• 1 Prince of Songkla University
  • 2 Universiti Teknologi Malaysia


The experimental water flux of the forward osmosis (FO) process is much lower than the
theoretical flux due to the existence of the internal concentration polarisation (ICP), external
concentration polarisation (ECP), and membrane fouling. In the present work, vibration was
integrated with the FO process to enhance water flux in water and Mao (Antidesma bunius L.
Spreng) juice concentration. In addition, the capability of the FO process in preserving
phytochemicals was studied. The use of the vibration assisted technique could enhance the
water flux up to 23% during the FO process of distilled water due to the reduction of ICP, and
a much higher water flux enhancement (up to 70%) was attained during the FO of Mao juice
due to the reduction of ICP, ECP, and fouling. Phytochemicals including total phenolic
compounds, anthocyanin, and ascorbic acid were preserved up to 82.7, 72.6, and 95.9%,
respectively. These results suggest that membrane vibration is a promising technique for the
enhancement of the FO process performance.