Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 52 in total

  1. Abu Bakar S
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Sep;64(3):185-6.
    PMID: 20527264 MyJurnal
    Koh and others have reported (in this issue of the MJM) the high prevalence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on doctors’ neckties. As they have pointed out, this is nothing new, and like other studies with similar findings. They also point out that patient’s confidence and satisfaction are not affected by doctor’s not wearing neckties. They also referred to the British Department of Health decision to ban the use of neckties, long sleeve shirts and jewellery, and the Scottish government’s intention to ban the wearing of white coats, including neckties, to stop the spread of infections. They support the call by The Malaysian Medical Association to avoid the use of neckties.
  2. Chan YF, Abu Bakar S
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Jun;60(2):246-8.
    PMID: 16114171
    The efficacy of Virkon S, a commercial disinfectant as a virucidal spray against human enterovirus 71 (HEV71), the causative agent of the fatal form of hand, foot and mouth disease was examined. At least one log10 reduction of HEV71 titer was achieved when one spray of Virkon (1% or 2%) with ten minutes of contact time was applied. The infectivity was completely lost when four sprays of 1% or 2% Virkon were applied, suggesting that at least four sprays of 1% Virkon to the surface bound HEV71 was necessary to completely inactivate the virus. These findings suggest that Virkon S at the proper concentration is suitable to be used as an effective and easy to use disinfectant against HEV71.
  3. Abu Bakar S, Wong PF
    Med J Malaysia, 2002 Jun;57(2):242-3.
    PMID: 24326663
  4. Sam IC, Abu Bakar S
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Jun;64(2):105-7.
    PMID: 20058566
    In recent years, zoonotic RNA viruses such as Nipah, SARS coronavirus, avian influenza (H5N1) and Chikungunya have emerged with global impact. The latest has now been designated by World Health Organization (WHO) as pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. It was first reported as an outbreak in Mexico in April, and has now caused the first influenza pandemic since 1968. By July 11, 2009, there were 105,304 confirmed cases and 463 deaths in 143 countries, including 627 cases in Malaysia1 . The rapid spread of the disease has been matched by the speed of dissemination of information and protocols, co-ordinated by WHO. The experiences of SARS and H5N1 have been enormously beneficial in preparing the world for a pandemic.
  5. Abu Bakar S, Shafee N, Chee HY
    Med J Malaysia, 1999 Sep;54(3):402-3.
    PMID: 11045072
  6. Suhaimi NF, Jalaludin J, Abu Bakar S
    Rev Environ Health, 2021 Mar 26;36(1):77-93.
    PMID: 32857724 DOI: 10.1515/reveh-2020-0065
    Air pollution is a substantial environmental threat to children and acts as acute and chronic disease risk factors alike. Several studies have previously evaluated epigenetic modifications concerning its exposure across various life stages. However, findings on epigenetic modifications as the consequences of air pollution during childhood are rather minimal. This review evaluated highly relevant studies in the field to analyze the existing literature regarding exposure to air pollution, with a focus on epigenetic alterations during childhood and their connections with respiratory health effects. The search was conducted using readily available electronic databases (PubMed and ScienceDirect) to screen for children's studies on epigenetic mechanisms following either pre- or post-natal exposure to air pollutants. Studies relevant enough and matched the predetermined criteria were chosen to be reviewed. Non-English articles and studies that did not report both air monitoring and epigenetic outcomes in the same article were excluded. The review found that epigenetic changes have been linked with exposure to air pollutants during early life with evidence and reports of how they may deregulate the epigenome balance, thus inducing disease progression in the future. Epigenetic studies evolve as a promising new approach in deciphering the underlying impacts of air pollution on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) due to links established between some of these epigenetic mechanisms and illnesses.
  7. Suhaimi NF, Jalaludin J, Abu Bakar S
    PMID: 34360284 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18157995
    This study aimed to investigate the association between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure and histone H3 modification among school children in high-traffic (HT) and low-traffic (LT) areas in Malaysia. Respondents' background information and personal exposure to traffic sources were obtained from questionnaires distributed to randomly selected school children. Real-time monitoring instruments were used for 6-h measurements of PM10, PM2.5, PM1, NO2, SO2, O3, CO, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). Meanwhile, 24-h measurements of PM2.5-bound black carbon (BC) were performed using air sampling pumps. The salivary histone H3 level was captured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HT schools had significantly higher PM10, PM2.5, PM1, BC, NO2, SO2, O3, CO, and TVOC than LT schools, all at p < 0.001. Children in the HT area were more likely to get higher histone H3 levels (z = -5.13). There were positive weak correlations between histone H3 level and concentrations of NO2 (r = 0.37), CO (r = 0.36), PM1 (r = 0.35), PM2.5 (r = 0.34), SO2 (r = 0.34), PM10 (r = 0.33), O3 (r = 0.33), TVOC (r = 0.25), and BC (r = 0.19). Overall, this study proposes the possible role of histone H3 modification in interpreting the effects of TRAP exposure via non-genotoxic mechanisms.
  8. Subha ST, Abu-Bakar S, Prepageran N
    Iran J Otorhinolaryngol, 2019 Sep;31(106):315-318.
    PMID: 31598500
    Introduction: Parotid gland squamous cell carcinoma is an uncommon aggressive neoplasm with poor prognosis. Aural polyps are usually the presenting features of chronic suppurative otitis media, tuberculous otitis media, and adenoma or carcinoma. The malignant aural polyp is very rare. Parotid gland carcinoma masquerading as an aural polyp has rarely been described in the literature.

