Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 151 in total

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  1. Ching HC, Naidu R, Seong MK, Har YC, Taib NA
    Int. J. Oncol., 2011 Sep;39(3):621-33.
    PMID: 21687935 DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2011.1081
    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, marked by extensive chromosomal aberrations. In this study, we aimed to explicate the underlying chromosomal copy number (CN) alterations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) implicated in a cohort of Malaysian hospital-based primary breast carcinoma samples using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array platform. The analysis was conducted by hybridizing the extracted DNA of 70 primary breast carcinomas and 37 normal peripheral blood samples to the Affymetrix 250K Sty SNP arrays. Locus-specific CN aberrations and LOH were statistically summarized using the binary segmentation algorithm and hidden Markov model. Selected genes from the SNP array analysis were also validated using quantitative real-time PCR. The merging of CN and LOH data fabricated distinctive integrated alteration profiles, which were comprised of finely demarcated minimal sites of aberrations. The most prevalent gains (≥ 30%) were detected at the 8q arm: 8q23.1, 8q23.3, 8q24.11, 8q24.13, 8q24.21, 8q24.22, 8q24.23 and 8q24.3, whilst the most ubiquitous losses (≥ 20%) were noted at the 8p12, 8p21.1, 8p21.2, 8p21.1-p21.2, 8p21.3, 8p22, 8p23.1, 8p23.1‑p23.2, 8p23.3, 17p11.2, 17p12, 17p11.2-p12, 17p13.1 and 17p13.2 regions. Copy-neutral LOH was characterized as the most prevailing LOH event, in which the most frequent distributions (≥ 30%) were revealed at 3p21.31, 5q33.2, 12q24.12, 12q24.12‑q24.13 and 14q23.1. These findings offer compre-hensive genome-wide views on breast cancer genomic changes, where the most recurrent gain, loss and copy-neutral LOH events were harboured within the 8q24.21, 8p21.1 and 14q23.1 loci, respectively. This will facilitate the uncovering of true driver genes pertinent to breast cancer biology and the develop-ment of prospective therapeutics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*
  2. Tan YO, Han S, Lu YS, Yip CH, Sunpaweravong P, Jeong J, et al.
    Cancer, 2010 Dec 1;116(23):5348-57.
    PMID: 20715159 DOI: 10.1002/cncr.25476
    Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor-related gene ErbB2 occurs in 18% to 25% of patients with breast cancer in Western countries and is associated with a poor prognosis. The prevalence of ErbB2-positive tumors in Asia is unclear, partly because data are limited. The objective of this review was to summarize the reported prevalence of ErbB2-positive tumors from a large sample of Asian patients and to examine ErbB2 assessment methods in Asia. From searches of MEDLINE, local language journals, and local and international conference proceedings as well as locoregional breast cancer experts' recommendations, the authors selected up to 5 studies each from India, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand that reported ErbB2 results based on assessment with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The reported prevalence of ErbB2-positive tumors in 22 studies on 24,671 patients, of whom 14,398 patients were assessed for ErbB2 status, varied widely (range, 6%-65%) as did the assessment methods used. Most studies (n=21) used IHC to assess ErbB2 status, but definitions for positivity varied. When robust assessment methods were used, the median prevalence was 19% based on strong IHC staining (IHC3+; n=9812 patients) and 25% based on FISH (n=681 patients). Data on the prevalence of ErbB2-positive breast cancer in Asia are limited. The current survey indicated that the prevalence in Asia may be similar to that in Western countries; thus, up to 1 in 4 Asian patients with breast cancer potentially could benefit from ErbB2-targeted treatment. A standard, reliable ErbB2 assessment method available to patients across Asia is urgently required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*
  3. Hasmad HN, Sivanandan K, Lee V, Yip CH, Mohd Taib NA, Teo SH
    Clin. Genet., 2015 Apr;87(4):392-4.
    PMID: 25066186 DOI: 10.1111/cge.12451
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*
  4. Hasanpourghadi M, Pandurangan AK, Mustafa MR
    Pharmacol. Res., 2018 02;128:376-388.
