Sediment cores were taken at eight stations along Sarawak and Sabah coastal waters using a gravity box corer on July 2004. The sediment cores were cut into 2 cm interval for measurement of Mn and Fe concentration using the Inductive Couple Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Overall, the sediment cores contained much mud which include a mixture of silt (46 – 67%) and clay (18 – 53%) compared to sand (0.4 – 16%). The concentrations of Mn and Fe were in the range of 154 – 366 µg/g and 0.9 – 3.4%, respectively. The variation was studied by ANOVA, which showed a significant difference (p = 0.000) for both of Mn and Fe concentrations at all sampling stations. In those ranges, Fe concentration was higher compared to Mn. It is believed that dissolving and diluting process influenced the concentration of Mn in the water column and sediment. Fe showed a significant correlation (r > 0.5, p < 0.01) with Mn at all stations except SR 03, indicating the natural occurrence of Mn and Fe in the water column. Meanwhile, Müller classification proved that sediment cores taken at 8 stations along Sarawak and Sabah coastal waters were not polluted with Fe and Mn with geoaccumulation index, Igeo < 1 and classification 0 – 1.
Keywords: Fe; Mn; Müller classification; organic carbon; particle size; sediment core
A spring is a result of karsts topography where surface water has infiltrated the earth's surface recharge area, becoming part of groundwater and emerges from below to become natural spring water. From few observations, local people tend to consume this water directly for many health reasons. The objective of the study was to determine the concentration of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in natural water resources and bottled drinking water sources, and compared with the existing standard. This field assessment was carried out in 2014 as part of the educational module for public health master student. About 13 water samples were collected directly from the tubing into the pre-washed sample bottle and rinse with the sampling water in the field. Sample preservation was achieved by acidifying to pH less 4.0 with nitric acid (HNO3). Samples were stored in a cooler with temperature between 0 to 4oC. Heavy metals were analysed by standard method for graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (GFAAS) with Zeeman’s correction. Pb and Cd content were analysed from 13 samples which consists of eight natural spring water and five flavoured bottled drinking water. The result showed that Pb content in spring water ranges between 1.8 and 37.3ppb, while the Cd content in spring water ranges between 3.0 and 23.0ppb. In the commercialised drinking water, the amount of Pb ranges between 0.4 and 2.6 ppb, while the content of Cd ranges between 0.8 and 7.0 ppb. This study indicates that there are high content of Pb and Cd in most of the natural spring water points and some bottled drinking water that are available within Klang Valley. In the absence of any specific point sources, the possibility of urban area and high traffic source leading to run off as well as rock types may result in variations observed. Hence, very worrying, especially that these sources of water were consumed directly as drinking water or eye drops without knowing its content. Further tests, coupled with supportive soil and conductivity studies, are required to test all possible similar natural sources to safeguard the health of people.
Water pollution and depletion of natural resources have motivated the utilization of green organic solvents in solvent extraction (SX) and liquid membrane (LM) for sustainable wastewater treatment and resource recovery. SX is an old and established separation method, while LM, which combines both the solute removal and recovery processes of SX in a single unit, is a revolutionary separation technology. The organic solvents used for solute removal in SX and LM can be categorized into sole conventional, mixed conventional-green, and sole green organic solvents, whereas the stripping agents used for solute recovery include acids, bases, metal salts, and water. This review revealed that the performance of greener organic solvents (mixed conventional-green and sole green organic solvents) was on par with the sole conventional organic solvents. However, some green organic solvents may threaten food security, while others could be pricey. The distinctive extraction theories of various sole green organic solvents (free fatty acid-rich oils, triglyceride-rich oils, and deep eutectic solvents) affect their application suitability for a specific type of wastewater. Organic liquid wastes are among the optimal green organic solvents for SX and LM in consideration of their triple environmental, economic, and performance benefits.
The presence of conventional and emerging pollutants infiltrating into our water bodies is a course of concern as they have seriously threatened water security. Established techniques such as photocatalysis and membrane technology have proven to be promising in removing various persistent organic pollutants (POP) from wastewaters. The emergence of hybrid photocatalytic membrane which incorporates both photocatalysis and membrane technology has shown greater potential in treating POP laden wastewater based on their synergistic effects. This article provides an in-depth review on the roles of both photocatalysis and membrane technology in hybrid photocatalytic membranes for the treatment of POP containing wastewaters. A concise introduction on POP's in terms of examples, their origins and their effect on a multitude of organisms are critically reviewed. The fundamentals of photocatalytic mechanism, current directions in photocatalyst design and their employment to treat POP's are also discussed. Finally, the challenges and future direction in this field are presented.
