Since early 2000, Malaysian food-export industries have recognised the demand for food
compliant with Islamic dietary law (halal), with primary consumer choices based on quality
and safety. The lack of documented monitoring for health hazards and haram substances led
to the withdrawal of certification. The HACCP-based halal quality-assurance standards were
developed as a result, using the HACCP criteria for safety, religious dietary requirement and
quality. Halal critical control points (HlCCP) are identified using HACCP criteria and a question
tree on HALAL processing and storage. This approach harmonizes and unifies halal processing
with the specific food industry via an HACCP–based halal quality-assurance system.
The use of polyclonal antibody (IgG) has recently been applied to the detection of bacteria. We developed a lateral flow assay (LFA) strip using a specific IgG in combination with colloidal gold on a nitrocellulose membrane. A conjugate, gold-anti Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 IgG was developed in this study for the detection of E. coli O157:H7 in food. The 40 nm in size of colloidal gold nanoparticles was used to conjugate the anti-E. coli O157:H7 IgG. The optimal concentration, 12.0 µg/ml of the anti-E. coli O157:H7 IgG was determined by standard curve generated in titration method. The serially diluted of E. coli O157:H7 was detected and clearly visualized on the LFA strip as low as 106 CFU/ml (result not shown). The IgG raised in rabbit have shown specific binding capacity against E. coli O157:H7. No other genus of bacteria, including Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni reacted to the IgG. The LFA strip could also detect E. coli O157:H7 in different food samples matrices after 18 h-enrichment and this result were in accordance with the results of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and colony count.
The aim of this study was to determine the specific content and type of sugars in selected commercial and traditional kuih in Klang Valley. The selection of the kuih was based on the validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for sugar. The selected commercial kuih was doughnut coated with sugar (Big Apple) while the ten traditional kuih samples consisted of kuih bingka ubi, kuih kasui, kuih keria, kuih koci, kuih lapis, kuih lopes, kuih onde-onde, kuih sagu, kuih seri muka and kuih talam. The doughnut coated with sugar (Big Apple) was purchased from Big Apple Donuts and Coffee franchise at two different locations, while the traditional kuih were randomly bought from stalls, cafeterias and restaurants around Kuala Lumpur and Rawang. The types and amount of sugar were determined using High Performance High Chromatography (HPLC) with a refractive index (RI) detector. Results showed that doughnut coated with sugar (Big Apple) has the highest starch content (22.6±0.3 g/100g) and kuih keria contained the highest available carbohydrate (41.5±1.7 g/100g), comprising of 24.2±2.4 g/100g total sugar and 17.3±0.7 g/100g of starch. The least available carbohydrate content was found in kuih talam (20.0±0.5 g/100g), which was 50% lower than the one in kuih keria. Major individual sugars detected in all kuih samples were consisted of sucrose (60.0%), glucose (16.2%), fructose (14.0%), maltose (9.5%) and lactose (0.3%). Majority of the kuih samples (90.9%) in this study can be categorized as medium sugar while only kuih keria was categorized as high sugar. Based on the two main ingredients (sugar and flour) used in the preparation of kuih, results showed that all kuih samples can be categorized as medium sugarmedium starch. In conclusion, this study served as a guideline by locals in selecting kuih of
different sugar levels.
The effects of methanolic extract of Javanese turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) at different level of concentrations on the inactivation of Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju) were investigated. This study was conducted principally for the achievement on the best combination between the
susceptibility of C. xanthorrhiza extract on natural microflora and foodborne pathogenic bacteria with the sensory acceptability of the soaked oyster mushroom. Three different concentrations (g/ml), 0.05%, 0.50% and 5.00%, of C. xanthorrhiza extract prepared with dilution method were designed as sanitizing agent in treating the oyster mushroom at 5 minutes and 10 minutes.