    Case Report: We report a case study of parotid squamous cell carcinoma in a 29-year-old male masquerading as an ear polyp.

    Conclusion: Parotid gland primary squamous cell carcinoma is a rapidly advancing neoplasm which carries poor prognosis despite multimodality treatment. Diligent clinical and histopathological evaluation is imperative to discriminate this rare aggressive disease from the metastatic and other primary cancers of the parotid. A high index of suspicion is crucial in refractory aural polyps to arrive at early diagnosis.

  9. Mousavi SM, Naghsh A, Abu-Bakar SA
    J Digit Imaging, 2015 Aug;28(4):417-27.
    PMID: 25736857 DOI: 10.1007/s10278-015-9770-z
    This paper presents an automatic region of interest (ROI) segmentation method for application of watermarking in medical images. The advantage of using this scheme is that the proposed method is robust against different attacks such as median, Wiener, Gaussian, and sharpening filters. In other words, this technique can produce the same result for the ROI before and after these attacks. The proposed algorithm consists of three main parts; suggesting an automatic ROI detection system, evaluating the robustness of the proposed system against numerous attacks, and finally recommending an enhancement part to increase the strength of the composed system against different attacks. Results obtained from the proposed method demonstrated the promising performance of the method.
  10. Mousavi SM, Naghsh A, Abu-Bakar SA
    J Digit Imaging, 2014 Dec;27(6):714-29.
    PMID: 24871349 DOI: 10.1007/s10278-014-9700-5
    The ever-growing numbers of medical digital images and the need to share them among specialists and hospitals for better and more accurate diagnosis require that patients' privacy be protected. As a result of this, there is a need for medical image watermarking (MIW). However, MIW needs to be performed with special care for two reasons. Firstly, the watermarking procedure cannot compromise the quality of the image. Secondly, confidential patient information embedded within the image should be flawlessly retrievable without risk of error after image decompressing. Despite extensive research undertaken in this area, there is still no method available to fulfill all the requirements of MIW. This paper aims to provide a useful survey on watermarking and offer a clear perspective for interested researchers by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of different existing methods.
  11. Noor NM, Rijal OM, Yunus A, Abu-Bakar SA
    Comput Med Imaging Graph, 2010 Mar;34(2):160-6.
    PMID: 19758785 DOI: 10.1016/j.compmedimag.2009.08.005
    This paper presents a statistical method for the detection of lobar pneumonia when using digitized chest X-ray films. Each region of interest was represented by a vector of wavelet texture measures which is then multiplied by the orthogonal matrix Q(2). The first two elements of the transformed vectors were shown to have a bivariate normal distribution. Misclassification probabilities were estimated using probability ellipsoids and discriminant functions. The result of this study recommends the detection of pneumonia by constructing probability ellipsoids or discriminant function using maximum energy and maximum column sum energy texture measures where misclassification probabilities were less than 0.15.
  12. Wilting A, Fischer F, Abu Bakar S, Linsenmair KE
    BMC Ecol., 2006;6:16.
    PMID: 17092347
    The continued depletion of tropical rainforests and fragmentation of natural habitats has led to significant ecological changes which place most top carnivores under heavy pressure. Various methods have been used to determine the status of top carnivore populations in rainforest habitats, most of which are costly in terms of equipment and time. In this study we utilized, for the first time, a rigorous track classification method to estimate population size and density of clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa) in Tabin Wildlife Reserve in north-eastern Borneo (Sabah). Additionally, we extrapolated our local-scale results to the regional landscape level to estimate clouded leopard population size and density in all of Sabah's reserves, taking into account the reserves' conservation status (totally protected or commercial forest reserves), their size and presence or absence of clouded leopards.
  13. Abu Bakar SH, Hussein Z, Hee SL, Fazan F
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:81-2.
