Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 117 in total

  1. Mansourizadeh A, Ismail AF
    J Hazard Mater, 2009 Nov 15;171(1-3):38-53.
    PMID: 19616376 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.026
    Membrane contactors using microporous membranes for acid gas removal have been extensively reviewed and discussed. The microporous membrane acts as a fixed interface between the gas and the liquid phase without dispersing one phase into another that offers a flexible modular and energy efficient device. The gas absorption process can offer a high selectivity and a high driving force for transport even at low concentrations. Using hollow fiber gas-liquid membrane contactors is a promising alternative to conventional gas absorption systems for acid gas capture from gas streams. Important aspects of membrane contactor as an efficient energy devise for acid gas removal including liquid absorbents, membrane characteristics, combination of membrane and absorbent, mass transfer, membrane modules, model development, advantages and disadvantages were critically discussed. In addition, current status and future potential in research and development of gas-liquid membrane contactors for acid gas removal were also briefly discussed.
  2. Naim R, Ismail AF
    J Hazard Mater, 2013 Apr 15;250-251:354-61.
    PMID: 23474409 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.01.083
    A series of polyetherimide (PEI) hollow fiber membranes with various polymer concentrations (13-16 wt.%) for CO2 stripping process in membrane contactor application was fabricated via wet phase inversion method. The PEI membranes were characterized in terms of liquid entry pressure, contact angle, gas permeation and morphology analysis. CO2 stripping performance was investigated via membrane contactor system in a stainless steel module with aqueous diethanolamine as liquid absorbent. The hollow fiber membranes showed decreasing patterns in gas permeation, contact angle, mean pore size and effective surface porosity with increasing polymer concentration. On the contrary, wetting pressure of PEI membranes has enhanced significantly with polymer concentration. Various polymer concentrations have different effects on the CO2 stripping flux in which membrane with 14 wt.% polymer concentration showed the highest stripping flux of 2.7 × 10(-2)mol/m(2)s. From the performance comparison with other commercial membrane, it is anticipated that the PEI membrane has a good prospect in CO2 stripping via membrane contactor.
  3. Goh PS, Ismail AF
    Membranes (Basel), 2021 Feb 25;11(3).
    PMID: 33668700 DOI: 10.3390/membranes11030158
    The design and synthesis of functional nanomaterials have been extensively explored over the last decade, primarily due to their exceptional physico-chemical properties [...].
  4. Alotaibi AM, Ismail AF
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2022 Oct 23;19(21).
    PMID: 36360653 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph192113774
    The natural zeolite has been modified with sulphate and phosphate. The adsorption of thorium from the aqueous solutions by using the natural and modified zeolites has been investigated via a batch method. The adsorbent samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption (BET), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Modification of natural zeolite with sulphate and phosphate was found to increase its adsorption capacity of thorium but reduced its specific surface area (SBET). The adsorption experiments were expressed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevitch (D-R) isotherm models and the results of adsorption demonstrated that the adsorption of thorium onto the natural and modified zeolites correlated better with the Langmuir isotherm model than with the Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qo) was determined using the Langmuir isotherm model at 25 °C and was found to be 17.27, 13.83, and 10.21 mg/g for phosphate-modified zeolite, sulfate-modified zeolite, and natural zeolite, respectively. The findings of this study indicate that phosphate-modified zeolite can be utilized as an effective and low-cost adsorbent material for the removal of thorium from aqueous solutions.
  5. Hashemifard SA, Ismail AF, Matsuura T
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2011 Jul 15;359(2):359-70.
    PMID: 21529819 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2011.03.077
    This study investigated the gas separation and transport properties of asymmetric mixed matrix membranes (MMM) fabricated from polyetherimide (PEI); Ultem 1000 incorporated with raw and modified halloysite nanotubes (HNT) as filler. The modified HNTs; S-HNTs were prepared by treating HNTs with N-β-(aminoethyl)-γ-aminopropyltrimethoxy silane (AEAPTMS). FESEM, XRD, FTIR, TGA, DSC and pure gas permeation testing were used to characterise the S-HNTs and the fabricated MMMs. In the first part of the experiments, the effect of dope preparation factors such as: ultrasonic sonication period, filler wetting period and priming period were investigated. In the second part, the influence of silane concentration on the fabricated MMMs was studied. Results showed that, increasing the silane concentration, led to higher tendency in HNT agglomeration which resulted in poor separation properties but permeability enhancement. In the last part, the effect of S-HNTs loading was experienced. Our observations showed that the dispersion of nanoparticles decreased with an increase in the S-HNTs loading. Accordingly, 0.5% loading of silylated-HNT yielded the optimum MMMs in terms of permeability (27% increase) and selectivity (8% increase).