There was significance reduction in the survival of microbial load between the untreated fresh oyster mushroom and those soaked with 0.05%, 0.50% and 5.00% rhizome extract (P
Salmonella remains to be a major foodborne pathogen for animals and humans and is the
leading cause of foodborne infections and outbreaks in various countries. Salmonella Enteritidis
is one of the most frequently isolated serotypes in poultry and poultry products from human
food poisoning cases. It can cause mild to acute gastroenterititis as well as other common
food poisoning symptoms when infection takes place in human. Nucleic acid amplification
technologies such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a tool that is rapid and sensitive
for detection of bacterial pathogen. We report the successful detection of S. Enteritidis by
PCR in raw chicken meat artificially-contaminated with serial concentration of S. Enteritidis
using crude DNA extracts as DNA template. PCR primers, ENT-F and ENT-R targeted on sdfI
gene were used to amplify DNA region unique to S. Enteritidis with crude DNA extract of the
samples, yielded product with the size of 303 bp. These primers were specific to S. Enteritidis
when tested by in-silico simulation against genome database of targeted bacterial species and
confirmed in PCR as amplification bands were observed with S. Typhimurium, S. Polarum and
S. Gallinarum. The established PCR can detect as few as 9.4 X 101
CFU/ml of inoculated S.
Enteritidis concentration and proved that pre-enrichment effect have significant effect on PCR
detection by increasing 1000-fold of the sensitivity limit compared to the non pre-enriched
samples. The PCR technique indicated that it can be successfully coupled with pre-enrichment
step to offer advantage in routine screening and surveillance of bacterial contamination in food
Threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicas) muscle was hydrolysed using protease extracted from
bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi L.) fruit. This study was performed in order to compare the efficiency of bilimbi protease in producing threadfin bream protein hydrolysate with the commercial protease; alcalase 2.4 L. Initially, protease was extracted and then purified using 40% ammonium sulfate precipitation method. The proteolytic activity of the crude extract and purified protease was determined. Precipitation using 40% ammonium sulfate resulted in bilimbi protease specific activity of 2.36 U/mg and 23.13% recovery. Threadfin bream hydrolysate was prepared based on the pH-stat method by hydrolysis for 2 hrs. Hydrolysis using bilimbi protease produced 34.76% degree of hydrolysis (DH) and 3.75% yield while hydrolysis using alcalase resulted in 86.6% DH with 22.78% yield. Alcalase hydrolysate showed higher solubility than bilimbi protease hydrolysate at pH 7 with 70.87 and 32.16% solubility, respectively. Results also showed that protein content of threadfin bream hydrolysate produced using alcalase was higher (86.86%) than those produced using bilimbi protease (22.12%). However, both hydrolysates showed low moisture content between 3.93 to 7.00%. The molecular weight distribution analysis using SDS–PAGE indicated the distribution of smaller peptides especially in alcalase hydrolysate. Overall, the results showed that alcalase is more efficient enzyme choice than bilimbi protease for preparing threadfin bream hydrolysates. However, both hydrolysates could play an important role thus contribute to the food industry.
This study is to report the proximate compositions as well as tetrodotoxin (TTX) content in the muscles of yellow puffer fish Xenopterus naritus that collected from Kg. Manggut and Kabong, Sarawak. The internal organs of 26 and 20 specimens from Kg. Manggut and Kabong respectively were removed by the local people that had skills and experiences with the preparation of yellow puffer fish. In general, the moisture contents were ranging between 75.2% and 80.6%. X. naritus from Kabong showed higher crude protein contents (88.2% dry weight) than the same species from Kg. Manggut (87.9% dry weight) and not significantly different (p>0.05). X. naritus from Kg. Manggut demonstrated a significantly higher (p
Collagen was isolated from threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicas) waste (mixture of scale and fin) by using 0.5 M citric acid or calamansi juice (Citrofortunella microcarpa) for 12 and 24 hrs at 4°C. The physico-chemical characteristics of the collagens were then compared with the commercial collagen. Shorter extraction time (12 hrs) and extraction using calamansi juice resulted in higher yield. The yield was 22% (12 hrs) and 20.37% (24 hrs) for collagen extracted using calamansi juice and 8.3% (12 hrs) and 6.9% (24 hrs) for collagen extracted using citric acid. Collagen extracted using calamansi juice were light yellow (L = 93.70, a = -1.84, b = 13.44) while citric acid collagens were white (L = 94.82, a = 0.31, b = 0.20). Sensory evaluation on odor recognition test showed that collagen extracted with calamansi juice has a pleasant
natural fragrance which is sweet citrus. Electrophoresis profile indicated that the collagen were of type I comprising of α1 and α2 chains. Threadfin bream collagen contained higher amount of imino acids proline (254.72 to 275.50/1000 residues) and hydroxyproline (7.56 to 13.50/1000 residues) than commercial collagen which is 21.25 and 5.16/1000 residues, respectively. Maximum transition temperature (Tmax) falls within a close range for all the collagens ranging from 24.81 to 25.91°C. Calamansi juice collagens were more viscous compared to others. The extraction of threadfin bream collagen for 12 hrs using calamansi juice generally leads to collagen characterised by pleasant odor, reasonably high yield and more viscous. Therefore, natural source such as calamansi juice could be an alternative medium for collagen extraction.
