Produced water (PW) has been generated in a huge amount representing the largest volume waste stream. Membrane technology has found a leading ability in treating PW due to its significant advantages, such as lower cost, easy installation, and being environmentally friendly. Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) have received significant research interest due to their flexibility, multifunctionality enhances the membrane performance with increasing selectivity, permeability, robustness, mechanical strength, and resistance to fouling. This mini-review paper identifies the utilization of different membranes for treating PW. It also gives a review of different types of MMMs with specific fillers for the application of PW treatment. Lastly, some methods to enhance the performance of mixed matrix membranes have been highlighted. The issues and challenges in membranes are also discussed. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) are a potential membrane type for PW treatment. This mini-review paper identifies the use of several membranes to treat PW. It also examined various types of MMMs containing specific fillers for the application of PW treatment. Methods for improving the performance of mixed matrix membranes have been highlighted, including the use of novel materials, surface modification, and cross-linking. The issues and challenges in membranes are also discussed.
Sediment cores were taken at eight stations along Sarawak and Sabah coastal waters using a gravity box corer on July 2004. The sediment cores were cut into 2 cm interval for measurement of Mn and Fe concentration using the Inductive Couple Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Overall, the sediment cores contained much mud which include a mixture of silt (46 – 67%) and clay (18 – 53%) compared to sand (0.4 – 16%). The concentrations of Mn and Fe were in the range of 154 – 366 µg/g and 0.9 – 3.4%, respectively. The variation was studied by ANOVA, which showed a significant difference (p = 0.000) for both of Mn and Fe concentrations at all sampling stations. In those ranges, Fe concentration was higher compared to Mn. It is believed that dissolving and diluting process influenced the concentration of Mn in the water column and sediment. Fe showed a significant correlation (r > 0.5, p < 0.01) with Mn at all stations except SR 03, indicating the natural occurrence of Mn and Fe in the water column. Meanwhile, Müller classification proved that sediment cores taken at 8 stations along Sarawak and Sabah coastal waters were not polluted with Fe and Mn with geoaccumulation index, Igeo < 1 and classification 0 – 1.
Keywords: Fe; Mn; Müller classification; organic carbon; particle size; sediment core
A spring is a result of karsts topography where surface water has infiltrated the earth's surface recharge area, becoming part of groundwater and emerges from below to become natural spring water. From few observations, local people tend to consume this water directly for many health reasons. The objective of the study was to determine the concentration of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in natural water resources and bottled drinking water sources, and compared with the existing standard. This field assessment was carried out in 2014 as part of the educational module for public health master student. About 13 water samples were collected directly from the tubing into the pre-washed sample bottle and rinse with the sampling water in the field. Sample preservation was achieved by acidifying to pH less 4.0 with nitric acid (HNO3). Samples were stored in a cooler with temperature between 0 to 4oC. Heavy metals were analysed by standard method for graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (GFAAS) with Zeeman’s correction. Pb and Cd content were analysed from 13 samples which consists of eight natural spring water and five flavoured bottled drinking water. The result showed that Pb content in spring water ranges between 1.8 and 37.3ppb, while the Cd content in spring water ranges between 3.0 and 23.0ppb. In the commercialised drinking water, the amount of Pb ranges between 0.4 and 2.6 ppb, while the content of Cd ranges between 0.8 and 7.0 ppb. This study indicates that there are high content of Pb and Cd in most of the natural spring water points and some bottled drinking water that are available within Klang Valley. In the absence of any specific point sources, the possibility of urban area and high traffic source leading to run off as well as rock types may result in variations observed. Hence, very worrying, especially that these sources of water were consumed directly as drinking water or eye drops without knowing its content. Further tests, coupled with supportive soil and conductivity studies, are required to test all possible similar natural sources to safeguard the health of people.
Gas Hydrate modelling has gained huge attention in the past decade due to its increase in usage for various energy as well as environmental applications at an industrial scale. As the experimental approach is highly expensive and time-consuming, modelling is the best way to predict the conditions before the actual applications at industrial scales. The commercial software currently existing uses the equation of states (EOS) to predict the thermodynamic conditions of gas hydrates. But, in certain cases, the prediction by using EOS fails to predict the hydrate conditions accurately. Therefore, there arose a need for an accurate prediction model to estimate the hydrate formation conditions. So, in this work, an accurate prediction model has been proposed to predict the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions of the gas hydrate formation. The performance of prediction accuracy for the proposed model is compared with those of the SRK equation of state and Peng Robinson (PR) Equation of state. It was observed that in most of the cases the proposed model has predicted the thermodynamic conditions more accurately than the PR and SRK equation of state. This work helps in understanding the limitations of EOS for the prediction hydrate conditions. Also, the current work helps in strengthening the conventional statistical modelling technique to predict the hydrate conditions for a broader range.
