The aims of this research were to investigate the present beverage choice preference of school
children and to examine the most preferred type of milk that is available in the market. As well as to determine the effect of personal and environmental factors on children’s intention to consume milk and its comparison between rural and urban area of Selangor. A total of 389 of 5th grade primary school children were selected in this study. This research was supported by social cognitive theory. Multiple linear regression, Pearson productmoment correlation, and cross-tabulation were used for forecasting the factors affecting to consumption of milk. It was found that the preferred beverages of children were: Mineral water, Milo, fruit juice, milk, yoghurt, Ribena, tea and soft drinks and it was the same amongst children in urban and rural areas. Among different types of milk, children preferred flavored milk rather than plain milk. Based on the findings, personal factors were more effective than environmental factors. To increase milk intake among children, marketers need to focus and strengthen the acceptability of milk and increase consumption by altering perception of milk advertisements. This article also profiled the children who are likely to drink milk based on personal and environmental factors in different areas.
Although the Halal concept has not been a major element among non-Muslim consumers living in an Islamic country, whether the non-Muslim consumers are aware of the underlying advantages that come with Halal food products or their viewpoints arising from their religious belief, are some intriguing questions that need to be answered. Thus the objective of the study explore the underlying determinants that are likely to influence non-Muslim consumers’ perceptions and attitudes towards Halal concept and Halal food products in Malaysia in lieu of new paradigm in emerging global issues on sustainability, environmental, food safety and animal welfare. A survey was conducted in the Klang Valley where 400 non-Muslim respondents were interviewed via structured questionnaires to gather information on their awareness and attitude towards Halal food products in the Malaysian food market. Descriptive statistic was used to identify the socio-economic/ demographic characteristics and attitudes of the respondents toward the Halal food principles. The logit model
was used to determine the extent to which selected socio-economic/demographic characteristics influenced
the respondents’ attitude and understanding on Halal principles and Halal food products. The results of this
study suggest that non-Muslim consumers are aware of the existence of Halal food, Halal principles and the
advantages of Halal way in slaughtering the animals. This can be shown by their significant awareness that
Halal is not only the way Muslim slaughter their animals but also relates to environmental, sustainability,
animal welfare and food safety. In general, various socio-economic/demographic factors such as education
level, older generation, those who are more religious and the urban dweller seem to more likely to be aware of the advantages of Halal principles.
This study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial properties of ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Nephelium lappaceum, Curcuma longa, Cinnamomun cassia, Durio zibethinus, Vitex trifolia, Amaranthus tricolor, Syzygium samarangense and Manihot esculenta. Antibacterial properties of the extracts were studied against fifteen strains of different gram positive and gram negative pathogenic bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio para, and Escherichia coli using the agar disk diffusion method. Among the tested extracts, only Amaranthus tricolor exhibited specific inhibition of one of the tested bacteria; Bacillus cereus. Using the microdilution method, its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value was determined to be 20 mg/mL.
This research was carried out to determine the fructooligosaccharides content in local honey samples, namely the wild Malaysian Tualang honey and common wild honey obtained from Tapah, Perak and a commercial Tualang honey. Local wild honeys were found to contain a higher concentration of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) compared to the commercial Tualang honey. The FOS quantified from local wild honeys was inulobiose, kestose and nystose. Nystoses were found at a very low amount in the commercial Tualang honey. The effects of honey on the growth of Bifidobacterium longum BB 536 were investigated. Both wild and commercial honey samples including FOS standard were found to support the growth of B. longum. The pH value of the skim milk + honey inoculated with the probiotic strain decreases as expected. Addition of honey was found to support the growth of B. longum BB 536.
A total of sixty V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from local cockles (Anadara granosa) were investigated by their antibiotic resistance patterns and plasmid profiles. The isolates showed multiple resistances towards most of the antibiotics tested. All strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated harbored 1-3 plasmids, with sizes ranging from 2.7 to 54 kb. All V. parahaemolyticus strains showed high multiple antibiotics in frequencies of 0.58 – 0.94 indicating that the strains were derived from high-risk sources. In addition, no particular plasmid profile was predictive of a particular pattern of antibiotic susceptibility. These findings are essential because of the suggested involvement of seafood especially shellfish and environment in transmission of this pathogen to human. Thus, indicating that seafood may be a source of food- acquired antibiotic resistant bacteria to consumer.