Cassava chips that exist in the current market have no standardisation and cannot be stacked
nicely into cylindrical container. The objectives of this work are to determine the different dimension of cassava chips produced with different thickness and to develop stackable chips during mass production. Fresh cassava tubers were harvested, washed, peeled and sliced. The thickness measurements used were 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 1.75 mm and 2.0 mm and 1.27 mm thickness was measured from commercial potato chips as a controlled sample. Then, it was fried in deep fat fryer with the temperature of 170°C. For each thickness studied, different
numbers of slice (10, 20, 30 and 40 slices) were fried simultaneously. Results showed that there
are 6 shapes of fried chips produced during the frying. To conclude, thickness of the slice and
number of slices fried simultaneously give impact towards the shape of fried chip.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional properties (thickness; water vapor
permeability (WVP); film microstructure, tensile strength (TS) and biodegradability) of
carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/gelatin (gel)/chitosan (chi) biocomposite film as influenced
by different drying temperature (25 and 60 °C). Seven formulations (CMC/gel/chi) prepared
were control (100/0/0), formulations A (80/20/0), B (80/0/20), C (80/10/10), D (60/20/20),
E (60/30/10), and F (60/10/30). Different drying temperature resulted in different time taken
for the film to dry. Results revealed that formulation F was optimal due to its high tensile
strength and low WVP rate which support its biodegradability for both drying conditions. FTIR
assay revealed a strong carboxyl group for CMC, which contributed to high biodegradability
results (85.3 vs. 85.50%) for room vs. oven dried specimens, respectively. Such desirable
characteristics demonstrated that film F holds remarkable potential as edible films material
with enhanced positive impacts on the environment and community.
Since the most of the fish consumed in the Kathmandu Valley are brought from commercial farms
in the Terai region of Nepal and some from India, the quality characteristics of such fishes are
foremost importance. Therefore, this study was carried out to provide the information on heavy
metal concentrations in the muscles of nine commercial fish species available in the markets of
Kathmandu Valley and to make people aware of the possible health risk associated with their
consumption. The concentrations of Lead (Pb), Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), Manganese
(Mn) and Chromium (Cr) were determined in the muscles of Catla catla, Pampus species, Puntius
chola, Eutropiichthys vacha, Pampus chinensis, Clarias batrachus, Labeo bata, Labeo rohita and
Mystus tengara. The levels of heavy metals were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry
after digestion of the samples using the heating digester. There were significant variations among
heavy metal levels in the muscles of the nine fish species, and no fish types had the highest levels of
more than two metals. First, three maximum mean concentrations of potentially toxic elements were
found 16.75 µg/g in Puntius chola, 12.13 µg/g in Eutropiichthys vacha, 11.63 µg/g in Catla catla for
lead; 1.45 µg/g in Puntius chola, 1.35 µg/g in Pampus species and 1.15 µg/g in Mystus tengara for
cadmium; and 1.01 µg/g in Eutropiichthys vacha, 0.76 µg/g in Pampus species, 0.65 µg/g in Pampus
chinensis for arsenic. Similarly, first three maximum mean concentrations of essential elements
were found 9.88 µg/g in Puntius chola, 7.63 µg/g in Clarias batrachus, 5.75 µg/g in Catla catla
for manganese; 89.75 µg/g in Clarias batrachus, 68.37 µg/g in Catla catla, 65.38 µg/g in Puntius
chola for zinc; and 14.63 µg/g in Clarias batrachus, 13.13 µg/g in Pampus species, 10.50 µg/g in
Labeo rohita for chromium. The results showed that the heavy metals were found to be higher mean
concentrations in the sample of Puntius chola, then in Catla catla, Pampus species and Clarias
batrachus respectively; whereas they were found to be lower mean concentration in Eutropiichthys
vacha, Pampus chinensis, Labeo bata, Labeo rohita and Mystus tengara correspondingly. The
total mean concentration of manganese, lead and chromium in all fish samples was found to be
higher than the limits permitted by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United
Nations/World Health Organization (WHO) whereas the mean concentration of zinc and cadmium
was found lower than the permissible level of FAO/WHO, National Health and Medical Research
Council (NHMRC) and Malaysian Food and Regulations (MFR) guidelines. Similarly, the total
mean concentration of cadmium was also found to be lower than the permissible level of Centre
for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Boletin Oficial del Estado (BOE),
NHMRC, European Community Regulation (EU) and MRF in all fish samples. The total mean level