  6. Kumar M, Tamilarasan R, Arthanareeswaran G, Ismail AF
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2015 Nov;121:164-73.
    PMID: 25913699 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.04.007
    Recently noted that the methylene blue cause severe central nervous system toxicity. It is essential to optimize the methylene blue from aqueous environment. In this study, a comparison of an optimization of methylene blue was investigated by using modified Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) bio-polymer hydrogel beads. A batch mode study was conducted using various parameters like time, dye concentration, bio-polymer dose, pH and process temperature. The isotherms, kinetics, diffusion and thermodynamic studies were performed for feasibility of the optimization process. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm equations were used for the prediction of isotherm parameters and correlated with dimensionless separation factor (RL). Pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order Lagegren's kinetic equations were used for the correlation of kinetic parameters. Intraparticle diffusion model was employed for diffusion of the optimization process. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) shows different absorbent peaks of Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) beads and the morphology of the bio-polymer material analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The TG & DTA studies show that good thermal stability with less humidity without production of any non-degraded products.
  7. Sumisha A, Arthanareeswaran G, Lukka Thuyavan Y, Ismail AF, Chakraborty S
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2015 Nov;121:174-9.
    PMID: 25890841 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.04.004
    In this study, laundry wastewater filtration was studied using hydrophilic polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP) modified polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membranes. The performances of PES/PVP membranes were assessed using commercial PES membrane with 10kDa in ultrafiltration. Operating parameters The influence of transmembrane pressure (TMP) and stirring speed on laundry wastewater flux was investigated. A higher permeate flux of 55.2L/m(2)h was obtained for modified PES membrane with high concentration of PVP at TMP of 500kPa and 750rpm of stirring speed. The separation efficiencies of membranes were also studied with respect to chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity and conductivity. Results showed that PES membrane with 10% of PVP had higher permeate flux, flux recovery and less fouling when compared with other membranes. Higher COD and TDS rejection of 88% and 82% were also observed for modified membranes due to the improved surface property of membranes. This indicated that modified PES membranes are suitable for the treatment of surfactant, detergent and oil from laundry wastewater.
  8. Nasir AM, Goh PS, Ismail AF
    Chemosphere, 2018 Jun;200:504-512.
    PMID: 29501887 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.02.126
    A novel hydrous iron-nickel-manganese (HINM) trimetal oxide was successfully fabricated using oxidation and coprecipitation method for metalloid arsenite removal. The atomic ratio of Fe:Ni:Mn for this adsorbent is 3:2:1. HINM adsorbent was identified as an amorphous nanosized adsorbent with particle size ranged from 30 nm to 60 nm meanwhile the total active surface area and pore diameter of HINM area of 195.78 m2/g and 2.43 nm, respectively. Experimental data of arsenite adsorption is best fitted into pseudo-second order and Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity of arsenite onto HINM was 81.9 mg/g. Thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption of arsenite was a spontaneous and endothermic reaction with enthalpy change of 14.04 kJ/mol and Gibbs energy of -12 to -14 kJ/mol. Zeta potential, thermal gravimetric (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis were applied to elucidate the mechanism of arsenite adsorption by HINM. Mechanism of arsenite adsorption by HINM involved both chemisorption and physisorption based on the electrostatic attraction between arsenite ions and surface charge of HINM. It also involved the hydroxyl substitution by arsenite ions through the formation of inner-sphere complex. Reusability of HINM trimetal oxide was up to 89% after three cycles of testing implied that HINM trimetal oxide is a promising and practical adsorbent for arsenite.
  9. Awang N, Jaafar J, Ismail AF
    Polymers (Basel), 2018 Feb 15;10(2).
    PMID: 30966230 DOI: 10.3390/polym10020194
    Void-free electrospun SPEEK/Cloisite15A® densed (SP/e-spunCL) membranes are prepared. Different loadings of Cloisite15A® (0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25 and 0.30 wt %) are incorporated into electrospun fibers. The physico-chemical characteristics (methanol permeability, water uptake and proton conductivity) of the membranes are observed. Thermal stability of all membranes is observed using Thermal Gravimetry Analysis (TGA). The thrree stages of degradation range between 163.1 and 613.1 °C. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is used to study the wettability of the membranes. SP/e-spunCL15 shows the lowest freezing bound water of 15.27%, which contributed to the lowest methanol permeability. The non-freezing bound water that proportionally increased with proton conductivity of SP/e-spunCL15 membrane is the highest, 10.60%. It is suggested that the electrospinning as the fabricating method has successfully exfoliated the Cloisite in the membrane surface structure, contributing to the decrease of methanol permeability, while the retained water has led to the enhancement of proton conductivity. This new fabrication method of SP/e-spunCL membrane is said to be a desirable polymer electrolyte membrane for future application in direct methanol fuel cell field.
