Reports of pharmaceuticals exist in surface water and drinking water around the world, indicate they are ineffectively remove from water and wastewater using conventional treatment technologies. The potential of adverse effect of these pharmaceuticals on public health and aquatic life, also their continuos accumulation have raised the development of water treatment technologies. Hybrid treatment processes like membrane filtration and advance oxidation processes (AOPs) are likely to give rise to efficient simultaneous degradation and separation mechanisms. Conventional membrane filtration techniques can remove the majority of contaminants, but the smallest, undegraded, and stabilized pharmaceutical wastes persist in the treated water. After some 20 years, researchers have recognized the important role of AOPs in the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater because these technologies are capable of oxidizing recalcitrant, toxic, and non-biodigradable compounds into numerous by-products and finally, inert end-products via the intermediacy of hydroxyl and other radicals. Evidently, membranes are subjected to the fouling phenomenon by the contaminants in wastewater, hence resulting in a reduction of clean water flux and increase in energy demand. In such situations, these membrane hybrid AOPs exert a complementary effect in the elimination of membrane fouling, thus enhancing the performance of the membrane. Therefore, in this review, we describe the basic aspects of the removal and transformation of certain pharmaceuticals via membranes and AOPs. In addition, information and evidences on membrane hybrid AOPs in the field of pharmaceutical wastewater treatment is also presented.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.