of lead was found lower than BOE guidelines. Likewise, the total mean level of chromium was
found slightly exceeded over limits suggested by the European Economic Community (EEC). This
study showed that all the fish samples examined were found to contain some heavy metals above the
FAO/WHO standard levels which may cause problems on the human health. At last, this research
work suggests that fish consumers should always bear in mind that standards cannot provide a
margin of safety when they are not enforced locall
This study examined the effects of drying temperatures (25 and 45 °C) on the physical properties
of different formulations of gelatin/CMC/chitosan composite films. The physical properties
of each formulated film were assessed via Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy,
X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD), Water Vapour Permeability (WVP) and biodegradability. The
incorporation of CMC and chitosan significantly influenced film properties. Increased chitosan
concentrations reduced the film’s amorphous character by increasing its crystalline structure.
The blended films also exhibited amino peaks that shifted from 1542 to ~1548 cm-1 while NH
and/or OH peaks shifted from 3384 to 3288 cm-1. Formulation E had the second lowest WVP
for both drying condition and the highest weight loss for biodegradability after burial in soil for
5 days. In conclusion, different temperature did not affect the properties of film produced and
formulation E qualified as ‘high quality packaging material’ with promising potential for the
food packaging industry.
As the society begin to realize the importance of combating antimicrobial resistance, going
back to silver might be the solution. Silver has been known for its potential antimicrobial
activity since ancient times and, the development of nanoparticles has increased its potential
into becoming an antimicrobial agent that can be applied in broad-spectrum. Antimicrobial
resistance has spread into an irrepressible manner which requires drastic action plan as a number
of pathogenic bacteria began to acquire resistance genes. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus
aureus (MRSA) is one of the earliest reported resistant clones which is the center of this study.
This study focused on the dissemination and evolution of MRSA on its resistance towards
antibiotics. Disc Diffusion Test was employed to create the antibiograms of MRSA isolates. All
isolates showed resistance towards amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefazolin, oxacillin and penicillin.
In contrast, all isolates were susceptible towards erythromycin. The findings also discovered
isolates that were vancomycin-resistant (66.7%) and vancomycin-intermediate (33.3%). As the
efficacy of antibiotic treatment is at a question, we also investigated on the antimicrobial activity
of colloidal silver in the hope as an alternative treatment. Shiga Toxin producing Escherichia
coli (STEC) and MRSA (ATCC 33591) was tested using modified Quantitative suspension
test for the evaluation of bactericidal activity for chemical disinfectants and antiseptics based
on BS EN 1276:2009. The outcome of this study indicated that the colloidal silver is working
effectively against STEC and MRSA (ATCC 33591), showing killing percentages well above
99.0% at 4 minutes and 8 minutes of contact. Vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) and
Vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) were also tested and the results indicated that
VISA had higher killing percentages at 4 minutes (99.83%) and 8 minutes (99.85%) compared
to VRSA at 4 minutes (96.72%) and 8 minutes (98.35%). This opens a solution to the rising
problem of antimicrobial resistance.
Microbial contamination in food system poses risk towards public health. The usage of synthetic
and chemical preservatives to prevent the contamination has become a growing concern due
to the presence of deleterious and harmful substances that can cause environment and health
problems in prolonged exposure. Thus, there are needs to overcome this problem by using
natural products as food preservatives. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of methanolic
Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) extracts were tested against five foodborne pathogens,
namely Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus
aureus and Candida albicans. The susceptibility test, minimum inhibitory concentrations
(MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) or minimum fungicidal concentration
(MFC) were conducted using the broth microdilution techniques as described by Clinical and
Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). C. citratus extract showed antimicrobial activity against
all tested foodborne pathogens; B. cereus, E. coli O157:H7, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus and C.
albicans with the inhibition zone of 12 mm, 7.5 mm, 11 mm, 10 mm and 9 mm, respectively.
