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  1. Lwin M, Abdullah MA
    Med J Malaysia, 1995 Mar;50(1):108-9.
    PMID: 7752962
    A case of gangrene of the penis, rarely seen at our University Hospital is reported. Urolithiasis, urinary tract infection, infected piles and anaemia were found to be associated with the condition. Because of rapid spread of the gangrene, partial amputation was required in this reported case.
  2. Lwin M, Abdullah MA
    Med J Malaysia, 1995 Dec;50(4):419-20.
    PMID: 8668068
    A case of non-fatal strangulation of the neck by rigging lines of a parachute during military training is presented. It is an unusual but potentially life-threatening injury. Probable factors leading to such injury are discussed.
  3. Saepurahman, Abdullah MA, Chong FK
    J Hazard Mater, 2010 Apr 15;176(1-3):451-8.
    PMID: 19969415 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.11.050
    Tungsten-loaded TiO(2) photocatalyst has been successfully prepared and characterized. TEM analysis showed that the photocatalysts were nanosize with the tungsten species forming layers of coverage on the surface of TiO(2), but not in clustered form. This was confirmed by XRD and FT-Raman analyses where tungsten species were well dispersed at lower loading (<6.5 mol%), but were in crystalline WO(3) at higher loadings (>12 mol%). In addition, loading with tungsten could stabilize the anatase phase from transforming into inactive rutile phase and did not shift the optical absorption to the visible region as shown by DRUV-vis analysis. PZC value of TiO(2) was found at 6.4, but the presence of tungsten at 6.5 mol% WO(3), decreased the PZC value to 3. Tungsten-loaded TiO(2) was superior to unmodified TiO(2) with 2-fold increase in degradation rate of methylene blue, and equally effective for the degradation of different class of dyes such as methyl violet and methyl orange at 1 mol% WO(3) loading.
  4. Salim, M. A., Wan Mohamad, W. M. F., Maksom, Z., Kamat, S. R., Sukarma, L., Putra, A., et al.
    MyJurnal
    This paper presents the housing improvement proposition in the Melaka resident area.Quality Function Deployment is used as a method to analyze customer behavior regarding customer requirement, satisfaction and comparison among the developers. By using this method, the main requirement by the buyer for their bungalow is their need of sufficient space to place their appliances in the house. At the end of the study, the details of buyer requirements are plotted into House of Quality, where it is believed to improve the quality of future bungalow house development in Melaka.
  5. Abdullah MA, Rahmah AU, Man Z
    J Hazard Mater, 2010 May 15;177(1-3):683-91.
    PMID: 20060641 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.12.085
    Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn (kapok) is a natural sorbent that exhibits excellent hydrophobic-oleophilic characteristics. The effect of packing density, the oil types and solvent treatment on the sorption characteristics of kapok was studied in a batch system. Oil sorption capacity, retention capacity, entrapment stability and kapok reusability were evaluated. Based on SEM and FTIR analyses, kapok fiber was shown to be a lignocellulosic material with hydrophobic waxy coating over the hollow structures. Higher packing density at 0.08 g/ml showed lower sorption capacity, but higher percentage of dynamic oil retention, with only 1% of oil drained out from the test cell. Kapok remained stable after fifteen cycles of reuse with only 30% of sorption capacity reduction. The oil entrapment stability at 0.08 g/ml packing was high with more than 90% of diesel and used engine oil retained after horizontal shaking. After 8h of chloroform and alkali treatment, 2.1% and 26.3% reduction in sorption capacity were observed, respectively, as compared to the raw kapok. The rigid hollow structure was reduced to flattened-like structure after alkali treatment, though no major structural difference was observed after chloroform treatment. Malaysian kapok has shown great potential as an effective natural oil sorbent, owing to high sorption and retention capacity, structural stability and high reusability.
  6. Abdullah MA, Rahmah AU, Sinskey AJ, Rha CK
    Open Med Chem J, 2008;2:49-61.
