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  1. Halim SZ, Zakaria ZA, Omar MH, Mohtarrudin N, Wahab IRA, Abdullah MNH
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Nov 09;17(1):488.
    PMID: 29121900 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1992-9
    BACKGROUND: Melastoma malabathricum L. (family Melastomaceae; MM) and Muntingia calabura L. (family Elaeocarpaceae; MC) have been separately reported to possess gastroprotective activity. In an attempt to develop a pharmaceutical product with antiulcer potential, the synergistic gastroprotective activity of methanolic extract of a mixture of MM and MC (MMMC) at various ratios was evaluated in rat models.

    METHODS: Rats were pre-treated orally with 2% Tween 80 (vehicle), 100 mg/kg ranitidine (reference drug) or MMMC (ratios of 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1 (v/v); doses of 15, 150 or 300 mg/kg) and then subjected to the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer or pyloric ligation assays. Stomach of rats from the former assay was collected and subjected to the macroscopic and microscopic observations, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant studies while the gastric juice content and tissue from the latter assay were subjected to the antisecretory activity study. The UHPLC analysis of MMMC was also performed.

    RESULT: MMMC, in the ratio 1:1, demonstrated the most effective (P 

  2. Nordin ML, Abdul Kadir A, Zakaria ZA, Abdullah R, Abdullah MNH
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 Mar 12;18(1):87.
    PMID: 29530022 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2153-5
    BACKGROUND: Ardisia crispa Thunb. D.C is used mostly in some parts of the Asian region by traditional practitioners to treat certain diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation including cancer and rheumatism. In Malaysia, it is popularly known as 'Mata Ayam' and local traditional practitioners believed that the root of the plant is therapeutically beneficial.

    METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of hydromethanolic extract of A. crispa and its solvents partitions (ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts) against breast cancer cells were evaluated by using MTT assay. The cells were treated with concentration of extracts ranging from 15.63 μg/mL- 1000 μg/mL for 72 h. The quantification of phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts were carried out to determine the relationship between of phytochemical compounds responsible for cytotoxic and antioxidative activities. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assay and expressed as milligram (mg) Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per 1 g (g) of tested extract.

    RESULTS: The hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts showed moderate cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 with IC50 values of 57.35 ± 19.33 μg/mL, and 54.98 ± 14.10 μg/mL, respectively but aqueous extract was inactive against MCF-7. For MDA-MB-231, hydromethanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts exhibited weak cytotoxic effects against MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values more than 100 μg/mL. The plant revealed high total phenolic content, total flavonoid and antioxidant capacity.

    CONCLUSION: The response of different type of breast cancer cell lines towards A. crispa extract and its partitions varied. Accordingly, hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts appear to be more cytotoxic to oestrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer than oestrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer. However, aqueous extract appears to have poor activity to both types of breast cancer. Besides that, hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts exhibit higher TPC, TFC and antioxidant capacity compared to aqueous extract. Synergistic effect of anticancer and antioxidant bioactives compounds of A. crispa plausibly contributed to the cytotoxic effects of the extract.

  3. Zakaria ZA, Kamisan FH, Omar MH, Mahmood ND, Othman F, Abdul Hamid SS, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 May 18;17(1):271.
    PMID: 28521788 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1781-5
    BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the potential of methanolic extract of Dicranopteris linearis (MEDL) leaves to attenuate liver intoxication induced by acetaminophen (APAP) in rats.

    METHODS: A group of mice (n = 5) treated orally with a single dose (5000 mg/kg) of MEDL was first subjected to the acute toxicity study using the OECD 420 model. In the hepatoprotective study, six groups of rats (n = 6) were used and each received as follows: Group 1 (normal control; pretreated with 10% DMSO (extract's vehicle) followed by treatment with 10% DMSO (hepatotoxin's vehicle) (10% DMSO +10% DMSO)), Group 2 (hepatotoxic control; 10% DMSO +3 g/kg APAP (hepatotoxin)), Group 3 (positive control; 200 mg/kg silymarin +3 g/kg APAP), Group 4 (50 mg/kg MEDL +3 g/kg APAP), Group 5 (250 mg/kg MEDL +3 g/kg APAP) or Group 6 (500 mg/kg MEDL +3 g/kg APAP). The test solutions pre-treatment were made orally once daily for 7 consecutive days, and 1 h after the last test solutions administration (on Day 7th), the rats were treated with vehicle or APAP. Blood were collected from those treated rats for biochemical analyses, which were then euthanized to collect their liver for endogenous antioxidant enzymes determination and histopathological examination. The extract was also subjected to in vitro anti-inflammatory investigation and, HPLC and GCMS analyses.

    RESULTS: Pre-treatment of rats (Group 2) with 10% DMSO failed to attenuate the toxic effect of APAP on the liver as seen under the microscopic examination. This observation was supported by the significant (p 

  4. Binti Kamaruddin NA, Fong LY, Tan JJ, Abdullah MNH, Singh Cheema M, Bin Yakop F, et al.
    Molecules, 2020 May 29;25(11).
    PMID: 32485974 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25112534
    Endothelial cell injury caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Omentin, an adipocytokine that is abundantly expressed in visceral fat tissue, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic properties. However, endothelial protective effects of omentin against oxidative stress remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of omentin against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cytotoxicity and cytoprotective effects of omentin were evaluated using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The apoptotic activity of HUVECs was detected using Annexin-V/PI and Hoechst 33258 staining methods. Antioxidant activity of omentin was evaluated by measuring both reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. No cytotoxicity effect was observed in HUVECs treated with omentin alone at concentrations of 150 to 450 ng/ml. MTT assay showed that omentin significantly prevented the cell death induced by H2O2 (p < 0.001). Hoechst staining and flow cytometry also revealed that omentin markedly prevented H2O2-induced apoptosis. Moreover, omentin not only significantly inhibited ROS production (p < 0.01) but also significantly (p < 0.01) increased GPx activity in HUVECs. In conclusion, our data suggest that omentin may protect HUVECs from injury induced by H2O2.
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