This research aims to evaluate the performance of PolyCera® Titan membrane for different wastewater treatment. Membrane filtration of several cycles was conducted in understanding the fouling mechanism, fouling propensity, and defouling potential of the PolyCera® Titan which had not been studied by any other researcher before. The PolyCera® Titan membrane is effective for the treatment of textile industry wastewater, palm oil mill effluent (POME), leachate, and semiconductor-industry wastewater. Rejection of methylene blue (MB) and Congo red (CR) was in the range of 78.76-86.04% and 88.89-93.71%, respectively; 94.72-96.50% NaCl, 96.07-97.62% kaolin, and 97.26-97.73% glucose were rejected from synthetic leachate indicating the removal of TDS, TSS, and COD from the leachate, respectively. Standard blocking and complete model were the best models used to explain the PolyCera® Titan membrane fouling mechanism in all types of wastewater treatment processes with a high R2 value. Physical cleaning with the use of distilled water was able to recover the permeate flux with the flux recovery ratio (FRR) value in the range of 79.2-95.22% in the first cycle, 81.20-98.16% in the second cycle, and 86.09-95.96% in the third cycle.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Purification*; Waste Water*
Water pollution and depletion of natural resources have motivated the utilization of green organic solvents in solvent extraction (SX) and liquid membrane (LM) for sustainable wastewater treatment and resource recovery. SX is an old and established separation method, while LM, which combines both the solute removal and recovery processes of SX in a single unit, is a revolutionary separation technology. The organic solvents used for solute removal in SX and LM can be categorized into sole conventional, mixed conventional-green, and sole green organic solvents, whereas the stripping agents used for solute recovery include acids, bases, metal salts, and water. This review revealed that the performance of greener organic solvents (mixed conventional-green and sole green organic solvents) was on par with the sole conventional organic solvents. However, some green organic solvents may threaten food security, while others could be pricey. The distinctive extraction theories of various sole green organic solvents (free fatty acid-rich oils, triglyceride-rich oils, and deep eutectic solvents) affect their application suitability for a specific type of wastewater. Organic liquid wastes are among the optimal green organic solvents for SX and LM in consideration of their triple environmental, economic, and performance benefits.
This article considers and adds empirical nuances to the recent conceptualization of pro-poor water management. Using the concept of pro-poor hydraulic governmentality along the Vietnam-Cambodia border of Thường Phước commune, we argue that water management is linked to local rural livelihoods in a complex and dynamic pro-poor mechanism. While certain policies organize local populations according to cost-effectiveness ignoring local customs, the practicalities of dealing with such constraints are much more ambivalent. This article demonstrates the structural pro-poor complexity among sand excavation, riverbank landslides, water management, local livelihoods, and populace resettlement. The government's resettlement plans and the perceptions of residents of these plans are intertwined with a wider political, economic, social, and cultural significance in the context of strong institutional power in Vietnam. Limitations and future research agenda are also indicated in the discussion and conclusion section.
As the division of work within the world economic system becomes increasingly complex, the impact of disturbing events on the economic system is expanding. Recently, Japan proposed to discharge nuclear wastewater into the Pacific Ocean, which will cause damage to marine fisheries, thereby seriously affecting fisheries and other industries in Japan and other countries and regions around the world. Considering different scenarios of final and intermediate demand shifting, this paper uses the Inoperability Input-Output Model (IIM) and Multi-Region Input-Output Model (MRIO) to simulate the economic consequences of nuclear wastewater discharge in Japan and calculate the economic changes of each industry and country (region). The results show that: In the short term, when only the final demand for Japanese fishery products decreases. (1) The ten countries (regions) with significant economic losses are Japan, the United States, Chinese Taipei, Canada, Chile, South Africa, Mexico, Peru, the United Kingdom, and Ireland. (2) The ten countries (regions) with a significant increase in total output due to demand shift are China (People's Republic of), the Rest of the World, India, Indonesia, Viet Nam, the Philippines, Brazil, Myanmar, the Russian Federation, and Malaysia. (3) A ranking of changes in the total output of different industries. In the long term, when both intermediate and final demand for Japanese fishery products decrease. (4) The change in value added in Japan. (5) The change in value added of 67 countries (regions) worldwide. The ten countries (regions) with the most significant increase in value-added are the Russian Federation, China (People's Republic of), the Rest of the World, the United States, Indonesia, Australia, Norway, Korea, Viet Nam, and Myanmar. The ten countries (regions) with the most significant decrease in value-added are Japan, Chinese Taipei, Chile, South Africa, Peru, Thailand, Mexico, Cambodia, Costa Rica, and Morocco. Changes in value added of 45 industrial sectors worldwide.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollution*; Waste Water*
The presence of conventional and emerging pollutants infiltrating into our water bodies is a course of concern as they have seriously threatened water security. Established techniques such as photocatalysis and membrane technology have proven to be promising in removing various persistent organic pollutants (POP) from wastewaters. The emergence of hybrid photocatalytic membrane which incorporates both photocatalysis and membrane technology has shown greater potential in treating POP laden wastewater based on their synergistic effects. This article provides an in-depth review on the roles of both photocatalysis and membrane technology in hybrid photocatalytic membranes for the treatment of POP containing wastewaters. A concise introduction on POP's in terms of examples, their origins and their effect on a multitude of organisms are critically reviewed. The fundamentals of photocatalytic mechanism, current directions in photocatalyst design and their employment to treat POP's are also discussed. Finally, the challenges and future direction in this field are presented.