    PMID: 19662143 DOI: 10.2174/1874104500802010049
    Biopharmaceuticals are often produced by recombinant E. coli or mammalian cell lines. This is usually achieved by the introduction of a gene or cDNA coding for the protein of interest into a well-characterized strain of producer cells. Naturally, each recombinant production system has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. This paper examines the current practices, developments, and future trends in the production of biopharmaceuticals. Platform technologies for rapid screening and analyses of biosystems are reviewed. Strategies to improve productivity via metabolic and integrated engineering are also highlighted.
  7. Abdullah MA, Ariff AB, Marziah M, Ali AM, Lajis NH
    J Agric Food Chem, 2000 Sep;48(9):4432-8.
    PMID: 10995375
    The effects of medium strategy, number of impellers, aeration mode, and mode of operation on Morinda elliptica cell suspension cultures in a stirred-tank bioreactor are described. A lower number of impellers and continuous aeration contributed toward high cell growth rate, whereas a higher number of impellers reduced cell growth rate, although not anthraquinone yield. The semicontinuous mode could indirectly imitate the larger scale version of production medium strategy and improved anthraquinone production even with 0. 012% (v/v) antifoam addition. Production medium promoted both growth (maximum dry cell weight of 24.6 g/L) and anthraquinone formation (maximum content of 19.5 mg/g of dry cell weight), without any necessity for antifoam addition. Cultures in production medium or with higher growth rate and anthraquinone production were less acidic than cultures in growth medium or with lower growth rate and anthraquinone production. Using the best operating variables, growth of M. elliptica cells (24.6 g/L) and anthraquinone yield (0.25 g/L) were 45% and 140%, respectively, lower than those using a shake flask culture after 12 days of cultivation.
  8. Mohd Ariffin K, Abd Ghani F, Hussin H, Md Said S, Yunus R, Veerakumarasivam A, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2021 Apr;43(1):49-54.
    PMID: 33903305
    INTRODUCTION: Hedgehog (HH) pathway is an important signalling cascade for growth and patterning during embryonic development. Constitutive activation of Hedgehog pathway can be found in various types of malignancies including medulloblastoma, basal cell carcinoma, gastrointestinal, breast, pancreatic, prostate cancer and leukaemia. Little is known about the expression and role of Hedgehog signalling in bladder cancer.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of SMO in 112 bladder cancer cases and determine their association with demographic and clinicopathological parameters. Bladder cancer tissues were obtained from the Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    RESULTS: SMO was expressed in the cytoplasm of all cases of bladder cancer. 6 cases (5.4%) showed low expression, while 106 cases (94.6%) showed high expression. Positive expression of SMO protein was correlated with a few variables which include grade and stage of tumour, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. SMO expression showed statistically significant association with higher grade (p=0.001) and higher stage (p=0.042) of bladder cancer. SMO expression also showed borderline association with lymph node metastasis (p=0.056).

    CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that SMO expression may be a poor prognostic marker in bladder cancer.

  9. Yip WK, Abdullah MA, Yusoff SM, Seow HF
    Clin Exp Immunol, 2009 Mar;155(3):412-22.
    PMID: 19220831 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03793.x
    The pathological significance of the mechanisms of tumour immune-evasion and/or immunosuppression, such as loss of T cell signalling and increase in regulatory T cells (T(regs)), has not been well established in the nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) microenvironment. To evaluate the T(reg) immunophenotypes in tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), we performed a double-enzymatic immunostaining for detection of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) and other markers including CD4, CD8, and CD25 on 64 NPC and 36 non-malignant nasopharyngeal (NP) paraffin-embedded tissues. Expression of CD3 zeta and CD3 epsilon was also determined. The prevalence of CD4(+)FoxP3(+) cells in CD4(+) T cells and the ratio of FoxP3(+)/CD8(+) were increased significantly in NPC compared with those in NP tissues (P < 0.001 and P = 0.025 respectively). Moreover, the ratio of FoxP3(+)/CD25(+)FoxP3(-) in NPC was significantly lower than that in NP tissues (P = 0.005), suggesting an imbalance favouring activated phenotype of T cells in NPC. A significant negative correlation between the abundance of FoxP3(+) and CD25(+)FoxP3(-) cells (P < 0.001) was also identified. When histological types of NPC were considered, a lower ratio of FoxP3(+)/CD25(+)FoxP3(-) was found in non-keratinizing and undifferentiated carcinomas. Increased CD4(+)FoxP3(+)/CD4(+) proportion and FoxP3(+)/CD8(+) ratio were associated with keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. A reduced expression of CD3 zeta in TILs was found in 20.6% of the NPC tissues but none of the NP tissues. These data provide evidence for the imbalances of T(reg) and effector T cell phenotypes and down-regulation of signal-transducing molecules in TILs, supporting their role in suppression of immune response and immune evasion of NPC.
