Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 62 in total

  1. Suppiah S, Rahmat K, Rozalli FI, Azlan CA
    Clin Radiol, 2014 Feb;69(2):e110-1.
    PMID: 24183264 DOI: 10.1016/j.crad.2013.09.012
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/diagnosis*
  2. Rajan R, Abdullah N, Abdullah NMA, Mohd Kassim AY
    PMID: 28496362 DOI: 10.2147/BCTT.S126909
    Metaplastic breast carcinomas (MBCs) are rapidly growing tumors with histological heterogeneity, and triple negative receptor status. The aim of this case report is to highlight a case of advanced MBC with axillary artery infiltration leading to gangrene of the ipsilateral upper limb, in a young woman.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast
  3. Shahrudin MD
    Int Surg, 1997 Jul-Sep;82(3):269-74.
    PMID: 9372373
    Recent studies have demonstrated a reduction in the morbidity and mortality of pancreatic resection and improvement in the actuarial 5-year survival for patients with resected ductal adenocarcinoma. We reviewed the clinico-pathological characteristics of patients who underwent resection with curative intent for ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas between 1980 and 1993.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/mortality; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/surgery*
  4. Yip CH
    JAMA Surg, 2017 04 01;152(4):385.
    PMID: 28002571 DOI: 10.1001/jamasurg.2016.4752
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/surgery*
  5. Pau Ni IB, Zakaria Z, Muhammad R, Abdullah N, Ibrahim N, Aina Emran N, et al.
    Pathol. Res. Pract., 2010 Apr 15;206(4):223-8.
    PMID: 20097481 DOI: 10.1016/j.prp.2009.11.006
    Genomic and transcriptomic alterations that affect cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and invasion, commonly occur in breast oncogenesis. Epidemiological evidence has proven that the risk of breast cancer predisposition varies among different ethnicities. This study aims to identify the transcriptome changes that commonly occur during the transition of normal breast epithelium to carcinoma in three local ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians). The gene expression patterns of 43 breast carcinomas with 43 patient-matched normal breast tissues were investigated using Affymetrix U133A GeneChip (containing 22,283 probe sets targeting approximately 18,400 different transcripts) and analyzed with GeneSpring GX10. Our findings revealed a total of 33 significantly differentially expressed genes, which showed>2-fold change at a 99.9% confidence interval level (p<0.001). The significantly differentially expressed genes included CD24, CD36, CD9, TACSTD1, TACSTD2, HBB, LEP, LPL, AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3. Our results indicate that the vast majority of gene expression changes, from normal breast epithelial to carcinoma, found in our three major ethnic populations are similar to those in the Caucasian population. Further study of the differentially expressed genes identified in our present study is needed to search for potential breast tumor biomarkers. This will eventually help to improve the therapeutic and treatment strategies for breast cancer patients in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/genetics*; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/metabolism; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology
  6. Liang S, Singh M, Gam LH
    Cancer Biomark, 2010;8(6):319-30.
    PMID: 22072120 DOI: 10.3233/CBM-2011-0221
    Breast cancer is a leading cause of worldwide mortality in females. In Malaysia, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Of these, the Chinese had the most number of breast cancer cases, followed by the Indian and the Malay. The most common type of breast cancer is infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC). A proteomic approach was used to identify protein profile changes in cancerous tissues compared with the normal tissues, the tissues were collected from patients of three different ethnicities, i.e. Chinese, Malay and Indian. Ten differentially expressed hydrophobic proteins were identified. We had evaluated the potential of these proteins as biomarker for infiltrating ducal carcinoma (IDC) and the ethnic-specific expression of these proteins was also determined. The data showed that peroxiredoxin-2, heat shock protein 60, protein disulfide isomerase and calreticulin may serve as ethnic-related potential markers for either one or combination of Chinese, Malay and Indian cohorts as their expression levels were significantly high in the cancerous tissues compared to the normal tissues in the ethnic group tested.
    Publication year=2010-2011
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/ethnology; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/genetics; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/metabolism*
  7. Al-Joudi FS, Iskandar ZA, Hasnan J, Rusli J, Kamal Y, Imran AK, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2007 Jul;48(7):607-14.
    PMID: 17609820
    INTRODUCTION: Survivin is a 16.5-kDa intracellular protein that inhibits apoptosis and regulates cell division, and belongs to the inhibitors of apoptosis gene family. It appears to have an important role in regulating apoptosis at the cell cycle checkpoints. Survivin has been found to have a differential distribution in cancer compared to normal tissue, as it is over-expressed in malignant tumours.