Matched MeSH terms: Water; Water Purification*; Waste Water/analysis
Pharmaceuticals, which are frequently detected in natural and wastewater bodies as well as drinking water have attracted considerable attention, because they do not readily biodegrade and may persist and remain toxic. As a result, pharmaceutical residues pose on-going and potential health and environmental risks. To tackle these emerging contaminants, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) such as photo-Fenton, sonolysis, electrochemical oxidation, radiation and ozonation etc. have been applied to remove pharmaceuticals. These processes utilize the high reactivity of hydroxyl radicals to progressively oxidize organic compounds to innocuous products. This review provides an overview of the findings from recent studies, which have applied AOPs to degrade pharmaceutical compounds. Included is a discussion that links various factors of TiO2-mediated photocatalytic treatment to its effectiveness in degrading pharmaceutical residues. This review furthermore highlights the success of AOPs in the removal of pharmaceuticals from different water matrices and recommendations for future studies are outlined.
Matched MeSH terms: Water; Water Pollutants, Chemical*; Water Purification*; Waste Water
Robust statistical tools were applied on the water quality datasets with the aim of determining the most significance parameters and their contribution towards temporal water quality variation. Surface water samples were collected from four different sampling points during dry and wet seasons and analyzed for their physicochemical constituents. Discriminant analysis (DA) provided better results with great discriminatory ability by using five parameters with (P < 0.05) for dry season affording more than 96% correct assignation and used five and six parameters for forward and backward stepwise in wet season data with P-value (P < 0.05) affording 68.20% and 82%, respectively. Partial correlation results revealed that there are strong (r(p) = 0.829) and moderate (r(p) = 0.614) relationships between five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), total solids (TS) and dissolved solids (DS) controlling for the linear effect of nitrogen in the form of ammonia (NH(3)) and conductivity for dry and wet seasons, respectively. Multiple linear regression identified the contribution of each variable with significant values r = 0.988, R(2) = 0.976 and r = 0.970, R(2) = 0.942 (P < 0.05) for dry and wet seasons, respectively. Repeated measure t-test confirmed that the surface water quality varies significantly between the seasons with significant value P < 0.05.
Contamination of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in tap water is an emerging global issue, and there are abundant influencing factors that have an ambivalent eﬀect on their transportation and fate. Different housing types vary in terms of water distribution system operation and design, water consumption choices, and other hydraulic factors, which potentially affect the dynamics, loadings, and partitioning of pollutants in tap water. Thus, this study analyzed 18 multiclass EDCs in tap water from different housing types (i.e., landed and high-rise) and the associated health risks. Sample analyses revealed the presence of 16 EDCs, namely hormones (5), pharmaceuticals (8), a pesticide (1), and plasticizers (2) in tap water, with the prevalent occurrence of bisphenol A up to 66.40 ng/L in high-rise housing. The presence of caffeine and sulfamethoxazole distribution in tap water was significantly different between landed and high-rise housings (t(152) = -2.298, p = 0.023 and t(109) = 2.135, p = 0.035). Moreover, the salinity and conductivity of tap water in high-rise housings were significantly higher compared to those in landed housings (t(122) = 2.411, p = 0.017 and t(94) = 2.997, p = 0.003, respectively). Furthermore, there were no potential health risks of EDCs (risk quotient water intake. However, EDC variation in different housing types requires simulation of the occurrence, transport, and fate of EDCs in the distribution system and investigation of the underlying factors for effective mitigation, prevention, and intervention.