  10. Dzinun H, Othman MHD, Ismail AF
    Chemosphere, 2019 Aug;228:241-248.
    PMID: 31035161 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.04.118
    Comparison studies in suspension and hybrid photocatalytic membrane reactor (HPMR) system was investigated by using Reactive Black 5 (RB5) as target pollutant under UVA light irradiation. To achieve this aim, hybrid TiO2/clinoptilolite (TCP) photocatalyst powder was prepared by solid-state dispersion (SSD) methods and embedded at the outer layer of dual layer hollow fiber (DLHF) membranes fabricated via single step co-spinning process. TiO2 and CP photocatalyst were also used as control samples. The samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersion of X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. The result shows that TCP was actively functioned as photocatalyst in suspension system and 86% of RB5 photocatalytic degradation achieved within 60 min; however the additional step is required to separate the catalyst with treated water. In the HPMR system, even though the RB5 photocatalytic degradation exhibits lower efficiency however the rejection of RB5 was achieved up to 95% under UV irradiation due to the properties of photocatalytic membranes. The well dispersed of TCP at the outer layer of DLHF membrane have improved the surface affinity of DL-TCP membrane towards water, exhibit the highest pure water flux of 41.72 L/m2.h compared to DL-TiO2 membrane. In general, CP can help on improving photocatalytic activity of TiO2 in suspension, increased the RB5 removal and the permeability of DLHF membrane in HPMR system as well.
  11. Abdullahi S, Ismail AF, Samat S
    Radiat Prot Dosimetry, 2019 Dec 31;186(4):520-523.
    PMID: 31034551 DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncz125
    The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K radionuclides from common building materials used by Malaysian people for construction purposes were studied using High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The measured activity concentrations of the aforementioned radionuclides range from 10 ± 1 Bq kg-1 (limestone) to 155 ± 61 Bq kg-1 (feldspar), 12 ± 3 Bq kg-1 (limestone) to 274 ± 8 Bq kg-1 (kaolin) and 62 ± 19 Bq kg-1 (limestone) to 1114 ± 20 Bq kg-1 (pottery stone) for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The measured activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides reported herein were found to be in accordance with other previous studies. In general, the activity concentration of the natural radionuclides revealed that all the determined values were below the recommended limit.
  12. Shishegaran A, Boushehri AN, Ismail AF
    J Environ Manage, 2020 Jun 15;264:110444.
    PMID: 32217322 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110444
    Surfactants are the emerging contaminant and cause a detrimental effect on the ecosystem. In this study, an attempt is made to removal anionic surfactant Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) containing wastewater using hydrophilic polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP) (5-15 wt%) modified polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membrane. The influence of operating variables on membrane performance was also sequentially analyzed using tests and three numerical modeling methods such as multiple linear regression (MLR), multiple Ln-equation regression (MLnER), and gene expression programming (GEP). Contact angle value of 10 wt% PVP modified PES membrane decreased up to 23.8°, whereas the neat PES membrane is 70.7°. This study indicates that the required hydrophilic property was improved in the modified membrane. The water flux and porosity also enhanced in PVP modified PES membranes. In performance evaluation, the optimum operating variable condition of transmembrane pressure (TMP), feed concentration, and the temperature is found to be 3 bar, 100 ppm, and 25 °C, respectively. Among the models, GEP has a good correlation with experimental anionic surfactant SDS filtration data. GEP performs better than other model with respect to statistical parameter and error terms. This study provides an insight into an adaptation of novel numerical modeling methods for the prediction of membrane performance to the treatment of surfactant wastewater.
  13. Ismail AF, Daud A, Ismail Z, Abdullah B
    Oman Med J, 2013 Sep;28(5):331-6.
    PMID: 24044059 DOI: 10.5001/omj.2013.96
    Noise is known to be one of the environmental and occupational hazards listed in the Factory and Machinery Act 1967. Quarries with loud deafening sounds from trucks and machineries pose the risk of noise-induced hearing loss to workers. This study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards noise-induced hearing loss and to determine the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss and its associated factors among quarry workers in a north-eastern state of Malaysia.
  14. Goh PS, Ng BC, Ismail AF, Aziz M, Hayashi Y
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2012 Nov 15;386(1):80-7.