    METHODS: In addition to the demographical analysis of the disease, data from 382 women with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast were collected from three hospitals in Northeast Malaysia, and analysed for survivin expression by immunohistochemistry.
    RESULTS: Invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast was found to be the most prevalent breast cancer type. Survivin was detected in 260 (68.1 percent) study cases. In addition, significant correlations have been shown between survivin expression on one hand, and tumour size and lymph node involvement on the other hand (p-value is less than 0.05). However, no significant correlations were found with other clinicopathological factors, such as tumour histological grade, tumour side, oestrogen and progesterone receptors. Nuclear expression of survivin was detected in 16.5 percent of the study cases, cytoplasmic expression was detected in 24.1 percent, and 27.5 percent of the cases expressed survivin in both nuclear and cytoplasmic locations simultaneously. The subcellular localisation of survivin was significantly correlated (p is less than 0.001) with the lymph node involvement indicating its value in predicting the aggressiveness of tumour cells, since it increases the resistance to apoptosis and promotes cell proliferation.
    CONCLUSION: This is the fi rst known report on survivin expression in cancer in West Malaysia and Southeast Asia. It emphasises the importance of the detection of survivin in breast cancer to aid in diagnosis, confirm malignancy, and to assess the disease progress and response to therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/ethnology; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/metabolism*; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology
  8. Ch'ng ES, Tuan Sharif SE, Jaafar H
    Virchows Arch., 2013 Mar;462(3):257-67.
    PMID: 23283409 DOI: 10.1007/s00428-012-1362-4
    Tumor-associated macrophages play a crucial role in breast cancer progression and tumor angiogenesis. However, evaluation of tumor-associated macrophages incorporating their histological locations is lacking. The aim of this study was to clarify whether macrophages in tumor stroma and macrophages in tumor cell nests have distinctive properties in relation to pertinent breast cancer clinicopathological parameters and tumor angiogenesis. In 94 human invasive breast ductal carcinomas, tumor-associated macrophages were immunostained with anti-CD68 antibody and counted or graded according to these histological locations. Microvessels were immunostained with anti-CD34 antibody and counted for microvessel density. We found that the presence of tumor stromal and tumor nest macrophages was closely correlated (p = 0.001). Both tumor stromal and tumor nest macrophages were associated with mitotic count (p = 0.001 and p = 0.037, respectively). However, only higher tumor stromal macrophage grades were associated with higher tumor grades (p = 0.004) and negative estrogen receptor status (p = 0.007). Multivariate analysis showed that tumors with a high mitotic count score (score 3 vs. scores 1 and 2) had a higher tumor stromal macrophage density (Grades III and IV) when adjusted for tumor size, tubule formation, and estrogen receptor status (odds ratio 3.41, p = 0.010). The tumor nest macrophage count significantly correlated with the microvessel density (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/blood supply; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology*
  9. Kaur S, Rahmat K, Chandran PA, Alli K, Aziz YF
    Singapore Med J, 2012 Nov;53(11):e240-3.
    PMID: 23192514
    The incidence of synchronous bilateral infiltrating breast cancer has been reported to be 2%. However, synchronous unilateral infiltrating ductal carcinoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma (ILC) are very rarely reported. We present a woman with palpable ILC who was later found to have synchronous well-circumscribed ductal carcinoma on further imaging. We also discuss the use of diagnostic approaches such as ultrasonography, mammography and histopathology. This case highlights the importance of careful assessment of concurrent lesions in the breast in the presence of an existing carcinoma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/complications*; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/diagnosis*
  10. Leong PP, Muhammad R, Ibrahim N, Cheong SK, Seow HF
    Med. Oncol., 2011 Mar;28(1):51-6.
    PMID: 20069393 DOI: 10.1007/s12032-009-9414-6
    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females in Malaysia. Attempts have been made to investigate the association between breast cancer and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types. However, data from those previous studies are highly variable. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between HLA-A types and clinicopathological factors in breast cancer. The frequencies of HLA-A type in 59 female patients with infiltrating ductal of the breast were determined by polymerase chain reaction method. HLA-A2/A30 and A2/A31 haplotype (5.1%; P = 0.045) as well as HLA-A30 (5.1%, P = 0.045) and A31 (6.8%; P = 0.020) allele were significant higher in the patients than controls (0%). HLA-A24 allele was negatively related to lymph node metastasis (r = -0.316; P = 0.021) whereas, A26 (r = -0.430; P = 0.001) and A36 (r = -0.430; P = 0.001) alleles were negatively correlated to distant metastasis in breast cancer. Negative correlations between HLA-A26/A36 (r = -0.430; P = 0.001), A2/A11 (r = -0.276; P = 0.044), A24/A34 (r = -0.430; P = 0.001) haplotypes and distant metastasis were identified. Interestingly, Her2 expression in breast carcinoma was negatively correlated to A11/24 haplotypes (r = -0.294; P = 0.034) but positively correlated to homozygous HLA-A24 (r = 0.396; P = 0.040). In conclusion, HLA-A2, -A30 and A31 were associated with breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/genetics; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/metabolism*
  11. Looi LM, Cheah PL, Yap SF
    Malays J Pathol, 1997 Jun;19(1):35-9.