Matched MeSH terms: Water; Water Purification*; Waste Water/analysis
Pharmaceuticals, which are frequently detected in natural and wastewater bodies as well as drinking water have attracted considerable attention, because they do not readily biodegrade and may persist and remain toxic. As a result, pharmaceutical residues pose on-going and potential health and environmental risks. To tackle these emerging contaminants, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) such as photo-Fenton, sonolysis, electrochemical oxidation, radiation and ozonation etc. have been applied to remove pharmaceuticals. These processes utilize the high reactivity of hydroxyl radicals to progressively oxidize organic compounds to innocuous products. This review provides an overview of the findings from recent studies, which have applied AOPs to degrade pharmaceutical compounds. Included is a discussion that links various factors of TiO2-mediated photocatalytic treatment to its effectiveness in degrading pharmaceutical residues. This review furthermore highlights the success of AOPs in the removal of pharmaceuticals from different water matrices and recommendations for future studies are outlined.
Matched MeSH terms: Water; Water Pollutants, Chemical*; Water Purification*; Waste Water
Robust statistical tools were applied on the water quality datasets with the aim of determining the most significance parameters and their contribution towards temporal water quality variation. Surface water samples were collected from four different sampling points during dry and wet seasons and analyzed for their physicochemical constituents. Discriminant analysis (DA) provided better results with great discriminatory ability by using five parameters with (P < 0.05) for dry season affording more than 96% correct assignation and used five and six parameters for forward and backward stepwise in wet season data with P-value (P < 0.05) affording 68.20% and 82%, respectively. Partial correlation results revealed that there are strong (r(p) = 0.829) and moderate (r(p) = 0.614) relationships between five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), total solids (TS) and dissolved solids (DS) controlling for the linear effect of nitrogen in the form of ammonia (NH(3)) and conductivity for dry and wet seasons, respectively. Multiple linear regression identified the contribution of each variable with significant values r = 0.988, R(2) = 0.976 and r = 0.970, R(2) = 0.942 (P < 0.05) for dry and wet seasons, respectively. Repeated measure t-test confirmed that the surface water quality varies significantly between the seasons with significant value P < 0.05.
Contamination of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in tap water is an emerging global issue, and there are abundant influencing factors that have an ambivalent eﬀect on their transportation and fate. Different housing types vary in terms of water distribution system operation and design, water consumption choices, and other hydraulic factors, which potentially affect the dynamics, loadings, and partitioning of pollutants in tap water. Thus, this study analyzed 18 multiclass EDCs in tap water from different housing types (i.e., landed and high-rise) and the associated health risks. Sample analyses revealed the presence of 16 EDCs, namely hormones (5), pharmaceuticals (8), a pesticide (1), and plasticizers (2) in tap water, with the prevalent occurrence of bisphenol A up to 66.40 ng/L in high-rise housing. The presence of caffeine and sulfamethoxazole distribution in tap water was significantly different between landed and high-rise housings (t(152) = -2.298, p = 0.023 and t(109) = 2.135, p = 0.035). Moreover, the salinity and conductivity of tap water in high-rise housings were significantly higher compared to those in landed housings (t(122) = 2.411, p = 0.017 and t(94) = 2.997, p = 0.003, respectively). Furthermore, there were no potential health risks of EDCs (risk quotient water intake. However, EDC variation in different housing types requires simulation of the occurrence, transport, and fate of EDCs in the distribution system and investigation of the underlying factors for effective mitigation, prevention, and intervention.
Groundwater provides critical freshwater supply, particularly in dry regions where surface water availability is limited. Climate change impacts on GWS (groundwater storage) could affect the sustainability of freshwater resources. Here, we used a fully-coupled climate model to investigate GWS changes over seven critical aquifers identified as significantly distressed by satellite observations. We assessed the potential climate-driven impacts on GWS changes throughout the 21st century under the business-as-usual scenario (RCP8.5). Results show that the climate-driven impacts on GWS changes do not necessarily reflect the long-term trend in precipitation; instead, the trend may result from enhancement of evapotranspiration, and reduction in snowmelt, which collectively lead to divergent responses of GWS changes across different aquifers. Finally, we compare the climate-driven and anthropogenic pumping impacts. The reduction in GWS is mainly due to the combined impacts of over-pumping and climate effects; however, the contribution of pumping could easily far exceed the natural replenishment.