    PMID: 22909959 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2012.07.033
    Mixed matrix hollow fibers composed of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and polyetherimide (PEI) were fabricated. Pre-treatment of MWCNTs was carried out prior to the incorporation into the polymer matrix using a simple and feasible two stages approach that involved dry air oxidation and surfactant dispersion. The characterizations of the surface treated MWCNTs using TEM and Raman spectroscopy have evidenced the effectiveness of dry air oxidation in eliminating undesired amorphous carbon and metal catalyst while surfactant dispersion using Triton X100 has suppressed the agglomeration of MWCNTs. The resultant mixed matrix hollow fibers were applied for O(2)/N(2) pure gas separation. Interestingly, it was found that removal of disordered amorphous carbons and metal particles has allowed the hollow structures to be more accessible for the fast and smooth transport of gas molecules, hence resulted in noticeable improvement in the gas separation properties. The composite hollow fibers embedded with the surface modified MWCNTs showed increase in permeability as much as 60% while maintaining the selectivity of the O(2)/N(2) gas pair. This study highlights the necessity to establish an appropriate pre-treatment approach for MWCNTs in order to fully utilize the beneficial transport properties of this material in mixed matrix polymer nanocomposite for gas separation.
  15. Kiran SA, Arthanareeswaran G, Thuyavan YL, Ismail AF
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2015 Nov;121:186-92.
    PMID: 25869419 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.04.001
    In this study, modified polyethersulfone (PES) and cellulose acetate (CA) membranes were used in the treatment of car wash effluent using ultrafiltration. Hydrophilic sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) and bentonite as nanoclay were used as additives for the PES and CA membrane modification. Performances of modified membranes were compared with commercial PES membrane with 10kDa molecular weight cut off (MWCO). The influencing parameters like stirrer speed (250-750rpm) and transmembrane pressure (100-600kPa) (TMP) were varied and their effects were studied as a function of flux. In the treatment of car wash effluent, a higher permeate flux of 52.3L/m(2)h was obtained for modified CA membrane at TMP of 400kPa and stirrer speed of 750rpm. In comparison with modified PES membrane and commercial PES membrane, modified CA membranes showed better performance in terms of flux and flux recovery ratio. The highest COD removal (60%) was obtained for modified CA membrane and a lowest COD removal (47%) was observed for commercial PES membrane. The modified membranes were better at removing COD, turbidity and maintained more stable flux than commercial PES membrane, suggesting they will provide better economic performance in car wash effluent reclamation.
  16. Ismail AF, McGrath CP, Yiu CK
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2015 Jun;108(3):369-81.
    PMID: 25817182 DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2015.03.003
    AIM: This systematic review investigated the oral health status of children with type 1 diabetes.
    METHODS: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed/Medline, Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS and EMBASE. The search included all studies published from inception of database to January 2014. A total of 1179 abstracts were analyzed for selection in 2 phases. The first phase selection was based on the title and abstracts alone. The selected abstracts were then included for second phase, where full articles were obtained. The selection was carried out by 2 independent reviewers (Kappa value=0.809). Only 37 articles were included for final analysis in this review.
    RESULTS: There is conflicting evidence in the caries experience between children with type 1 diabetes and healthy children. For periodontal health, most studies reported significantly greater plaque accumulation and higher gingival index in children with type 1 diabetes. Cohort studies reported no significant differences in perioodontal parameters over time.
    CONCLUSIONS: There is conflicting evidence regarding the caries experience of children with type 1 diabetes, but they exhibit poorer periodontal health status with greater plaque accumulation compared to healthy children. Further studies are warranted to assess the oral health status of children with type 1 diabetes.
    KEYWORDS: Caries; Children; Oral health; Periodontal health; Systematic review; Type 1 diabetes
  17. Balaji A, Jaganathan SK, Ismail AF, Rajasekar R
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2016;11:4339-55.
    PMID: 27621626 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S112265
    Management of burn injury is an onerous clinical task since it requires continuous monitoring and extensive usage of specialized facilities. Despite rapid improvizations and investments in burn management, >30% of victims hospitalized each year face severe morbidity and mortality. Excessive loss of body fluids, accumulation of exudate, and the development of septic shock are reported to be the main reasons for morbidity in burn victims. To assist burn wound management, a novel polyurethane (PU)-based bio-nanofibrous dressing loaded with honey (HN) and Carica papaya (PA) fruit extract was fabricated using a one-step electrospinning technique. The developed dressing material had a mean fiber diameter of 190±19.93 nm with pore sizes of 4-50 µm to support effective infiltration of nutrients and gas exchange. The successful blending of HN- and PA-based active biomolecules in PU was inferred through changes in surface chemistry. The blend subsequently increased the wettability (14%) and surface energy (24%) of the novel dressing. Ultimately, the presence of hydrophilic biomolecules and high porosity enhanced the water absorption ability of the PU-HN-PA nanofiber samples to 761.67% from 285.13% in PU. Furthermore, the ability of the bio-nanofibrous dressing to support specific protein adsorption (45%), delay thrombus formation, and reduce hemolysis demonstrated its nontoxic and compatible nature with the host tissues. In summary, the excellent physicochemical and hemocompatible properties of the developed PU-HN-PA dressing exhibit its potential in reducing the clinical complications associated with the treatment of burn injuries.