Efficacy of some Malaysian herbal aqueous extracts, BHA/BHT (synthetic antioxidants) and ascorbic acid in retarding oxidative rancidity was tested with cakes. The development of lipid oxidation products during 15 days at room temperature was evaluated by means of Peroxide Value (PV) and Thiobarbituric acidreactive substances (TBARS) value. The six formulations consists of control sample (cake without addition of antioxidant) (F1), cake added with curry leaves extract (F2), cake incorporated with kesum leaves extract (F3), cake added with tenggek burung leaves extract (F4), cake incorporated with ascorbic acid (F5) and cake added with BHA/BHT (F6). Formulation with the incorporation of tenggek burung leaves extract showed powerful oxidative stability effect compared to the formulations with othe plant extracts and control sample. However, cakes with BHA/BHT showed the strongest oxidative stability throughout the storage period. Therefore, it is suggested that tenggek burung leaves extract can be added into the food system for effectiveness as antioxidant to prolong the shelf life of the product.
Rubber seed as a waste product from rubber plantations contains nutritive values that can be harnessed
as food for human, feed for animals or biofuel for energy. Proximate analysis showed moisture content of
3.99%, protein content of 17.41 g/100g, fat content of 68.53 ± 0.04 g/100g and ash content of 3.08 ± 0.01
g/100g. Amino acid in rubber seed is high in Glutamic acid (16.13%) and low in Cysteine (0.78%). Despite its potential as a source of protein, fresh rubber seeds contain a toxic factor, cyanogenetic glucoside (186 mg/kg). FAME analysis indicated that rubber seed oil is high in oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid. The fuel potential of rubber seed (585.41 kJ/kg) is in reasonable agreement with ASTM.
The study investigated socio-demographic factors and product attributes affecting purchase decision of special rice by Malaysian consumer. The primary data were analyzed by using binary logit model.
Demographic factors and consumer preference for special rice (with reference to basmati rice) attributes were identified to affect purchasing behavior for special rice. Size of household, marital status, number of children, household income and gender of consumers are the main socio-demographic factors that significantly influence households’ choices of special rice for home consumption in the Klang Valley area. The findings also suggest that product attributes such as flavor and aroma, availability, brand name and quality also influence the frequent purchasing of Basmati rice among the Malaysian consumers. However price and easy preparation are not significant in influencing the frequent purchasing of Basmati rice since most consumers are aware that special rice such as Basmati is expensive and all rice has to be prepared in a usual way.
The fatty acid composition and trans fatty acid (TFA) contents of biscuits products were determined by gas chromatography, using a highly polar 100m capillary column (HP-88) and flame ionization detection. Total TFA ranged from 0.00 – 0.52 g/100 g total fatty acids and 0.12 – 0.68 g/100 g total fatty acids for local packed and unpacked biscuits, respectively. In imported biscuits, total TFA was higher ranging from 0.03 – 3.09 g/100 g of total fatty acids. Trans 16:1 was the most abundant, with values ranging from 0.01% to 38% followed by trans 18:1 Δ11 (0.01% - 13.11%), trans 18:1 Δ9 (0.01% - 4.68%), trans 18:2 (0.23% - 2.77%) and small quantities of trans 18:1 Δ6. CLA, the natural TFA constituted from 0.1% to
Malaysia has a rich diversity of medicinal plants and some of them inhibit xanthine oxidase (XO), which can be introduced as new natural sources of gout medication and a substitute for synthetic xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOI). The degree of XO inhibitory activity was determined by measuring the absorbance spectrophotometrically at 295 nm, which is associated with uric acid formation. Our preliminary screening study had employed the use of distilled water, 70% methanol and absolute ethanol to extract XOI from twenty parts of five plant species, namely, Averrhoa carambola, Carica papaya, Dimocarpus longan malesianus, Manilkara zapota and Salacca zalacca. These plants were selected based on their frequent medicinal usages by local folks. The results have shown that an aqueous extract of Carica papaya mature leaves has promising activity to inhibit XO up to 75.68 ± 0.1%. Statistical experimental design were employed to optimize the selected sample (dried Carica papaya leaves: distilled water) on extraction of XOI and the maximum XOI percentage of 86.93 ± 1.9% was obtained, which exhibited only 6.76% less than the activity exhibited by allopurinol (93.69 ± 0.2%), a commercial XOI. The comparison was made between allopurinol and optimized extract on the basis of IC50concentrations. Allopurinol showed IC50 value of 3.74 μg/ml that is considerably lower as compared to the optimized sample (4.33 μg/ml).
Changes in physical properties (weight, size, colour and weight loss) and chemical properties (proximate analysis, TSS, pH, freezing point, total acidity and sugar content) of two water apple (Syzgium samaragense) cultivars, Semarang Rose and Kristal Taiwan were evaluated during ripening at 10°C and 50% RH. The results showed that the Kristal Taiwan cultivar was larger in size and weight but smaller in length compared to Semarang Rose. The Semarang Rose cultivar was sweeter than Kristal Taiwan. In this study, data obtained suggests that the water apple fruit can be stored at cold storage until 19 days.