Groundwater provides critical freshwater supply, particularly in dry regions where surface water availability is limited. Climate change impacts on GWS (groundwater storage) could affect the sustainability of freshwater resources. Here, we used a fully-coupled climate model to investigate GWS changes over seven critical aquifers identified as significantly distressed by satellite observations. We assessed the potential climate-driven impacts on GWS changes throughout the 21st century under the business-as-usual scenario (RCP8.5). Results show that the climate-driven impacts on GWS changes do not necessarily reflect the long-term trend in precipitation; instead, the trend may result from enhancement of evapotranspiration, and reduction in snowmelt, which collectively lead to divergent responses of GWS changes across different aquifers. Finally, we compare the climate-driven and anthropogenic pumping impacts. The reduction in GWS is mainly due to the combined impacts of over-pumping and climate effects; however, the contribution of pumping could easily far exceed the natural replenishment.
Potentially toxic metals pollution in the Straits of Malacca warrants the development of rapid, simple and sensitive assays. Enzyme-based assays are excellent preliminary screening tools with near real-time potential. The heavy-metal assay based on the protease ficin was optimized for mercury detection using response surface methodology. The inhibitive assay is based on ficin action on the substrate casein and residual casein is determined using the Coomassie dye-binding assay. Toxic metals strongly inhibit this hydrolysis. A central composite design (CCD) was utilized to optimize the detection of toxic metals. The results show a marked improvement for the concentration causing 50% inhibition (IC50) for mercury, silver and copper. Compared to one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) optimization, RSM gave an improvement of IC50 (mg/L) from 0.060 (95% CI, 0.030-0.080) to 0.017 (95% CI, 0.016-0.019), from 0.098 (95% CI, 0.077-0.127) to 0.028 (95% CI, 0.022-0.037) and from 0.040 (95% CI, 0.035-0.045) to 0.023 (95% CI, 0.020-0.027), for mercury, silver and copper, respectively. A near-real time monitoring of mercury concentration in the Straits of Malacca at one location in Port Klang was carried out over a 4 h interval for a total of 24 h and validated by instrumental analysis, with the result revealing an absence of mercury pollution in the sampling site.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
The presence of metal with microwave irradiation has always invited controversial arguments as the metal will catch on fire easily. But interestingly, researchers found that arc discharge phenomena provide a promising way for molecule cracking to synthesize nanomaterials. This study developed a single-step yet affordable synthesis approach that combines microwave heating and arcing in transforming crude palm oil into magnetic nanocarbon (MNC), which can be considered a new alternative for the palm oil sectors. It involves synthesizing the medium at a partial inert condition with constant coiled stainless steel metal wire (dielectric media) and ferrocene (catalyst). This approach successfully demonstrates heating at a temperature ranging from 190.9 to 472.0 °C with different synthesis times (10-20 min). The produced MNC shows formations of spheres with average sizes of 20.38-31.04 nm, mesoporous structure (SBET: 14.83-151.95 m2/g), and high content of fixed carbon (52.79-71.24wt%), and the ratio of the D and G bands (ID/IG) is 0.98-0.99. The formation of new peaks in the FTIR spectra (522.29-588.48 cm-1) supports the appearance of the FeO compounds from the ferrocene. The magnetometer shows high magnetization saturation (22.32-26.84 emu/g) in ferromagnetic materials. The application of the MNC in wastewater treatment has been demonstrated by evaluating their adsorbent capability with Methylene Blue (MB) adsorption test at a different concentrations varying between 5 and 20 ppm. The MNC produced at synthesis time (20 min) shows the highest adsorption efficiency (10.36 mg/g) compared to others, with 87.79% removal of MB dye. As a result, the value for Langmuir is not promising compared to Freundlich, with R2 being around 0.80, 0.98, and 0.99 for MNC synthesized at 10 min (MNC10), 15 min (MNC15), and 20 min (MNC20), respectively. Hence, the adsorption system is in a heterogeneous condition. The microwave-assisted arcing thereby presents a promising approach to transforming CPO into MNC that could remove the hazardous dye.
Water contamination due to soluble synthetic dyes has serious concerns. Membrane-based wastewater treatments are emerging as a preferred choice for removing dyes from water. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based nanomembranes have gained much popularity due to their favorable features. This review explores the application of PVDF-based nanomembranes in synthetic dye removal through various treatments. Different fabrication methods to obtain high performance PVDF-based nanomembranes were discussed under surface coating and blending methods. Studies related to use of PVDF-based nanomembranes in adsorption, filtration, catalysis (oxidant activation, ozonation, Fenton process and photocatalysis) and membrane distillation have been elaborately discussed. Nanomaterials including metal compounds, metals, (synthetic/bio)polymers, metal organic frameworks, carbon materials and their composites were incorporated in PVDF membrane to enhance its performance. The advantages and limitations of incorporating nanomaterials in PVDF-based membranes have been highlighted. The influence of nanomaterials on the surface features, mechanical strength, hydrophilicity, crystallinity and catalytic ability of PVDF membrane was discussed. The conclusion of this literature review was given along with future research.