AIM: These post hoc analyses investigated the bleeding patterns in target joints.
METHODS: Patients randomized to 40 or 10 IU kg(-1) once weekly prophylaxis who had at least one target joint were included. Baseline demographics and disease-specific data were collected. Bleeding patterns were assessed, and an International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) definition of target joints was used.
RESULTS: A total of 67% and 8% of patients in the 40 and 10 IU kg(-1) arm, respectively, did not experience target joint bleeds during the paradigm(™) 2 trial. Twenty-four target joints were recorded in each prophylaxis arm at baseline. During the paradigm(™) 2 trial, no bleeds were reported in 17 (71%) and 7 (29%) target joints in the 40 and 10 IU kg(-1) arms respectively. All target joint bleeds in the 40 IU kg(-1) once weekly prophylaxis arm were controlled with a single injection of 40 IU kg(-1) nonacog beta pegol. By the latest ISTH definition, 90% and 58% of target joints in the 40 and 10 IU kg(-1) arms, respectively, were no longer considered target joints at the end of the paradigm(™) 2 trial. At the end of the paradigm(™) 4 extension trial, all target joints in the 40 IU kg(-1) arm were no longer considered target joints.
CONCLUSION: Routine prophylaxis with 40 IU kg(-1) once weekly nonacog beta pegol has the potential for effective management of target joint bleeds in haemophilia B patients.
SUMMARY: Background Nonacog beta pegol is a recombinant glycoPEGylated factor IX with an extended half-life, developed to improve care for patients with hemophilia B. Objectives To investigate the safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of nonacog beta pegol for the prophylaxis and treatment of bleeds in previously treated children with hemophilia B. Patients/Methods This phase 3 trial, paradigm(™) 5, enrolled and treated 25 children (aged ≤ 12 years) with hemophilia B (FIX ≤ 2%). Patients were stratified by age (0-6 years and 7-12 years), and received once-weekly prophylaxis with 40 IU kg(-1) nonacog beta pegol for 50 exposure days. Results No patient developed inhibitors, and no safety concerns were identified. Forty-two bleeds in 15 patients were reported to have been treated; the overall success rate was 92.9%, and most bleeds (85.7%) resolved after one dose. The median annualized bleeding rates (ABRs; bleeds per patient per year) were 1.0 in the total population, 0.0 in the 0-6-year group, and 2.0 in the 7-12-year group; the estimated mean ABRs were 1.44 in the total population, 0.87 in the 0-6-year group, and 1.88 in the 7-12-year group. For 22 patients who had previously been receiving prophylaxis, the estimated mean ABR was 1.38 versus a historical ABR of 2.51. Estimated mean steady-state FIX trough levels were 0.153 IU mL(-1) (0-6 years) and 0.190 IU mL(-1) (7-12 years). Conclusion Nonacog beta pegol was well tolerated in previously treated children with hemophilia B; a 40 IU kg(-1) dose provided effective once-weekly prophylaxis and hemostasis when bleeds were treated.
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of N9-GP.
METHODS: Data from 41 previously treated haemophilia B patients, enrolled globally (16 adolescents/adults and 25 children; FIX activity ≤0.02 IU mL-1) with no history of FIX inhibitors, were included. N9-GP was administered once-weekly as 10 IU kg-1or 40 IU kg-1in adolescents/adults and 40 IU kg-1in children. Blood was sampled up to 168 h (1 week) post dose. Standard PK was estimated on the basis of plasma FIX activity vs. time (PK profiles) using non-compartmental methods. Furthermore, a population PK analysis and FIX activity predictions were performed.
RESULTS: Incremental recoveries were 0.02 (IU mL-1)/(IU kg-1) in both adolescents/adults and children. The extended half-life resulted in mean trough levels of 0.27 IU mL-1for adolescents/adults and 0.17 IU mL-1for children at steady-state after weekly dosing at 40 IU kg-1. The population PK analysis confirmed a mono-exponential decay in FIX activity and allowed for predictions of FIX activity for adolescents/adults above 0.15 IU mL-1at all times and 6.4 days week-1in children.
CONCLUSION: N9-GP has the potential to shift previously treated haemophilia B patients from a severe/moderate disease state into a mild- or non-haemophilic range for most of the dosing interval, which is expected to reduce the number of bleeding episodes.