  10. Md Akhir MKA, Hussin H, Veerakumarasivam A, Choy CS, Abdullah MA, Abd Ghani F
    Malays J Pathol, 2017 Dec;39(3):227-234.
    PMID: 29279584 MyJurnal
    Urothelial carcinoma is a common malignant neoplasm that has a poor prognosis and a high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. Constant disease surveillance with periodic and long term cystoscopy examination is necessary for management of the disease. However, the monitoring and therapy regimen is expensive, incurring a massive burden to patients and the government. Therefore, the development of specific biomarkers for urothelial carcinoma at an early stage and recurrence detection becomes a priority. Homeobox genes are a family of genes that are involved in tumourigenesis. They might be potential prognostic markers for urothelial carcinoma. The study investigated the expression pattern of NANOG which is one of a homeobox gene in different stages and grades of urothelial carcinoma. NANOG expressions were also correlated with patient demographic factors and clinicopathological parameters. The expression of NANOG in 100 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded urothelial carcinoma tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry showed positive expression of NANOG in all specimens with detection in the cytoplasm, nuclei and the nuclear membrane of the cancer cells. The immunohistochemical expression of NANOG increased across stages and grades of the tumour. The expression of NANOG was not significantly associated with demographic factors; gender (p = 0.376), race (p = 0.718) and age (p = 0.058) as well as with most of the clinicopathological parameters; pathological stage (p = 0.144), grade (p = 0.625), lymph node involvement (p = 0.174) and distant metastasis (p = 0.228). However, NANOG expression showed significant correlation with tumour invasion (p = 0.019). We concluded that NANOG might be a potential biomarker for early diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
  11. Chaudhry GE, Akim A, Zafar MN, Abdullah MA, Sung YY, Muhammad TST
    J Adv Pharm Technol Res, 2020 07 14;11(3):101-106.
    PMID: 33102192 DOI: 10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_26_20
    Cancer is a complex multifactorial disease and leading causes of death worldwide. Despite the development of many anticancer drugs, there is a reduced survival rate due to severe side effects. The nontargeted approach of convention drugs is one of the leading players in context to toxicity. Hyaluronan is a versatile bio-polymer and ligand of the receptor (CD44) on cancer cells. The MCF-7 and HT-29 cancer cell lines treated with hyaluronic acid-paclitaxel (HA-PTX) showed the distinguishing morphological features of apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis showed that HA-PTX induces apoptosis as a significant mode of cell death. The activation level of tumor suppressor protein (p53) increased after PTX treatment in MCF-7, but no changes observed in HT-29 might be due to hereditary mutations. The lack of suppression in AKT and Rho A protein suggest the use of possible inhibitors in future studies which might could play a role in increasing the sensitivity of drug towards mutated cells line and reducing the possibilities for cancer cell survival, migration, and metastasis.
  12. Chong TM, Abdullah MA, Fadzillah NM, Lai OM, Lajis NH
    Plant Cell Rep, 2004 Jul;22(12):951-8.