  18. Akbari M, Shariaty-Niassar M, Matsuura T, Ismail AF
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2018 Oct 01;527:10-24.
    PMID: 29775817 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2018.05.012
    Although polymeric membranes find important role in water and waste water treatment in recent years, their fouling is still an important problem. Application of hydrophilic nanoparticles (NPs) is one of the proposed methods for reducing fouling of membranes but their dispersion and stability in hydrophobic polymer matrix is challenging. In this study Janus functionalization of the NPs was introduced as a promising technique toward achieving this goal. Polysulfone (PSf) membranes containing various concentrations of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and Janus graphene oxide (Janus GO) nanosheets (as additives) were fabricated via phase inversion. The synthesized nanosheets were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The prepared membranes also were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle (CA), water uptake, porosity, mean pore size and casting solution viscosity. The membrane performance was also tested by determining pure water flux (PWF), bovine serum albumin (BSA) separation, flux reduction by fouling and flux recovery. CA reduced from 85° to 68° and PWF increased from 23.15 L/m2 h to 230.61 L/m2 h for PSF and Janus GO nanosheets containing membrane, respectively. Also investigation of antifouling performance of membranes revealed that membrane with the 1 wt.% of Janus GO nanosheets had higher water flux recovery ratio (FRR) and lower irreversible fouling (Rir) of 84% and 16%, respectively. These improvements were attributed to the better dispersion and stability of Janus GO nanosheets in the prepared mixed matrix membranes.
  19. Salimi E, Ghaee A, Ismail AF, Karimi M
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Sep;116:364-377.
    PMID: 29709537 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.04.137
    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of sulfonated alginate as a modifying agent to enhance the hemocompatibility of self-fabricated polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fiber membrane for blood detoxification. Sodium alginate was sulfonated with a degree of 0.6 and immobilized on the membrane via surface amination and using glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agent. Coating layer not only improved the membrane surface hydrophilicity, but also induced -39.2 mV negative charges on the surface. Water permeability of the modified membrane was enhanced from 67 to 95 L/m2·h·bar and flux recovery ratio increased more than 2-fold. Furthermore, the modified membrane presented higher platelet adhesion resistance (reduced by more than 90%) and prolonged coagulation time (35 s for APTT and 14 s for PT) in comparison with the pristine PES hollow fiber membrane, which verified the improved anti-thrombogenicity of the modified membrane. On the other hand, obtained membrane after 3 h coating could remove up-to 60% of the uremic toxins. According to the obtained data, sulfonated alginate can be a promising modifying agent for the future blood-contacting membrane and specially blood purification issues.
  20. Jaganathan SK, Mani MP, Ismail AF, Ayyar M
    Polymers (Basel), 2017 May 04;9(5).
    PMID: 30970842 DOI: 10.3390/polym9050163
    The objective of this work is to characterize and investigate the blood compatibility of polyurethane (PU)/mustard oil composites fabricated using electrospinning technique. The fabricated scaffold was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and contact angle measurements. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APPT), prothrombin time (PT) and the hemolytic assay were done to investigate the blood compatibility of the developed composites. The SEM results revealed that the fiber diameter of the composites (761 ± 123 nm) was reduced compared to pristine PU control. The interaction between PU and mustard oil was confirmed by FTIR as evident through the shifting of peaks. The fabricated composites depicted hydrophobic behavior as insinuated by the increase in contact angle measurements. PU/mustard composites displayed improved crystallinity as confirmed by TGA. Atomic force micrographs suggested that developed PU/mustard oil composites showed an increase in the surface roughness (Ra) compared to pure PU. The Ra of pure PU was observed to be 723 nm but for the fabricated PU/mustard oil composite the Ra was found to be 1298 nm (Ra). The hemolytic index value for pure PU and fabricated composites was observed to be 2.73% and 1.15% indicating that developed composites showed a non-hemolytic behavior signifying the safety of the composites with red blood cells. Hence the newly developed composites with improved physicochemical and blood compatibility properties may be considered as a potential candidate for fabricating cardiac patches and grafts.
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