithelial components and the background cells. Large and hypercellular stroma fragments, dissociated spindle and plump stromal cells, often accompanied by large, folded sheets of epithelium were cytological features that characterized PT. Smears from malignant PT showed predominantly or solely mesenchymal components. FNAC was a highly reliable procedure for the diagnosis of PT, giving an accuracy rate of 92.8%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology*
  10. Jayaram G, Looi LM, Yip CH
    Malays J Pathol, 1997 Jun;19(1):69-73.
    PMID: 10879245
    A 39-year-old female presented with a mobile 1.5 cm nodule in the right breast. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears stained with May Grunwald Giemsa were highly cellular with a monotonous population of dissociated and clustered tumour cells that showed a bland cytological appearance with cytoplasmic vacuolation and occasional signet ring forms. Intracellular and extracellular mucus was present. Histological study of the excised breast mass showed a secretory carcinoma. This is a rare breast neoplasm in which cytological features are characteristic enough to permit a specific diagnosis on needle aspirates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology*
  11. Yip CH, Jayaram G, Swain M
    Aust N Z J Surg, 2000 Feb;70(2):103-5.
    PMID: 10711470
    BACKGROUND: Granulomatous mastitis is a rare condition of the breast that can mimic a carcinoma. There are characteristic histological features, the most important of which is a predominantly lobular inflammatory process. It must be differentiated from known causes of granulomatous inflammation, such as tuberculosis.

    METHODS: In the present paper, the clinical and pathological features of 16 patients with granulomatous mastitis seen over a 3-year period in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, are described.

    RESULTS: A clinical suspicion of malignancy was present in 10 cases. One of the patients was nulliparous. One had an associated hyperprolactinaemia, while two had systemic lupus erythromatosis. One of the patients was pregnant at the time of presentation. Four patients had localized lumps excised, five were treated conservatively because the lesion was too extensive to resect, and seven patients required drainage procedures for abscess formation.

    CONCLUSION: Awareness of this condition is important because it mimics a carcinoma, and surgery may not be the best treatment for recurrent disease.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  12. Jayaram G, Gupta M, Lamba S
    Malays J Pathol, 1993 Dec;15(2):137-42.
    PMID: 8065175
    Forty-eight patients with breast carcinoma were subjected to four quadrant fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology examination of the ipsilateral and contralateral breast in an attempt to detect any accompanying benign proliferative lesion. Mastectomy of ipsilateral and open biopsy of contralateral breast provided material for histopathological study. Cytological evidence of epithelial proliferation was found in 8 (16.6%) cases which included atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH), lobular neoplasia in-situ (LNIS), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and proliferative disease without atypia (PDWA). In lobular proliferative lesions, cytological smears showed configurations of cells that resembled filled up or expanded lobular units. The cytology was not distinctive enough to distinguish the sub-types of lobular proliferations. Likewise, the presence of ductal alterations could be suggested by cytological study but the distinction of proliferative disease without atypia (PDWA) from atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) was not possible on a cytological basis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology*
  13. Ng KH, Bradley DA, Looi LM, Mahmood CS, Wood AK
    Appl Radiat Isot, 1993 Mar;44(3):511-6.
    PMID: 8472024
    Multi-elemental quantitative analyses of 15 paired samples of normal and malignant human breast tissue by instrumental neutron activation analysis are reported. The elements, Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Zn were detected. Significantly elevated concentration levels were found for Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, K, Na, Zn in malignant compared to normal tissue. Although the role of elemental composition in breast cancer is unclear, this finding may be of importance as another parameter for differentiating normal from malignant tissue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  14. Khajotia R, Poovaneswaran S, Pavadai T, Sabaratnam S, Khairan H
    Can Fam Physician, 2014 Feb;60(2):142-6.
    PMID: 24522677
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  15. Miao H, Hartman M, Bhoo-Pathy N, Lee SC, Taib NA, Tan EY, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(4):e93755.
    PMID: 24695692 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093755
    BACKGROUND: In Asia, up to 25% of breast cancer patients present with distant metastases at diagnosis. Given the heterogeneous survival probabilities of de novo metastatic breast cancer, individual outcome prediction is challenging. The aim of the study is to identify existing prognostic models for patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer and validate them in Asia.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review to identify prediction models for metastatic breast cancer. Models were validated in 642 women with de novo metastatic breast cancer registered between 2000 and 2010 in the Singapore Malaysia Hospital Based Breast Cancer Registry. Survival curves for low, intermediate and high-risk groups according to each prognostic score were compared by log-rank test and discrimination of the models was assessed by concordance statistic (C-statistic).
    RESULTS: We identified 16 prediction models, seven of which were for patients with brain metastases only. Performance status, estrogen receptor status, metastatic site(s) and disease-free interval were the most common predictors. We were able to validate nine prediction models. The capacity of the models to discriminate between poor and good survivors varied from poor to fair with C-statistics ranging from 0.50 (95% CI, 0.48-0.53) to 0.63 (95% CI, 0.60-0.66).
    CONCLUSION: The discriminatory performance of existing prediction models for de novo metastatic breast cancer in Asia is modest. Development of an Asian-specific prediction model is needed to improve prognostication and guide decision making.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  16. Taib NA
    World J Surg, 2015 Feb;39(2):548-9.
    PMID: 25446473 DOI: 10.1007/s00268-014-2872-9
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology*
  17. Zain NM, Seriramulu VP, Chelliah KK
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2016;17(7):3229-34.
    PMID: 27509955
    BACKGROUND: Bone mineral density (BMD) is a lifetime marker of estrogen in a woman's body and has been associated with increased breast cancer risk. Nonetheless the actual association is still debatable. Furthermore, estrogen is very crucial in maintaining human bone density and gradually decreases over age. A systematic search was conducted to assess any association of BMD with breast cancer risk factors among premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Review identification was performed through databases searching on MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS and 19 qualified studies were elected. The keywords used were "bone mineral density", "breast cancer", and "breast density".

