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  1. Othman S, Yuen CW, Mohd Zain N, Abdul Samad A
    J Interpers Violence, 2019 Apr 02.
    PMID: 30938233 DOI: 10.1177/0886260519839426
    Victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) are frequent attendees at health care facilities. Although most literature on this subject focuses on developed or Western countries, there is a dearth of information from Asian countries. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of IPV among women attending urban primary care services in Malaysia and to identify the risk factors associated with IPV. Six out of 15 available public primary care clinics in the federal territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were randomly selected. The sampling size for each clinic was conducted proportionate to the clinic's average daily patient attendance. A total of 882 women participated in this study via a self-administered questionnaire. We administered the women's experience with battering scale (WEB-scale) to estimate the prevalence of psychological violence and included a screening question for physical and sexual assault. The results showed that 22.0% of the women surveyed reported experiencing IPV. Ethnicity appears to be a significant predictor, with Chinese and Indian women reporting IPV at a higher rate than Malay women. Women with IPV are more likely to come from lower income households, have witnessed parental IPV, receive less social support, and have poorer psychological well-being. Our findings indicate that the prevalence of IPV among women attending urban public primary care clinics is high. Health care providers should pay close attention during clinical encounters for any sign of IPV, particularly among those presenting with risk factors.
  2. Khoo EM, Sararaks S, Lee WK, Liew SM, Cheong AT, Abdul Samad A, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Sep;27(6):670-7.
    PMID: 25563351 DOI: 10.1177/1010539514564007
    This study aimed to develop an intervention to reduce medical errors and to determine if the intervention can reduce medical errors in public funded primary care clinics. A controlled interventional trial was conducted in 12 conveniently selected primary care clinics. Random samples of outpatient medical records were selected and reviewed by family physicians for documentation, diagnostic, and management errors at baseline and 3 months post intervention. The intervention package comprised educational training, structured process change, review methods, and patient education. A significant reduction was found in overall documentation error rates between intervention (Pre 98.3% [CI 97.1-99.6]; Post 76.1% [CI 68.1-84.1]) and control groups (Pre 97.4% [CI 95.1-99.8]; Post 89.5% [85.3-93.6]). Within the intervention group, overall management errors reduced from 54.0% (CI 49.9-58.0) to 36.6% (CI 30.2-43.1) and medication error from 43.2% (CI 39.2-47.1) to 25.2% (CI 19.9-30.5). This low-cost intervention was useful to reduce medical errors in resource-constrained settings.
  3. Fadzil F, Shamsuddin K, Wan Puteh SE, Ahmad S, Abdul Hayi NS, Abdul Samad A, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):637-642.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: In maternal healthcare, pre-pregnancy weight is used to predict pregnancy outcomes. Since no recorded data on pre-pregnancy weight, perceived weight is used alternatively. This study examines the relationship between perceived and actual weight among non-pregnant urban Malaysian women of childbearing age and identifies differences in perceived and actual weight by selected socio-demographic characteristics.
    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and June 2013 among urban Malaysian women attending public health clinics in the Klang Valley. Information on height, perceived current weight and time when their weight was last taken were obtained and actual weight was the average of two measurements (TANITA-HD-323-digital-scale). Socio-demographic data collected were age, ethnicity, education level, marital and employment status and total household income.
    Results: Mean age of 371 women in this study was 28.81±5.65, 82.2% were Malays, 62.8% had tertiary education, over 75% were married and employed, with more than half from middle-income households. Overall, the mean perceived and actual weight was 59.29±11.59 and 59.20±11.90 respectively. Pearson‟s Correlation test showed a very strong positive correlation between perceived and actual weight (r=0.957;p<0.0001), ranging between 0.852 to 0.994 among subgroups; 258 (69.5%) perceived their weight accurately (±2.0 kg of actual weight), 49 (13.2%) under and 64 (17.3%) overestimated their weight.Main outliers were among younger women, Malays, tertiary educated, employed, middle-income and had weight last measured a month or more ago.
    Conclusion: Strong correlation between perceived and actual weight among women in this study reassured weight perception can be used more confidently in patients‟ history taking and future research among urban Malaysian women using public health services.
  4. Fadzil F, Shamsuddin K, Wan Puteh SE, Mohd Tamil A, Ahmad S, Abdul Hayi NS, et al.
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2018 06 28;12(6):493-499.
    PMID: 29960869 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2018.06.003
    BACKGROUND: Women of childbearing age are predisposed to becoming overweight or obese. This study determines the mean, prevalence and factors associated with 6 months postpartum weight retention among urban Malaysian mothers.

    METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted at baseline (after delivery), 2, 4 and 6 months postpartum. From 638 eligible mothers initially recruited, 420 completed until 6 months. Dependent variable was weight retention, defined as difference between weight at 6 months postpartum and pre-pregnancy weight, and weight retention ≥5kg was considered excessive. Independent variables included socio-demographic, history of pregnancy and delivery, lifestyle, practices and traditional postpartum practices.

    RESULTS: Average age was 29.61±4.71years, majority (83.3%) were Malays, 58.8% (low education), 70.0% (employed), 65.2% (middle income family), 33.8% (primiparous) and 66.7% (normal/instrumental delivery). Average gestational weight gain was 12.90±5.18kg. Mean postpartum weight retention was 3.12±4.76kg, 33.8% retaining ≥5kg. Bivariable analysis showed low income, primiparity, gestational weight gain ≥12kg, less active physically, higher energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat intake in diet, never using hot stone compression and not continuing breastfeeding were significantly associated with higher 6 months postpartum weight retention. From multivariable linear regression analysis, less active physically, higher energy intake in diet, gestational weight gain ≥12kg, not continuing breastfeeding 6 months postpartum and never using hot stone compression could explain 55.1% variation in 6 months postpartum weight retention.

    CONCLUSION: Women need to control gestational weight gain, remain physically active, reduce energy intake, breastfeed for at least 6 months and use hot stone compression to prevent high postpartum weight retention.

  5. Khoo EM, Lee WK, Sararaks S, Abdul Samad A, Liew SM, Cheong AT, et al.
    BMC Fam Pract, 2012;13:127.
    PMID: 23267547 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-13-127
    Patient safety is vital in patient care. There is a lack of studies on medical errors in primary care settings. The aim of the study is to determine the extent of diagnostic inaccuracies and management errors in public funded primary care clinics.
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