    PMID: 28923544 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2017.09.009
    Carcinogenesis, a multi-step phenomenon, characterized by alterations at genetic level and affecting the main intracellular pathways controlling cell growth and development. There are growing number of evidences linking oncogenes to the induction of malignancies, especially breast cancer. Modulations of oncogenes lead to gain-of-function signals in the cells and contribute to the tumorigenic phenotype. These signals yield a large number of proteins that cause cell growth and inhibit apoptosis. Transcription factors such as STAT, p53, NF-κB, c-JUN and FOXM1, are proteins that are conserved among species, accumulate in the nucleus, bind to DNA and regulate the specific genes targets. Oncogenic transcription factors resulting from the mutation or overexpression following aberrant gene expression relay the signals in the nucleus and disrupt the transcription pattern. Activation of oncogenic transcription factors is associated with control of cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and cell differentiation. Among different cancer types, breast cancer is one of top ten cancers worldwide. There are different subtypes of breast cancer cell-lines such as non-aggressive MCF-7 and aggressive and metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells, which are identified with distinct molecular profile and different levels of oncogenic transcription factor. For instance, MDA-MB-231 carries mutated and overexpressed p53 with its abnormal, uncontrolled downstream signalling pathway that account for resistance to several anticancer drugs compared to MCF-7 cells with wild-type p53. Appropriate enough, inhibition of oncogenic transcription factors has become a potential target in discovery and development of anti-tumour drugs against breast cancer. Plants produce diverse amount of organic metabolites. Universally, these metabolites with biological activities are known as "natural products". The chemical structure and function of natural products have been studied since 1850s. Investigating these properties leaded to recognition of their molecular effects as anticancer drugs. Numerous natural products extracted from plants, fruits, mushrooms and mycelia, show potential inhibitory effects against several oncogenic transcription factors in breast cancer. Natural compounds that target oncogenic transcription factors have increased the number of candidate therapeutic agents. This review summarizes the current findings of natural products in targeting specific oncogenic transcription factors in breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics
  5. Tung J, Tew LS, Hsu YM, Khung YL
    Sci Rep, 2017 04 11;7(1):793.
    PMID: 28400564 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-00912-3
    Measuring at ~30 nm, a fully customizable holliday junction DNA nanoconstruct, was designed to simultaneously carry three unmodified SiRNA strands for apoptosis gene knockout in cancer cells without any assistance from commercial transfection kits. In brief, a holliday junction structure was intelligently designed to present one arm with a cell targeting aptamer (AS1411) while the remaining three arms to carry different SiRNA strands by means of DNA/RNA duplex for inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. By carrying the three SiRNA strands (AKT, MDM2 and Survivin) into triple negative breast MDA-MB-231 cancer cells, cell number had reduced by up to ~82% within 24 hours solely from one single administration of 32 picomoles. In the immunoblotting studies, up-elevation of phosphorylated p53 was observed for more than 8 hours while the three genes of interest were suppressed by nearly half by the 4-hour mark upon administration. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate high cell selectivity of the nanoconstruct and did not exhibit usual morphological stress induced from liposomal-based transfection agents. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this system represents the first of its kind in current literature utilizing a short and highly customizable holliday DNA junction to carry SiRNA for apoptosis studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/genetics*
  6. Loh HY, Norman BP, Lai KS, Rahman NMANA, Alitheen NBM, Osman MA
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Oct 06;20(19).
    PMID: 31590453 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20194940
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules which function as critical post-transcriptional gene regulators of various biological functions. Generally, miRNAs negatively regulate gene expression by binding to their selective messenger RNAs (mRNAs), thereby leading to either mRNA degradation or translational repression, depending on the degree of complementarity with target mRNA sequences. Aberrant expression of these miRNAs has been linked etiologically with various human diseases including breast cancer. Different cellular pathways of breast cancer development such as cell proliferation, apoptotic response, metastasis, cancer recurrence and chemoresistance are regulated by either the oncogenic miRNA (oncomiR) or tumor suppressor miRNA (tsmiR). In this review, we highlight the current state of research into miRNA involved in breast cancer, with particular attention to articles published between the years 2000 to 2019, using detailed searches of the databases PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus. The post-transcriptional gene regulatory roles of various dysregulated miRNAs in breast cancer and their potential as therapeutic targets are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*
  7. Rebbeck TR, Mitra N, Wan F, Sinilnikova OM, Healey S, McGuffog L, et al.
    JAMA, 2015 Apr 07;313(13):1347-61.