The MIC of C. citratus extract against B. cereus, E. coli O157:H7, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus
and C. albicans was 0.08 mg/ml, 0.63 mg/ml, 0.04 mg/ml, 0.31 mg/ml, and 0.16 mg/ml,
respectively, while the MBC or MFC was 1.25 mg/ml, 2.50 mg/ml, 2.50 mg/ml, 1.25 mg/
ml and 1.25 mg/ml, respectively. Time–kill curves were determined to assess the correlation
between MIC and bactericidal activity of C. citratus extract at concentrations ranging from 0×
MIC to 4× MIC. The bactericidal endpoint for B. cereus, E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus and C.
albicans was at 4× MIC after 2 h, 4× MIC after 2 h, 4× MIC after 30 min and 4× MIC after 4
h, respectively whereas K. pneumoniae was not completely killed after 4 hours of incubation at
4× MIC. The potent antimicrobial activity of C. citratus extract may support its usage as natural
Fish can live healthier in aquarium with good water quality than they do in the wild. Maintaining
the quality of the water in fish facility is needed to avoid fluctuation of physicochemical
parameter values and contamination with pathogenic microorganisms that may cause serious
illness or even death among the fish. Contamination of the water, especially with animal
pathogens which are also pathogenic to human may pose health risk to those who are handling
or in direct contact with the water and fish in the facility. Therefore, there is a need to assess the
water quality and the risk associated with microorganisms in the water and the cultured animals.
The aim of this study was to determine the water quality with regard to the physicochemical
and microbiological parameters as well as the risk associated with bacteria in the water of the
fish facility. Samples of water from the water source and also from aquariums in the fish facility
were collected and analyzed. The water samples were plated on nutrient agar for bacterial
enumeration then bacterial colonies growing on the agar plates were randomly picked and
-PCR analysis was carried out to analyse the heterogeneity of the genome of the
bacterial isolated and a dendrogram was constructed from the (GTG)5
-PCR profile to determine
the genotypic group of the bacterial isolates. The risk associated with the bacteria from the
water was analyzed with respect to their antibiotic resitance. The result of this study revealed
that the (GTG)5
-PCR analysis was able to group the bacteria into 2 main genotypic clusters
which were further grouped into several sub-clusters. From the dengrogram, 12 representative
isolates were selected and identified using 16S rRNA sequencing. The identification confirmed
the presence of Aeromonas veronii (8 isolates), Aeromonas jandaei (2 isolates), Plesiomonas
shigelloides (1 isolate) and Pseudomonas alcaligene (1 isolate) from the water samples. All
of the isolates exhibited resistant towards ampicillin, penicillin and gentamicin. This study
revealed that the water from the fish facility harboured genetically diverse antibiotic resistance
bacteria which may pose health risk to the fish and also to those who are in direct contact
with the contaminated water and fish in the facility. Therefore, water in fish facility should be
monitored regularly and handled with caution.
Raw goat milk is recognized as one kind of nutritious food owed to its originality and
medicinal values. This study aimed to evaluate the physico-chemical and microbiological
qualities of locally produced raw goat milk prior any processing steps during storage. Milk
samples passed organoleptic test and C.O.B. test were mostly (88.89 %) failed in alcohol test.
AOAC Official method of oven drying method, Kjeldahl method and Soxhlet method were
performed in physico-chemical analysis where results obtained were partially in lined with
reported literature due to subjective factors of breeds, geographical areas and feeds. The locally
produced raw goat milk’s compositions are high in water content and low in fat percentage.
Initial total plate count, coliform count and proteolytic count tested were 3.44 log cfu/ml, 1.87
log cfu/ml and 1.97 log cfu/ml, respectively. Storage time showed significant effect on the
bacterial counts (p>0.05) of milk samples. Shelf-life of milk samples were kept up to 12 hours
under ambient temperature (3.95 log cfu/ml) had not exceeded the standard limit. The shelflife
of the milk samples were extended up to 16 days storage under refrigerated temperature
of 4°C. The microbiological quality of the milk samples showed a significant bacteriological
growth upon prolonged storage and high initial coliform count indicates possible poor hygienic
practices at farm level.