    PMID: 10879240
    One hundred and twelve infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast were studied by the standard avidinbiotin complex immunoperoxidase method on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections, using a monoclonal antibody to c-erbB-2 oncoprotein. The same tumours were assessed and scored according to the Bloom and Richardson criteria into three histological grades. The distribution of tumours according to grade were: 8 Grade I, 34 Grade II and 70 Grade III. Forty-three (38.4%) tumours showed positive membrane staining for c-erbB-2 oncoprotein. These comprised 7 Grade II and 36 Grade III tumours with c-erbB-2 immunopositivity rates of 20.6% and 51.4% respectively. The oncoprotein was not expressed by Grade I tumours. This study shows a good correlation between c-erbB-2 expression and histological grade, a known prognostic indicator of invasive breast carcinoma. Because the c-erbB-2 oncogene has extensive structural homology to the epidermal growth factor receptor gene, its overexpression can be expected to result in more aggressive tumour behaviour. While it may be regarded as another indicator of poor prognosis breast cancers, its value in the selection of carcinomas less responsive to hormonal therapy and those more suitable for immunotherapy than chemotherapy has been mooted but remains to be clarified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/metabolism*; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology*
  12. Looi LM, Cheah PL
    Malays J Pathol, 1998 Jun;20(1):19-23.
    PMID: 10879259
    Eighty-six infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast were studied by the standard avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase method on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections, for oestrogen receptor (ER) protein and c-erbB-2 oncoprotein expression. They were categorized according to the modified Bloom and Richardson criteria into three histological grades. 21% tumours were ER positive while 44% were c-erbB-2 positive. Of ER positive tumours, 33.3% were c-erbB-2 positive whereas the c-erbB-2 positivity rate was much higher (47.1%) in ER negative tumours. Only 16% of c-erbB-2 positive tumours were ER positive while 25% of c-erbB-2 negative tumours were ER positive. This negative relationship between ER and c-erbB-2 expression was statistically significant (Mc Nemar's test, p < 0.005). The ER positivity rate did not vary significantly with histological grade. However, c-erbB-2 overexpression was significantly more prevalent in grade III tumours compared with grade I and II tumours (Chi-square test, p < 0.005). Since the c-erbB-2 oncogene has extensive structural homology to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, we expect that c-erbB-2 oncoprotein would share functional similarities with EGFR leading to both loss of oestrogen receptor and poor prognosis in breast cancer. Its overexpression can be expected to relate to more aggressive tumour proliferation and may explain its correlation with high histological grade, a known indicator of aggressive cancer behaviour. As there is no indication that ER protein activity contributes to advancement in histological grade, it would appear that cellular dedifferentiation precedes ER loss during malignant transformation. It has been mooted that ER positive breast cancers which also show c-erbB-2 oncoprotein overexpression have a poorer response to hormonal therapy. The use of this parameter in the routine assessment of breast cancer patients may identify subsets of patients for more aggressive therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/metabolism*; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology
  13. Reddy SC, Madhavan M, Mutum SS
    Ophthalmologica, 2000 Sep-Oct;214(5):368-72.
    PMID: 10965254 DOI: 10.1159/000027523
    Breast carcinoma is the most common primary tumor producing intraocular metastasis. Metastases to the iris and ciliary body are relatively rare. The authors report a case of a 61-year-old lady, operated for carcinoma of the left breast 3 years back, who presented with symptoms and signs of acute narrow-angle glaucoma in the right eye. A diffuse whitish plaque-like mass in the upper nasal quadrant of the iris with an episcleral nodule on the limbus in the corresponding area and all the signs of acute narrow-angle glaucoma were present in the right eye. Intraocular pressure was controlled medically. Fine-needle aspiration cytology from the episcleral nodule showed malignant cells. Histopathology of the excised nodule showed metastatic poorly differentiated carcinoma, and the cellular pattern was similar to the carcinoma of the breast. There was no other metastasis anywhere in the body. Fine-needle aspiration cytology from an external lesion of the eye is a less invasive and easier procedure than paracentesis to diagnose the metastatic nature of the lesions. The rare features in our case are the clinical presentation as acute glaucoma and the ocular structures being the first and only site of metastasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/complications; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/secondary*; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/therapy
  14. Mdpaiman N, Md Ali SA, Mdzin R, Meor Kamal MZ, Md Amin WA, Nallusamy M, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(2):e89172.