    RESULTS: A total of 19 articles showed variation with the majority of the studies focused on postmenopausal and a few focused on premenopausal women. Overall there was no concensus on effects.

    CONCLUSIONS: An enormous effort is being undertaken by researchers to prove that BMD might be one of the significant risk factors for breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  18. Bhoo-Pathy NT, Inaida S, Tanaka S, Taib NA, Yip CH, Saad M, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol, 2017 06;48:56-61.
    PMID: 28371729 DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2017.03.007
    BACKGROUND: The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in women with T1N0M0 breast cancers is unclear. While gene expression-based prognostic assays may aid management of women with early estrogen receptor (ER) positive tumors, therapeutic decision-making in women with early stage ER negative tumors remains fraught with difficulties. We investigated the association between adjuvant chemotherapy and overall survival in women with T1N0M0, hormone receptor negative breast cancers.

    METHOD: All newly diagnosed breast cancer patients with node-negative and hormone receptor negative tumors measuring≤2cm at the University Malaya Medical Centre (Malaysia) from 1993 to 2013 were included. Mortality of patients with and without adjuvant chemotherapy were compared and adjusted for possible confounders using propensity score.

    RESULTS: Of 6732 breast cancer patients, 341 (5.1%) had small (≤2cm), node-negative and hormone receptor negative tumors at diagnosis. Among them, only 214 (62.8%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Five-year overall survival was 88.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 82.0%-94.2%) for patients receiving chemotherapy and 89.6% (95% CI: 85.1%-94.1%) for patients without chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was not associated with survival following adjustment for age, ethnicity, tumor size, tumor grade, HER2 status, lympho-vascular invasion, type of surgery and radiotherapy administration. However, chemotherapy was associated with a significant survival advantage (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.14-0.91) in a subgroup of women with high-grade tumors.

    CONCLUSION: Adjuvant chemotherapy does not appear to be associated with a survival benefit in women with T1N0M0, hormone receptor negative breast cancer except in those with high-grade tumors.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  19. Banik U, Parasuraman S, Adhikary AK, Othman NH
    J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res., 2017 Jul 19;36(1):98.
    PMID: 28724427 DOI: 10.1186/s13046-017-0566-5
    Worldwide breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. For many years clinicians and the researchers are examining and exploring various therapeutic modalities for breast cancer. Yet the disease has remained unconquered and the quest for cure is still going on. Present-day strategy of breast cancer therapy and prevention is either combination of a number of drugs or a drug that modulates multiple targets. In this regard natural products are now becoming significant options. Curcumin exemplifies a promising natural anticancer agent for this purpose. This review primarily underscores the modulatory effect of curcumin on the cancer hallmarks. The focus is its anticancer effect in the complex pathways of breast carcinogenesis. Curcumin modulates breast carcinogenesis through its effect on cell cycle and proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, cancer spread and angiogenesis. Largely the NFkB, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, MAPK and JAK/STAT are the key signaling pathways involved. The review also highlights the curcumin mediated modulation of tumor microenvironment, cancer immunity, breast cancer stem cells and cancer related miRNAs. Using curcumin as a therapeutic and preventive agent in breast cancer is perplexed by its diverse biological activity, much of which remains inexplicable. The information reviewed here should point toward potential scope of future curcumin research in breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology
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