    PMID: 25849179 DOI: 10.1001/jama.2014.5985
    IMPORTANCE: Limited information about the relationship between specific mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and cancer risk exists.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify mutation-specific cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1/2.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Observational study of women who were ascertained between 1937 and 2011 (median, 1999) and found to carry disease-associated BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The international sample comprised 19,581 carriers of BRCA1 mutations and 11,900 carriers of BRCA2 mutations from 55 centers in 33 countries on 6 continents. We estimated hazard ratios for breast and ovarian cancer based on mutation type, function, and nucleotide position. We also estimated RHR, the ratio of breast vs ovarian cancer hazard ratios. A value of RHR greater than 1 indicated elevated breast cancer risk; a value of RHR less than 1 indicated elevated ovarian cancer risk.

    EXPOSURES: Mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2.

    MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Breast and ovarian cancer risks.

    RESULTS: Among BRCA1 mutation carriers, 9052 women (46%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 2317 (12%) with ovarian cancer, 1041 (5%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 7171 (37%) without cancer. Among BRCA2 mutation carriers, 6180 women (52%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 682 (6%) with ovarian cancer, 272 (2%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 4766 (40%) without cancer. In BRCA1, we identified 3 breast cancer cluster regions (BCCRs) located at c.179 to c.505 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.22-1.74; P = 2 × 10(-6)), c.4328 to c.4945 (BCCR2; RHR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.78; P = .04), and c. 5261 to c.5563 (BCCR2', RHR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.22-1.55; P = 6 × 10(-9)). We also identified an ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR) from c.1380 to c.4062 (approximately exon 11) with RHR = 0.62 (95% CI, 0.56-0.70; P = 9 × 10(-17)). In BRCA2, we observed multiple BCCRs spanning c.1 to c.596 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06-2.78; P = .03), c.772 to c.1806 (BCCR1'; RHR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.10-2.40; P = .01), and c.7394 to c.8904 (BCCR2; RHR = 2.31; 95% CI, 1.69-3.16; P = .00002). We also identified 3 OCCRs: the first (OCCR1) spanned c.3249 to c.5681 that was adjacent to c.5946delT (6174delT; RHR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.44-0.60; P = 6 × 10(-17)). The second OCCR spanned c.6645 to c.7471 (OCCR2; RHR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.41-0.80; P = .001). Mutations conferring nonsense-mediated decay were associated with differential breast or ovarian cancer risks and an earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Breast and ovarian cancer risks varied by type and location of BRCA1/2 mutations. With appropriate validation, these data may have implications for risk assessment and cancer prevention decision making for carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*
  8. Michailidou K, Beesley J, Lindstrom S, Canisius S, Dennis J, Lush MJ, et al.
    Nat. Genet., 2015 Apr;47(4):373-80.
    PMID: 25751625 DOI: 10.1038/ng.3242
    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and large-scale replication studies have identified common variants in 79 loci associated with breast cancer, explaining ∼14% of the familial risk of the disease. To identify new susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 GWAS, comprising 15,748 breast cancer cases and 18,084 controls together with 46,785 cases and 42,892 controls from 41 studies genotyped on a 211,155-marker custom array (iCOGS). Analyses were restricted to women of European ancestry. We generated genotypes for more than 11 million SNPs by imputation using the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel, and we identified 15 new loci associated with breast cancer at P < 5 × 10(-8). Combining association analysis with ChIP-seq chromatin binding data in mammary cell lines and ChIA-PET chromatin interaction data from ENCODE, we identified likely target genes in two regions: SETBP1 at 18q12.3 and RNF115 and PDZK1 at 1q21.1. One association appears to be driven by an amino acid substitution encoded in EXO1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*
  9. Yip CH, Rhodes A
    Future Oncol, 2014 Nov;10(14):2293-301.
    PMID: 25471040 DOI: 10.2217/fon.14.110
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. The majority of breast cancers show overexpression of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs). The development of drugs to target these hormone receptors, such as tamoxifen, has brought about significant improvement in survival for women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancers. Since information about ER and PR is vital for patient management, quality assurance is important to ensure accurate testing. In recent guidelines, the recommended definition of ER and PR positivity is 1% or more of cells that stain positive. Semiquantitative assessment of ER and PR is important for prognosis and, hence, management. Even with the development of genomic tests, hormone receptor status remains the most significant predictive and prognostic biomarker.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics
  10. Ahmad FK, Deris S, Othman NH
    J Biomed Inform, 2012 Apr;45(2):350-62.