METHODS: This was a prospective, cross sectional study recruiting injured motorcyclists from Hanoi, Vietnam hospital. The participants were interviewed by a trained researcher. The participants' helmets were collected post-crash. Initially, the helmets were examined for their type and external characteristics. A 3 cm × 3 cm cut was made on the helmet in the impacted and non-impacted areas (control). These areas were investigated for evidence of POD and presence of micro-cracks and material disintegration. 50 participants were enrolled. Sources of information included questionnaire and laboratory analyses. The helmet factors of interest were age of the helmet, exposure of helmet to sunlight and rain (duration/day) and history of previous impact. Laboratory analyses included Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) for degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for micro-structural examination.
RESULTS: Majority of the helmets was the open-face type, 40 (80.0%). 31 (62.0%) helmets aged less than three years (LTY) and 19 (38.0%) were three years old or more (MTY). 19 (61.3%) of the LTY helmets and 12 (63.2%) MTY helmets showed evidence of POD. The duration of helmet exposure to sunlight was between 93 to 6570 hours (mean 2347.74 hours; SD 1733.39). The SEM showed 15 helmets (30%) with micro-fractures, 21 helmets (42.0%) with material disintegration. Prolonged uv exposure to the ABS helmets resulted in changes in the helmet material in the form of material disintegration and microcracks and this association was statistically significant (p = 0.03).
CONCLUSION: POD occurs due to routine exposure to the ultraviolet light. Prolonged uv exposure affects outer shell surface material integrity.
SUMMARY: Background rVIII-SingleChain is a novel B-domain truncated recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) comprised of covalently bonded FVIII heavy and light chains, demonstrating a high binding affinity to von Willebrand factor. Objectives This phase III study investigated the safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of rVIII-SingleChain in previously treated pediatric patients < 12 years of age with severe hemophilia A. Patients/Methods Patients could be assigned to prophylaxis or on-demand therapy by the investigator. For patients assigned to prophylaxis, the treatment regimen and dose were based on the bleeding phenotype. For patients receiving on-demand therapy, dosing was guided by World Federation of Hemophilia recommendations. The primary endpoint was treatment success, defined as a rating of 'excellent' or 'good' on the investigator's clinical assessment of hemostatic efficacy for all treated bleeding events. Results The study enrolled 84 patients (0 to < 6 years, n = 35; ≥ 6 to < 12 years, n = 49); 81 were assigned to prophylaxis and three to an on-demand regimen. Patients accumulated a total of 5239 exposure days (EDs), with 65 participants reaching > 50 EDs. In the 347 bleeds treated and evaluated by the investigator, hemostatic efficacy was rated as excellent or good in 96.3%. The median annualized spontaneous bleeding rate was 0.00 (Q1, Q3: 0.00, 2.20), and the median annualized bleeding rate was 3.69 (Q1, Q3: 0.00, 7.20) across all prophylaxis regimens. No participant developed an inhibitor. Conclusions rVIII-SingleChain is a novel rFVIII molecule showing excellent hemostatic efficacy and a favorable safety profile in a clinical study in children < 12 years of age with severe hemophilia A.
OBJECTIVE: We report end-of-trial efficacy and safety of N8-GP from pathfinder2.
METHODS: pathfinder2 main phase and extension phase part 1 results have been previously reported. During extension phase part 2, patients could switch from N8-GP prophylaxis 50 IU/kg every fourth day (Q4D) or 75 IU/kg once weekly (Q7D), depending on bleeding status. Extension phase part 2 collected long-term safety and efficacy data for all regimens until trial end (first patient in main phase, 30 January 2012; trial end, 10 December 2018).
RESULTS: Overall, 186 patients were exposed to N8-GP for up to 6.6 years (median 5.4 years). The estimated annualized bleeding rate (ABR) was 2.14 (median 0.84) for the Q4D prophylaxis arm and 1.31 (median 1.67) for the Q7D prophylaxis arm. Nearly 30% of patients experienced zero bleeds throughout the entire duration of the trial, the hemostatic response was 83.2% across all treatment arms, and patient-reported outcomes were maintained or slightly improved. No safety concerns were detected.
CONCLUSION: Data from the completed pathfinder2 trial, one of the largest and longest-running clinical trials to investigate treatment of severe hemophilia A, demonstrate the efficacy and safety of N8-GP in previously treated adolescent and adult patients.