Potentially toxic metals pollution in the Straits of Malacca warrants the development of rapid, simple and sensitive assays. Enzyme-based assays are excellent preliminary screening tools with near real-time potential. The heavy-metal assay based on the protease ficin was optimized for mercury detection using response surface methodology. The inhibitive assay is based on ficin action on the substrate casein and residual casein is determined using the Coomassie dye-binding assay. Toxic metals strongly inhibit this hydrolysis. A central composite design (CCD) was utilized to optimize the detection of toxic metals. The results show a marked improvement for the concentration causing 50% inhibition (IC50) for mercury, silver and copper. Compared to one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) optimization, RSM gave an improvement of IC50 (mg/L) from 0.060 (95% CI, 0.030-0.080) to 0.017 (95% CI, 0.016-0.019), from 0.098 (95% CI, 0.077-0.127) to 0.028 (95% CI, 0.022-0.037) and from 0.040 (95% CI, 0.035-0.045) to 0.023 (95% CI, 0.020-0.027), for mercury, silver and copper, respectively. A near-real time monitoring of mercury concentration in the Straits of Malacca at one location in Port Klang was carried out over a 4 h interval for a total of 24 h and validated by instrumental analysis, with the result revealing an absence of mercury pollution in the sampling site.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
The validity of using rainfall characteristics as lumped parameters for investigating the pollutant wash-off process such as first flush occurrence is questionable. This research study introduces an innovative concept of using sector parameters to investigate the relationship between the pollutant wash-off process and different sectors of the runoff hydrograph and rainfall hyetograph. The research outcomes indicated that rainfall depth and rainfall intensity are two key rainfall characteristics which influence the wash-off process compared to the antecedent dry period. Additionally, the rainfall pattern also plays a critical role in the wash-off process and is independent of the catchment characteristics. The knowledge created through this research study provides the ability to select appropriate rainfall events for stormwater quality treatment design based on the required treatment outcomes such as the need to target different sectors of the runoff hydrograph or pollutant species. The study outcomes can also contribute to enhancing stormwater quality modelling and prediction in view of the fact that conventional approaches to stormwater quality estimation is primarily based on rainfall intensity rather than considering other rainfall parameters or solely based on stochastic approaches irrespective of the characteristics of the rainfall event.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Movements*; Water Pollutants/analysis*
This article provides an analytical solute transport model to investigate the potential of groundwater contamination by polluted surface water in a two dimensional domain. The clogging of streambed which makes the aquifer partially penetrated by the stream, is considered in the model. The impacts of pumping process, hydraulic conductivity and clogging layer on the quality of water produced from nearby drinking water wells are evaluated. It is found that results are consistent with numerical simulation conducted by MODFLOW software. Moreover, the model is applied using data of contamination occurrence in Malaysia, where high contaminants concentrations are found close to streams. Results show that the pumping activities (rate and time period) are crucial factors when evaluating the risk of groundwater contamination from surface water. Additionally, this study illustrates that the increase in either hydraulic conductivity or leakance coefficient parameters due to the clogging layer will enlarge the area of contamination. The model is able to determine the suitable pumping rate and location of the well so that the contamination plume never reaches the extraction well, which is useful in constructing riverbank filtration sites.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Movements; Water Pollution; Water Wells; Water Resources
Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) have been experimentally proven as a versatile bioelectrochemical system (BES). They have the potential to alleviate environmental pollution, reduce water scarcity and save energy and operational costs. However, MDCs alone are inadequate to realise a complete wastewater and desalination treatment at a high-efficiency performance. The assembly of identical MDC units that hydraulically and electrically connected can improve the performance better than standalone MDCs. In the same manner, the coupling of MDCs with other BES or conventional water reclamation technology has also exhibits a promising performance. However, the scaling-up effort has been slowly progressing, leading to a lack of knowledge for guiding MDC technology into practicality. Many challenges remain unsolved and should be mitigated before MDCs can be fully implemented in real applications. Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive chronological-based review that covers technological limitations and mitigation strategies, which have been developed for standalone MDCs. We extend our discussion on how assembled, coupled and scaled-up MDCs have improved in comparison with standalone and lab-scale MDC systems. This review also outlines the prevailing challenges and potential mitigation strategies for scaling-up based on large-scale specifications and evaluates the prospects of selected MDC systems to be integrated with conventional anaerobic digestion (AD) and reverse osmosis (RO). This review offers several recommendations to promote up-scaling studies guided by the pilot scale BES and existing water reclamation technologies.
Matched MeSH terms: Water; Water Purification*; Waste Water
Membrane based technologies are highly reliable for water and wastewater treatment, including for removal of total oil and grease from produced water. However, performances of the pressure driven processes are highly restricted by membrane fouling and the application of traditional air bubbling system is limited by their low shear stress due to poor contacts with the membrane surface. This study develops and assesses a novel finned spacer, placed in between vertical panel, for membrane fouling control in submerged plate-and-frame module system for real produced water filtration. Results show that permeability of the panel is enhanced by 87% from 201 to 381 L/(m2 h bar). The spacer system can be operated in switching mode to accommodate two-sided panel aeration. This leads to panel permeability increment by 22% higher than the conventional vertical system. The mechanisms of finned spacer in encouraging the flow trajectory was proven by visual observation and flow simulation. The fins alter the air bubbles flow trajectory toward the membrane surface to effectively scour-off the foulant. Overall results demonstrate the efficacy of the developed spacer in projecting the air bubble trajectory toward the membrane surface and thus significantly enhances membrane panel productivity.