    PMID: 22179053 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbi.2011.11.015
    Understanding the mechanisms of gene regulation during breast cancer is one of the most difficult problems among oncologists because this regulation is likely comprised of complex genetic interactions. Given this complexity, a computational study using the Bayesian network technique has been employed to construct a gene regulatory network from microarray data. Although the Bayesian network has been notified as a prominent method to infer gene regulatory processes, learning the Bayesian network structure is NP hard and computationally intricate. Therefore, we propose a novel inference method based on low-order conditional independence that extends to the case of the Bayesian network to deal with a large number of genes and an insufficient sample size. This method has been evaluated and compared with full-order conditional independence and different prognostic indices on a publicly available breast cancer data set. Our results suggest that the low-order conditional independence method will be able to handle a large number of genes in a small sample size with the least mean square error. In addition, this proposed method performs significantly better than other methods, including the full-order conditional independence and the St. Gallen consensus criteria. The proposed method achieved an area under the ROC curve of 0.79203, whereas the full-order conditional independence and the St. Gallen consensus criteria obtained 0.76438 and 0.73810, respectively. Furthermore, our empirical evaluation using the low-order conditional independence method has demonstrated a promising relationship between six gene regulators and two regulated genes and will be further investigated as potential breast cancer metastasis prognostic markers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*
  11. Razif SM, Sulaiman S, Hanie SS, Aina EN, Rohaizak M, Fuad I, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2011 Aug;66(3):220-6.
    PMID: 22111444 MyJurnal
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. This study aimed to determine the reproductive for premenopausal breast cancer risk in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A case-control study was conducted in 216 histopathologically confirmed cases of premenopausal breast cancer and 216 community-based controls that were matched by age within a 5-year period and ethnicity. The results of this study showed that premenopausal breast cancer risks were strongly related to parity, number of live births and family history of breast cancer. Premenopausal women with these known reproductive and family history risk factors should take extra measures to undergo appropriate screening method for early detection of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics
  12. Yoon SY, Thong MK, Taib NA, Yip CH, Teo SH
    Fam. Cancer, 2011 Jun;10(2):199-205.
    PMID: 21318382 DOI: 10.1007/s10689-011-9420-7
    Genetic counseling (GC) and genetic testing are vital risk management strategies in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndromes. Hitherto, cancer genetic testing amongst Asians has been described only in developed and high-income Asian countries. We studied the uptake and acceptance of GC and genetic testing services to Asian BRCA carriers in a middle-income country. A total of 363 patients were tested by full sequencing and large rearrangement analysis of both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in the Malaysian Breast Cancer (MyBrCa) Genetic Study. Of these, 49 index patients (13.5%) were found to carry deleterious mutations. GC pre- and post- result disclosures were provided and these groups of patients and their families were studied. GC and genetic testing were accepted by 82% of Malaysian patients at high risk for HBOC syndromes. However, risk assessment was limited by large, geographically dispersed, often polygamous or polyandrous families, and the lack of complete cancer registry. Cultural taboos about cancer diagnoses, social marginalization and lack of regulatory control of genetic discrimination were significant concerns. Only 78% of index patients informed their families of their risks and 11% of relatives came forward when offered free counseling and testing. Even when GC and genetic testing are provided at no cost, there remain significant societal and regulatory barriers to effective cancer genetic services in this underserved Asian population. Families believe there is a need for regulatory protection against genetic discrimination. Further studies are needed in the area of increasing awareness about the potential benefits of GC and genetic testing in Asians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*
  13. Kamil M, Khalid I, Hashim H, Biswas M, Kaur G, Islam R
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2010 Apr;20(4):250-2.
    PMID: 20392401 DOI: 04.2010/JCPSP.250252
    To determine the association between histological grade of tumour and estrogen progesterone receptors (ER/PR) expression in unselected invasive carcinoma of breast in Malaysian patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*
  14. Leong PP, Muhammad R, Ibrahim N, Cheong SK, Seow HF
    Med. Oncol., 2011 Mar;28(1):51-6.