    PMID: 24586570 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089172
    Breast cancer estrogen receptor (ER) status is one of the strong additional factors in predicting response of patients towards hormonal treatment. The main aim of this study was to assess the morphological characteristics and proliferative activity using MIB-1(Ki-67) of estrogen receptor negative invasive breast ductal carcinoma (NOS type) as well as to correlate these features with clinicopathological data. We also aim to study the expression of c-erbB2 in ER negative breast tumors. High proliferative rate (MIB-1 above 20%) was observed in 63 (63.6%) of 99 ER negative tumors and that these tumors were associated with high expression of c-erbB2 (57.6%). We observed that MIB-1 is a reliable independent prognostic indicator for ER negative infiltrating ductal carcinoma in this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/metabolism*; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology*
  15. Ng CH, Pathy NB, Taib NA, Mun KS, Rhodes A, Yip CH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(4):1111-3.
    PMID: 22799290
    The ER-/PR+ breast tumor may be the result of a false ER negative result. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in patient and tumor characteristics of the ER-/PR+ phenotype in an Asian setting. A total of 2629 breast cancer patients were categorized on the basis of their age, ethnicity, tumor hormonal receptor phenotype, grade and histological type. There were 1230 (46.8%) ER+/PR+, 306 (11.6%) ER+/PR-, 122 (4.6%) ER-/PR+ and 972 (37%) ER-/PR-. ER-/PR+ tumors were 2.5 times more likely to be younger than 50 years at diagnosis (OR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.72-3.67). Compared to ER+/PR+ tumors, the ER-/ PR+ phenotype was twice more likely to be associated with grade 3 tumors (OR:2.02; 95%CI: 1.00-4.10). In contrast, compared to ER-/PR- tumors, the ER-/PR+ phenotype was 90% less likely to be associated with a grade 3 tumor (OR: 0.12; 95%CI:0.05-0.26), and more likely to have invasive lobular than invasive ductal histology (OR: 3.66; 95%CI: 1.47-9.11). These results show that the ER-/PR+ phenotype occurs in a younger age group and is associated with intermediate histopathological characteristics compared to ER+/PR+ and ER-/PR- tumors. This may imply that it is a distinct entity and not a technical artifact.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/metabolism*; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology*
  16. Tan GH, Taib NA, Choo WY, Teo SH, Yip CH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2009 Jul-Sep;10(3):395-8.
    PMID: 19640180
    INTRODUCTION: Triple negative (TN) breast cancers are defined by a lack of expression of oestrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors. They tend to have a higher grade, with a poorer outcome compared to non-TN breast cancers.
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of TN breast cancer in an Asian country consisting of Malays, Chinese and Indians, and to determine the factors associated with this type of breast cancer.
    RESULTS: The incidence of TN breast cancer in the University Malaya Medical Center is 17.6%. There is no significant difference amongst the Malays, Chinese and Indians. In bivariate analysis, TN breast cancer was significantly associated with younger age and Grade 3. However, in multivariate analysis using logistic regression, TN breast cancer was only associated with Grade 3.
    CONCLUSION: The incidence of TN breast cancer in our study is similar to other studies, and associated with a higher grade.
    Study site: University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/metabolism; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology*
  17. Al-Shibli SM, Amjad NM, Al-Kubaisi MK, Mizan S
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2017 Jan 22;482(4):1102-1106.