Level of heavy metals in marine ecosystem has been intensively studied during recent years as these hazardous substances could be accumulated in the biota. Generally, the presence of contaminants in fish is a result of human activities such as industrial and agricultural wastes. In this study, the marine fish and shellfish from the Straits of Malacca were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) and Flow Injection Mercury System (FIMS) for Cd, As and Pb and Hg, respectively. The Straits of Malacca is one of the busiest shipping routes in the world that make the level of heavy metals potentially high besides the various industrial activities along the west region of Peninsular Malaysia. The range of heavy metals in samples were 1.0-3-6.5-3 µg/ g wet sample for Hg, 0.5-2-47-2 µg/ g wet sample for Cd, 0.01-0.39 µg/ g wet sample for Pb and 0.14-6.57 µg/ g wet sample for As. Most part of the values was below the permitted limit set by FAO/WHO 2004 as well as Food Act 1983 and Food Regulations 1985. Therefore it can be generalized that fish and shellfish from the Straits of Malacca are safe to consume in terms of these heavy metals concentrationand do not constitute a risk for human health.
Forty three (n=43) genomic DNA of Escherichia coli (11 isolates from eggs and 32 isolates from imported beef meats) were characterized by shiga toxin 1 (stx1), enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) analyses. In the shiga toxin 1 (stx1) gene detection with primer stx 1F (5’-TTCTTCGGTATCCTATTCCC-3’) and stx 1R (5’- CTGTCACAGTAACAACCGT-3’), 9 E. coli of beef meats isolates were positive toward sxt1 gene. The results of the ERIC-PCR and RAPD-PCR were analyzed using GelCompar II software. ERIC-PCR with primer ERIC1 (5’-CACTTAGGGGTCCTCGAATGTA -3’) and ERIC2 (5’-AAGTAAGTGACTGGGGTGAGCG-3’) discriminated the E. coli into 6 clusters and 10 single isolates at 80% similarity. RAPD-PCR with primer Gen8 and Gen9, produced 10 clusters and 15 single isolates and 12 clusters and 14 single isolates of 80%, respectively. These results demonstrated that both ERIC-PCR and RAPD-PCR are useful and suitable tools for molecular typing of those isolates examined.
Legislation concerning the safety assessment and labelling of foodstuffs has been implemented in many countries. Consequential to a number of cases of food adulteration reported globally, a fast and reliable detection method for the food traceability is required in ensuring effective implementation of food legislation in a country. In this study, PCR-RFLP technique based on cyt b gene has been tested for its suitability for these purposes. This method combines the use of a pair of universal primer that amplifies a 359 bp fragment on the cyt b gene from meat muscle DNA and restriction enzyme analysis. Analysis of experimental beef frankfurter, minced beef, pork frankfurter and pork cocktail samples demonstrated the suitability of the assay for the detection of the beef (Bos taurus) and pork (Sus scrofa), but not applicable for some processed food, particularly detection of mackerel (Rasterelliger brachysoma), sardine (Saedinella Fimbriata) and tuna (Thunnus tonggol) origin in canned food. Commercial frauds through species mislabelling or misdescribed were not detected. The assay is demonstrated applicable for routine analysis of meat traceability of foodstuffs and legislation purposes, if sufficient availability of detectable mtDNA in the foodstuffs is ensured.
Sulfonamides (SAs), synthetic antibiotics, are commonly used by veterinarians in chicken for therapeutic, prophylactic or as growth promoter and halt the growth of bacteria in animal production. Four common SAs, Sulfadiazine (SDZ), Sulfamethazine (SMZ), Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and Sulfaquinoxaline (SQX), were determined in chicken breast and liver samples using reverse phase HPLC using UV detector at 266nm. The concentration of SAs detected in samples from 11 states in Peninsular Malaysia ranged from 0.006-0.062 µg/g in breast meat samples and 0.08-0.193 µg/g in liver samples. Except for sample from Johor, concentration of SAs in all the samples were lower than MRLs established by Malaysia (0.1 µg/g). Exposure of sulfonamides in Malaysian consumers ranged from 0.002-0.088 µg/kg body wt. /day. The highest value of sulfonamides exposure was found in Johor with an estimated daily intake (EDA) of Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in Johor.