    PMID: 20069393 DOI: 10.1007/s12032-009-9414-6
    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females in Malaysia. Attempts have been made to investigate the association between breast cancer and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types. However, data from those previous studies are highly variable. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between HLA-A types and clinicopathological factors in breast cancer. The frequencies of HLA-A type in 59 female patients with infiltrating ductal of the breast were determined by polymerase chain reaction method. HLA-A2/A30 and A2/A31 haplotype (5.1%; P = 0.045) as well as HLA-A30 (5.1%, P = 0.045) and A31 (6.8%; P = 0.020) allele were significant higher in the patients than controls (0%). HLA-A24 allele was negatively related to lymph node metastasis (r = -0.316; P = 0.021) whereas, A26 (r = -0.430; P = 0.001) and A36 (r = -0.430; P = 0.001) alleles were negatively correlated to distant metastasis in breast cancer. Negative correlations between HLA-A26/A36 (r = -0.430; P = 0.001), A2/A11 (r = -0.276; P = 0.044), A24/A34 (r = -0.430; P = 0.001) haplotypes and distant metastasis were identified. Interestingly, Her2 expression in breast carcinoma was negatively correlated to A11/24 haplotypes (r = -0.294; P = 0.034) but positively correlated to homozygous HLA-A24 (r = 0.396; P = 0.040). In conclusion, HLA-A2, -A30 and A31 were associated with breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics
  15. Naidu R, Har YC, Taib NA
    Oncol. Res., 2009;18(2-3):65-71.
    PMID: 20066896
    The genotype analysis of the Gly and Arg allele at codon 388 of fibroblast growth factor receptor-4 (FGFR4) gene was evaluated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method in a hospital-based Malaysian population. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 387 breast cancer patients and 252 normal and healthy women who had no history of any malignancy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between the FGFR4 Gly388Arg polymorphism and breast cancer risk as well as clinicopathological parameters of the patients. The Gly/Gly, Gly/Arg, Arg/Arg, and Arg allele genotypes were detected in 46.3%, 44.4%, 9.3%, and 53.7% of breast cancer cases, respectively. The distribution of genotype (p = 0.204) and allele (p = 0.086) frequencies of FGFR4 polymorphism were not significantly different between the breast cancer cases and normal individuals. Women who were Arg/ Arg homozygotes (OR = 1.714, 95% CI 0.896-3.278), Gly/Arg heterozygotes (OR = 1.205, 95% CI 0.863-1.683), carriers of Arg allele genotype (OR = 1.269, 95% CI 0.921-1.750), or Arg allele (OR = 1.246, 95% CI 0.970-1.602) were not associated with breast cancer risk. The Arg allele genotype was significantly associated with lymph node metastases (p = 0.001) but not with other clinicopathological parameters. Our findings suggest that the polymorphic variant at codon 388 of FGFR4 gene does not confer increased risk to breast cancer development but it may be a potential genetic marker for tumor prognosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*
  16. Thirthagiri E, Cheong LS, Yip CH, Teo SH
    Fam. Cancer, 2009;8(4):355-8.
    PMID: 19399639 DOI: 10.1007/s10689-009-9244-x
    A truncating mutation (1100delC) in the cell cycle checkpoint kinase-2 gene, CHEK2, has been identified as a risk factor for familial and sporadic breast cancer in some Northern and Western European populations. However, the prevalence of CHEK2*1100delC in breast cancer appears to be population dependent. We analysed the prevalence of CHEK2*1100delC in 668 breast cancer cases, of which 542 were invasive breast cancers, from a hospital-based cohort of breast cancer patients from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The variant was not found in any patients in this cohort, suggesting that CHEK2*1100delC is rare in our population, and unlikely to contribute significantly to risk to breast cancer among the Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups in Malaysia. This suggests that screening for this allele should not be routinely conducted in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*
  17. Ching-Shian Leong V, Jabal MF, Leong PP, Abdullah MA, Gul YA, Seow HF
    Cancer Genet. Cytogenet., 2008 Dec;187(2):74-9.