    PMID: 27914811 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.11.165
    Leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) have long been found associated with breast cancer. So far no high-resolution method such as electron microscopy has been used to investigate the subcellular localization of leptin and leptin receptor in breast cancer. We collected cancer and non-cancer breast tissues from 51 women with invasive ductal breast cancer. Leptin and leptin receptor in the tissues were estimated using immunohistochemistry (IHC). LEP and LEPR were localized at subcellular level by immunocytochemistry (ICC) using ultra-fine gold particle conjugated antibody, and visualized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). IHC showed high presence of LEP and LEPR in 65% and 67% respectively of the breast cancer samples, 100% and 0% respectively of the adipose tissue samples, and no high presence in the non-cancer breast tissue samples. On TEM views both LEP and LEPR were found highly concentrated within the nucleus of the cancer cells, indicating that nucleus is the principal seat of action. However, presence of high concentration of LEP does not necessarily prove its over-expression, as often concluded, because LEP could be internalized from outside by LEPR in the cells. In contrast, LEPR is definitely over-expressed in the ductal breast cancer cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that over-expression of LEPR, rather than that of LEP has a fundamental role in breast carcinogenesis in particular, and probably for LEP-LEPR associated tumors in general.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/metabolism; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/ultrastructure
  18. Ng KH, Ong SH, Bradley DA, Looi LM
    Appl Radiat Isot, 1997 Jan;48(1):105-9.
    PMID: 9022216
    Discriminant analysis of six trace element concentrations measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in 26 paired-samples of malignant and histologically normal human breast tissues shows the technique to be a potentially valuable clinical tool for making malignant-normal classification. Nonparametric discriminant analysis is performed for the data obtained. Linear and quadratic discriminant analyses are also carried out for comparison. For this data set a formal analysis shows that the elements which may be useful in distinguishing between malignant and normal tissues are Ca, Rb and Br, providing correct classification for 24 out of 26 normal samples and 22 out of 26 malignant samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/diagnosis; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/chemistry
  19. Tan PH, Lui WO, Ong P, Lau LC, Tao M, Chong Y
    Cancer Genet. Cytogenet., 2000 Aug;121(1):61-6.
    PMID: 10958943
    Tumor cytogenetic analysis from 27 patients with breast cancer diagnosed at the Singapore General Hospital revealed complex karyotypic aberrations in 12 cases. The study group comprised 25 women and 2 men, ranging in age from 33 to 78 years (median 52 years). Ethnic distribution consisted of 22 Chinese, 3 Malaysian, and 2 Indian patients. Pathologic assessment disclosed 24 invasive ductal, 2 invasive mucinous, and 1 mixed invasive mucinous and ductal carcinomas. Histologic grading showed 3 grade 1, 10 grade 2, and 12 grade 3 tumors; 2 cancers were not graded, because they had been subjected to prior chemotherapy. Tumor sizes ranged from 1.5 to 10 cm (median 3 cm). Eleven cases were axillary node negative, whereas the remaining 16 node-positive cancers affected as many as 3 nodes in 8 cases and 4 or more nodes in another 8. Twenty cases demonstrated estrogen-receptor positivity, and 8 cases progesterone-receptor positivity. The spectrum of cytogenetic abnormalities involved chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 11, 16, and 17 and ranged from gains and deletions of both long and short arms, trisomy, monosomy, and other rearrangements. There was a trend toward the presence of karyotypic abnormalities in tumors of higher grade.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/genetics; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology
  20. Ibrahim NI, Dahlui M, Aina EN, Al-Sadat N
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(5):2213-8.
    PMID: 22901196
    INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, breast cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in women. However, the survival rate varies across regions at averages of 73%and 57% in the developed and developing countries, respectively.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the survival rate of breast cancer among the women of Malaysia and characteristics of the survivors.

    METHOD: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on secondary data obtained from the Breast Cancer Registry and medical records of breast cancer patients admitted to Hospital Kuala Lumpur from 2005 to 2009. Survival data were validated with National Birth and Death Registry. Statistical analysis applied logistic regression, the Cox proportional hazard model, the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test.

    RESULTS: A total of 868 women were diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2005 and December 2009, comprising 58%, 25% and 17% Malays, Chinese and Indians, respectively. The overall survival rate was 43.5% (CI 0.573-0.597), with Chinese, Indians and Malays having 5 year survival rates of 48.2% (CI 0.444-0.520), 47.2% (CI 0.432-0.512) and 39.7% (CI 0.373-0.421), respectively (p<0.05). The survival rate was lower as the stages increased, with the late stages were mostly seen among the Malays (46%), followed by Chinese (36%) and Indians (34%). Size of tumor>3.0cm; lymph node involvement, ERPR, and HER 2 status, delayed presentation and involvement of both breasts were among other factors that were associated with poor survival.

    CONCLUSIONS: The overall survival rate of Malaysian women with breast cancer was lower than the western figures with Malays having the lowest because they presented at late stage, after a long duration of symptoms, had larger tumor size, and had more lymph nodes affected. There is an urgent need to conduct studies on why there is delay in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer women in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/mortality*; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/epidemiology; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/therapy
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