The present study aimed to provide an insight of C. jejuni ATCC 33560 phenotype profiles (carbon sources and sensitivity to osmolytes and pH) using Phenotypic MicroArray (PM) system in response to optimal and suboptimal temperature. C. jejuni ATCC 33560 showed utilization carbon sources from amino acids and carboxylates but not from sugars. C. jejuni ATCC 33560 is sensitive to NaCl at 2% and above but showed survival in a wide range of food preservatives (sodium lactate, sodium phosphate, sodium benzoate, ammonium sulphate and sodium nitrate). When incubated at suboptimal temperature, no phenotype loss was observed in carbon source plates. Phenotype loss of C. jejuni ATCC 33560 was observed in sodium chloride (1%), sodium sulphate (2-3%), sodium formate (1%), sodium lactate (7-12%), sodium phosphate pH7 (100mM and 200mM), ammonium sulphate pH8 (50mM), sodium nitrate (60mM, 80mM and 100mM), sodium nitrite (10mM), and growth in pH5. The phenotypic profile from present study will provide a better insight related to survival of C. jejuni ATCC 33560.
In this study, we evaluated and characterized microbial cellulose produced from Kombucha after eighth day of fermentation by employing SEM, FTIR, X-ray diffractometry, adsorption isotherm, and by measuring the swelling properties. Results on SEM revealed microbial cellulose layer to be composed of a compact cellulose ultrafine network like structure. FTIR spectra showed the presence of a characteristic region of anomeric carbons (960 – 730 cm-1), wherein a band at 891.59 cm-1 confirmed the presence of β, 1-4 linkages. Results of FTIR spectra also showed microbial cellulose to be free from contaminants such as lignin or hemicellulose, which are often present in plant cellulose. X-ray diffraction studies exhibited the overall degree of crystallinity index for MCC to be slightly lower than that of microbial cellulose. Results on swelling properties indicated microbial cellulose to possess higher fiber liquid retention values (10-160%) compared to commercial MCC (5-70%). The adsorption isotherm curves showed similarities between microbial cellulose with that of pure crystalline substance. Overall, results obtained in this study were comparable with the commercial microcrystalline cellulose, indicating that the process developed by us can be explored industrially on a pilot scale.
Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) have been widely used as an infection model for mammalian related pathogens with promising results. The bacterial factors required for virulence in non-mammalian host C. elegans play a role in mammalian systems. Previous reported that Salmonella found in vegetable and poultry meat could be potential health hazards to human. This study evaluated the pathogenicity of various serovars of Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) that recovered from local indigenous vegetables and poultry meat using C. elegans as a simple host model. Almost all S. enterica isolates were capable of colonizing the intestine of C. elegans, causing a significant reduction in the survival of nematodes. The colonization of Salmonella in C. elegans revealed that the ability of S. enterica in killing C. elegans correlates with its accumulation in the intestine to achieve full pathogenicity. Using this model, the virulence mechanisms of opportunistic pathogenic S. enterica were found to be not only relevant for the interactions of the bacteria with C. elegans but also with mammalian hosts including humans. Hence, C. elegans model could provide valuable insight into preliminary factors from the host that contributes to the environmental bacterial pathogenesis scenario.
This study evaluated the effects of different flours (tapioca, wheat, sago and potato) on the physicochemical properties of duck sausage. The examined physicochemical properties included proximate composition, cooking yield, color (lightness, redness and yellowness), folding, texture profile (hardness, elasticity, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness) and sensory properties. The study found that different flours have no effect on the cooking yield of duck sausage. The tapioca formulation showed a mid-range lightness value, folding score and textural properties. Duck sausages made with wheat flour had higher protein content and lightness value and a harder texture. Sausages made with potato flour had a darker color, the lowest folding scores and a softer texture. The addition of sago flour resulted in a higher folding score, greater elasticity and increased overall acceptability of sausage due to higher scores for texture and juiciness. These results show that the properties of duck sausage are influenced by the type of flour used.
Characterization and quantification of carotenoid compound is complicated, costly and timeconsuming. The accuracy and reliability of the data depend solely on the standard and to High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis but the major constraint is to acquire and to maintain the pure standards. Carotenoid standards are commercially available but they are expensive and are prone to isomerization and oxidation. Thus, the purpose of this study is to establish an analytical method for isolating β-carotene by using open column chromatography (OCC) from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) to be used as one of the carotenoid standards for determination of total and individual carotenoid. Pumpkin with orange flesh has been chosen due to the non-seasonal nature and its availability all year-round. This study demonstrated that the purity of β-carotene standard; determined by HPLC was ranged from 92.21 to 97.95%. The standard curves with five different concentrations of β-carotene extract from pumpkins in triplicate were constructed by plotting the peak area against the concentration. The coefficient of correlation was 0.9936. Therefore, this study established that pumpkin can be a reliable source of beta-carotene standard as it is cheap and commonly available throughout the year.