    PMID: 15067428
    The effects of medium strategies [maintenance (M), intermediary (G), and production (P) medium] on cell growth, anthraquinone (AQ) production, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) level, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant vitamins in Morinda elliptica cell suspension cultures were investigated. These were compared with third-stage leaf and 1-month-old callus culture. With P medium strategy, cell growth at 49 g l(-1), intracellular AQ content at 42 mg g(-1) DW, and H2O2 level at 9 micromol g(-1) FW medium were the highest as compared to the others. However, the extent of lipid peroxidation at 40.4 nmol g(-1) FW and total carotenoids at 13.3 mg g(-1) FW for cultures in P medium were comparable to that in the leaf, which had registered sevenfold lower AQ and 2.2-fold lower H2O2 levels. Vitamin C content at 30-120 microg g(-1) FW in all culture systems was almost half the leaf content. On the other hand, vitamin E content was around 400-500 microg g(-1) FW in 7-day-old cultures from all medium strategies and reduced to 50-150 microg g(-1) FW on day 14 and 21; as compared to 60 microg g(-1) FW in callus and 200 microg g(-1) FW in the leaf. This study suggests that medium strategies and cell growth phase in cell culture could influence the competition between primary and secondary metabolism, oxidative stresses and antioxidative measures. When compared with the leaf metabolism, these activities are dynamic depending on the types and availability of antioxidants.
  13. Laith AA, Abdullah MA, Nurhafizah WWI, Hussein HA, Aya J, Effendy AWM, et al.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2019 Jul;90:235-243.
    PMID: 31009810 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2019.04.052
    Streptococcus agalactiae species have been recognized as the main pathogen causing high mortality in fish leading to significant worldwide economical losses to the aquaculture industries. Vaccine development has become a priority in combating multidrug resistance in bacteria; however, there is a lack of commercial live attenuated vaccine (LAV) against S. agalactiae in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to compare two methods using attenuated bacteria as live vaccine and to evaluate the efficacy of selected LAV on the immune responses and resistance of Oreochromis niloticus (tilapia) against S. agalactiae. The LAV derived from S. agalactiae had been weakened using the chemical agent Acriflavine dye (LAV1), whereas the second vaccine was weakened using serial passages of bacteria on broth media (LAV2). Initial immunization was carried out only on day one, given twice-in the morning and evening, for the 42 day period. Serum samples were collected to determine the systemic antibody (IgM) responses and lysozymal (LSZ) activity using ELISA. On day 43 after immunization, the fish were injected intraperitoneally (i.p) with 0.1 mL of S. agalactiae at LD50 = 1.5 × 105 (CFU)/fish. Fish were monitored daily for 10 days. Clinical signs, mortality and the relative percent of survival (RPS) were recorded. Trial 1 results showed a significant increased (P 
  14. Lim CY, Mat-Hassan S, Awang M, Md-Ariff MF, Hau-Abdullah MA
    Malays Orthop J, 2019 Nov;13(3):21-27.
    PMID: 31890106 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1911.004
    Introduction: Proximal femur resection and endoprosthetic reconstruction is the preferred treatment for extensive bony destruction and pathological fractures. Due to the relatively high cost of endoprosthesis, we adopted the modified unipolar hemiarthroplasty (MUH) for reconstruction when the mode of treatment was for palliation. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective case study of six patients, who had bone and multi-organs metastases with extensive proximal femur involvement with pathologic fractures who underwent resection and MUH reconstruction during the period 2013 to 2017. All patients were classified as Group B / C based on Scandinavian Sarcoma Group survival scoring, with estimated survival of maximum six months. The basic MUH construct consisted of Austin-Moore prosthesis which was secured to a Küntscher nail using cerclage wire and cemented into the femoral canal. Subsequently, the whole length of the prosthesis which remained outside the canal was coated with cement. Results: The mean age was 61.8 years. The mean survival was 3.9 months, post-operation. There was no implant failure during patients' life span; however, a third of the patients developed infection. Wheel chair ambulation was started immediately post-operation for all patients, and two patients progressed to walking frame ambulation. The total cost of each construct was below US$490 in comparison to long-stem hemiarthroplasty (roughly US$ 1700). Conclusion: Our aim was to alleviate pain, facilitate rehabilitation, ease nursing care and improve quality of life for metastatic bone disease patients until end of life. MUH for the treatment of pathological fracture in proximal femoral metastases is a feasible palliative surgical modality in resource-limited settings.
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