    PMID: 19027487 DOI: 10.1016/j.cancergencyto.2008.07.005
    Somatic mutations of phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha; PIK3CA gene have been reported in several types of human cancers. The majority of the PIK3CA mutations map to the three "hot spots" - E542 K and E545 K in the helical (exon 9) and H1047R in the kinase (exon 20) domains of the p110alpha. These hot spot mutations lead to a gain of function in PI3 K signaling. We aimed to determine the frequency of PIK3CA mutations in the three most common Malaysian cancers. In this study, we assessed the genetic alterations in the PIK3CA gene in a series of 20 breast carcinomas, 24 colorectal carcinomas, 27 nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC), and 5 NPC cell lines. We performed mutation analysis of the PIK3CA gene by genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and followed by DNA direct sequencing in exons 9 and 20. No mutations were detected in any of the 24 colorectal and 27 NPC samples, but one hot spot mutation located at exon 20 was found in a NPC cell line, SUNE1. Interestingly, PIK3CA somatic mutations were present in 6/20 (30%) breast carcinomas. Two of the six mutations, H1047R, have been reported previously as a hot spot mutation. Only one out of three hot spot mutations were identified in breast tumor samples. The remaining four mutations were novel. Our data showed that a higher incidence rate of PIK3CA mutations was present in Malaysian breast cancers as compared to colorectal and nasopharyngeal tumor tissues. Our findings also indicate that PIK3CA mutations play a pivotal role in activation of the PI3 K signaling pathway in breast cancer, and specific inhibitors of PIK3CA could be useful for breast cancer treatment in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*
  18. Yip CH, Taib NA, Choo WY, Rampal S, Thong MK, Teo SH
    World J Surg, 2009 Oct;33(10):2077-81.
    PMID: 19649760 DOI: 10.1007/s00268-009-0146-8
    Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 confer an increased risk to breast and other cancers, but to date there have only been limited numbers of studies of BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated cancers among Asians. Malaysia is a multiracial country with three main races: Malays, Chinese, Indians. We determined whether tumor pathologic features and clinical features differ in patients with and without BRCA mutations in this Asian population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*
  19. Naidu R, Har YC, Taib NA
    Neoplasma, 2009;56(5):441-7.
    PMID: 19580347
    The C1772T, G1790A and C111A polymorphisms of Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) gene were analyzed in a hospital-based Malaysian population using PCR-RFLP method. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples collected from 410 breast cancer patients and 275 normal and healthy women. We investigated the association between HIF-1alpha polymorphisms and breast cancer risk, and clinico-pathological parameters in the population. The genotype and allele frequencies of C1772T (P=0.0093 vs P=0.0024) polymorphism were significantly different between the breast cancer cases and normal subjects but similar association was not observed for G1790A (P>0.05) and C111A (P>0.05) polymorphisms, respectively. Women who were CT heterozygotes (OR=1.51; 95% CI, 1.01-2.25), TT homozygotes (OR=4.03; 95% CI, 1.09-17.60) and carriers of T allele genotype (OR=1.65; 95% CI, 1.13-2.43) were significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Significant relationship was observed also between T allele and breast cancer risk (OR=1.69; 95% CI, 1.20-2.40). Clinico-pathological analysis showed that 1772T allele genotype was significantly associated with nodal metastases (P=0.0478) but independent of ER status, tumor grade and patients' age (P>0.05). Our observations suggest that the polymorphic allele of C1772T may be associated with increased risk of developing breast cancer, and presence of 1772T allele may be a useful genetic marker for tumor prognosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*
  20. Al-Joudi FS, Iskandar ZA, Rusli J
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Jun;63(2):96-9.
    PMID: 18942291
    The p53 gene is a tumour suppressor gene that encodes a 393-amino-acid nuclear DNA-binding phosphoprotein. The significance of p53 detection is that p53 mutation is linked with chemo-resistance and transformation to more aggressive disease in a large number of tumour types and it was confirmed that mutant p53 is involved in neoplastic transformations. In addition, the expression of p53 has been closely correlated with clinicopathological findings. Since breast cancer has been reported as one of the most frequent malignancies in women in Malaysia, the expression of p53 was studied in 382 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, obtained from three major hospitals in the North-East States of Malaysia. The study utilized an enzyme immunohistochemistry assay for the detection of p53. It was found that p53 was expressed in 29.6% of all the study cases. Furthermore, its expression was significantly correlated with the age and the clinical grading of the disease. No significant statistical correlations were depicted with lymph node status, tumour size, side of tumour, and expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors. Nevertheless, knowledge of the p53 status may be valuable in making clinical decisions regarding diagnosis, prognosis and therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*
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