Pepsin-solubilized collagen (PSC) was extracted from the body wall of crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS) (Acanthaster planci) using pepsin digestion in 0.5 M acetic acid. The electrophoretic pattern of PSC showed that it consisted of two α chains (α1 and α2 chains). In addition, the peptide mapping showed that there were some differences in peptide patterns among PSC, calf skin collagen and salmon skin collagen. This suggested that the primary structure of the PSC was different from calf skin collagen and salmon skin collagen. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) investigation showed the existence of triple helical structure in PSC, suggesting that the triple helical structure was well preserved during the extraction of collagen from COTS. The denaturation temperature of PSC was 33.0°C, which was comparable with mammalian collagen. In addition, the amino acid composition analysis showed that the imino acid content of PSC was similar to mammalian collagen but it was higher than other marine collagen. This suggested that the imino acid content might contributed the denaturation temperature of collagen. The results in this study suggest that PSC from the underutilized COTS has potential to be exploited in various commercial applications.
Dabai or Canarium odontophyllum Miq., from the family Burseraceae, is an important indigenous fruit to Borneo Island. However, it is a highly perishable fruit with short shelf life. Postharvest technology such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) can be used to maintain highly perishable fresh fruit quality and increase its shelf life. There is not much work has been carried out to study effect of MAP on dabai fruit. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of four different types packaging methods on the postharvest quality of dabai fruits. Total of 240 fruit were used for each replication and the experiment was repeated thrice. Fruit were divided equally into four groups with each group packed in low-density polyethylene plastic bag, low-density polyethylene plastic bags lined with tissue paper, low-density polyethylene plastic bag with vacuumed and control (unwrapped). The fruit were then stored in a cold room of 10°C for 8 days. The fruits were analyzed for peel and flesh colour (L*, C* and hue angle), CO2 and C2H4 production, weight loss, firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and pH at every two days interval. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and means was separated using Duncan’s multiple range tests. The use of MAP retained peel colour (L*, C* and hue angle values), flesh colour (L*values), SSC and TA of dabai fruit. The CO2 production in MAP fruit was significant lower than control. Although vacuum packed showed lowest weight loss, flesh discolouration, soggy texture and foul sour odour developed during 8 days of storage. Neither packing dabai fruit in low-density polyethylene plastic bag nor bag lined with tissue paper retained better fruit quality. Thus, it is recommended packing dabai fruit in low-density polyethylene plastic bag is sufficient to retain fruit quality during 8 days of storage at 10oC.
Vitamin D supplementation appears to be potential for reducing risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases, existing evidence on its benefits and risks is inadequate and debatable. Questions remain as to whether supplementation of Vitamin D playing any role in the above mentioned diseases. In the absence of compelling evidence for benefit, taking supplement is producing any risk or not. While sorting the various positive and negative claims for Vitamin D, it attracts an urgent need for further research and review on reports to answer fundamental questions about the risks and benefits of supplementation. There still remains a great need to advance our understanding regarding the effectiveness of Vitamin D. This review gives an overview on disputes of Vitamin D supplementation that is convincing and interventional regarding burning issues of Vitamin D therapy. Beyond its use to prevent osteomalacia or rickets, the evidence for other health effects of vitamin D supplementation in the general inhabitants is conflicting. It is a well known predictability that any effective substance also has unwanted side effects, so clear cut evidence regarding the safety is required before supplementing Vitamin D for pathological conditions and other health benefits.
In Malaysia, halal certification status for some surimi-based product is still suspicious due to the incorporation of non-halal plasma protein additives as part of the food ingredient. This study was conducted to determine the presence of plasma protein additives that have been incorporated into surimi-based product using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-Southern Hybridization method which able to differentiate 7 type (beef, chicken, duck, goat, buffalo, lamb and pork) of species on a single chip. A random of 17 (n = 17*3) different brands of surimi-based product was purchased from Selangor local market in January 2013. Of 17 brands, 3 (n = 3*3) brands were positive for chicken DNA and 1 (n = 1*3) brand was positive for goat DNA, while remainder 13 brands (n = 13*3) has no DNA species detected. In presence study, it is evidence that PCR-Southern Hybridization analysis offered a reliable result due to its highly specific and sensitive properties in detecting plasma protein incorporation in surimi-based product.