Sungai Selangor is very important from the viewpoint of water supply and multipurpose water use in Malaysia. The
water quality of this river is degrading due to point and non-point sources of pollution. This study, focus on the water
quality assessment and simulation the effect of the pollution sources from urbanization to the Sungai Selangor basin.
Water quality Index (WQI) is used to define the status of river water quality and the QUAL2K was used as a simulation
model. Water quality parameters DO, BOD and NH3
-N have been chosen for modeling. In addition, five different model
scenarios were simulated to observe the impacts of pollution sources on the Sungai Selangor water quality. WQI results
showed that most of the stations in this river basin recorded water inferior to Class III. The water quality model presented
different scenarios for changes of Sungai Selangor water quality. Simulation results for different scenarios showed
that reduced levels of BOD and NH3
-N at 51.10% and 66.18%, respectively, can be obtained if Scenario-5 is employed.
The river water quality issue in the Rawang sub- basin within the study area is considered crucial to create significant
improvement within the sub basin and in the downstream area of Sungai Selangor basin.
Matched MeSH terms: Fresh Water; Water; Water Supply; Water Quality
This article offers a trend of inventions and implementations of photocatalysis process, desalination technologies and solar disinfection techniques adapted particularly for treatment of industrial and domestic wastewater. Photocatalysis treatment of wastewater using solar energy is a promising renewable solution to reduce stresses on global water crisis. Rendering to the United Nation Environment Programme, 1/3 of world population live in water-stressed countries, while by 2025 about 2/3 of world population will face water scarcity. Major pollutants exhibited from numerous sources are critically discussed with focus on potential environmental impacts & hazards. Treatment of wastewater by photocatalysis technique, solar thermal electrochemical process, solar desalination of brackish water and solar advanced oxidation process have been presented and systematically analysed with challenges. Both heterogenous and homogenous photocatalysis techniques employed for wastewater treatment are critically reviewed. For treating domestic wastewater, solar desalination technologies adopted for purifying brackish water into potable water is presented along with key challenges and remedies. Advanced oxidation process using solar energy for degradation of organic pollutant is an important technique to be reviewed due to their effectiveness in wastewater treatment process. Present article focused on three key issues i.e. major pollutants, wastewater treatment techniques and environmental benefits of using solar power for removal of pollutants. The review also provides close ideas on further research needs and major concerns. Drawbacks associated with conventional wastewater treatment options and direct solar energy-based wastewater treatment with energy storage systems to make it convenient during day and night both listed. Although, energy storage systems increase the overall cost of the wastewater treatment plant it also increases the overall efficiency of the system on environmental cost. Cost-efficient wastewater treatment methods using solar power would significantly ensure effective water source utilization, thereby contributing towards sustainable development goals.
Matched MeSH terms: Water; Water Purification*; Waste Water
Millions of litters of multifarious wastewater are directly disposed into the environment annually to reduce the processing costs leading to eutrophication and destroying the clean water sources. The bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) have recently received significant attention from researchers due to their ability to convert waste into energy and their high efficiency of wastewater treatment. However, most of the performed researches of the BESs have focused on energy generation, which created a literature gap on the utilization of BESs for wastewater treatment. The review highlights this gap from various aspects, including the BESs trends, fundamentals, applications, and mechanisms. A different review approach has followed in the present work using a bibliometric review (BR) which defined the literature gap of BESs publications in the degradation process section and linked the systematic review (SR) with it to prove and review the finding systematically. The degradation mechanisms of the BESs have been illustrated comprehensively in the current work, and various suggestions have been provided for supporting future studies and cooperation.
Matched MeSH terms: Water; Water Purification*; Waste Water
The discharge of an alarming number of recalcitrant pollutants from various industrial activities presents a serious threat to environmental sustainability and ecological integrity. Bioremediation has gained immense interest around the world due to its environmentally friendly and cost-effective nature. In contrast to physical and chemical methods, the use of microbial enzymes, particularly immobilized biocatalysts, has been demonstrated as a versatile approach for the sustainable mitigation of environmental pollution. Considerable attention is now devoted to developing novel enzyme engineering approaches and state-of-the-art bioreactor design for ameliorating the overall bio-catalysis and biodegradation performance of enzymes. This review discusses the contemporary and state of the art technical and scientific progress regarding applying oxidoreductase enzyme-based biocatalytic systems to remediate a vast number of pharmaceutically active compounds from water and wastewater bodies. A comprehensive insight into enzyme immobilization, the role of mediators, bioreactors designing, and transformation products of pharmaceuticals and their associated toxicity is provided. Additional studies are necessary to elucidate enzymatic degradation mechanisms, monitor the toxicity levels of the resulting degraded metabolites and optimize the entire bio-treatment strategy for technical and economical affordability.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Purification*; Waste Water*