    PMID: 15468829
    Hydroxyapatite, (HA; Ca1O(PO4)6(OH)2) has been successfully applied in medical and dental applications for several years due to its excellent biocompatibility. The usage of HA in Malaysia, however, is limited due to the lack of availability. Therefore the aim of this work is to produce HA materials from both pure chemicals and from Malaysian natural limestone precursors, and to compare their bulk properties. However, parts of Malaysian natural limestone deposits actually consist of a combination of Ca(OH)2 and CaCO3. In order to utilise the limestone to produce HA material, the combination of these commercially pure chemicals as HA precursors should still work. In order to test this hypothesis, two HAs were produced by wet synthesis technique utilising (a) combination of Ca(OH)2 + CaCO3 from pure commercial chemicals [WCC] and (b) a local natural limestone [WL] precursors. The HAs produced; WCC and WL, were compacted into discs and sintered at 1250 degrees C. The characterisations and evaluations conducted were XRD, SEM-EDX, FTIR and shrinkage factor. The results indicate that WL gives slightly better bulk properties compared to WCC.
  14. Abdullah A, Abdul Rahman R, Aziz S, Abu Bakar S, AbAziz AA
    Med J Malaysia, 2013;68(1):76-8.
    PMID: 23466775 MyJurnal
    Nasal obstruction in neonates is a potentially fatal condition because neonates are obligatory nasal breathers. Bilateral choanal atresia is therefore a neonatal emergency. Several approaches for corrections of choanal atresia are available including the helium laser: YAG. A 5-year-old Chinese girl born with bilateral choanal atresia, had birth asphyxia that required intubation. She underwent multiple surgeries for correction of choanal atresia at other hospitals but failed to improve. She was referred to Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC) after presenting with intermittent respiratory distress and cyanosis following an upper respiratory tract infection. A repeat computed tomography (CT) scan done preoperatively showed complete bony stenosis over the left choana and finding was confirmed by examination under general anesthesia. She underwent endoscopic transnasal removal of left bony atretic plate. There was no intra or postoperative complications. During follow up 10 years later, the airway on both sides remains patent.
  15. Ismail NA, Abu Bakar SN, Abdullah N, Shafie MS, Mohd Nor F
    Malays J Pathol, 2019 Aug;41(2):83-89.
    PMID: 31427544
    INTRODUCTION: Stature estimation is population dependent, and population-specific regression equations should be generated for accurate anthropological assessments. Nevertheless, stature estimation data was inaccessible and limited in some of the South-East Asian countries. The systematic review was conducted to analyse the regression equations of stature estimations developed in South-East Asian region.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed through SCOPUS database and Google Scholar from January till March 2018. All published articles which developed stature estimation from different types of bone, methods and type of statures (i.e. living stature, forensic stature and cadaveric stature) were included in this study. Risks of biases were also assessed. Population studies with no regression equations were excluded from the study.

    RESULTS: Seven studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified. In the South-East Asia region, regression equations for stature estimation were developed in Thailand and Malaysia. In these studies, bone measurements were done either by radiography, direct bone measurement, or palpation on body surface for anatomical bony prominence. All of these studies used various parts of bones for stature estimation.

    CONCLUSION: The most widely used regression equations for stature estimation in South-East Asian population were from the Thailand population. Further research is recommended to develop regression equations for other South-East Asian countries.

  16. Mohamad Isa II, Abu Bakar S, Ab Rahman AK
    J Med Virol, 2020 08;92(8):1173-1181.
    PMID: 31957025 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.25680
    The impact of sociodemographic and clinical factors on immune recovery and viral load suppression among HIV-1 positive patients treated with HAART particularly in Malaysia is largely unknown. This cross-sectional study enrolled 170 HIV-1-infected individuals of three major ethnicities who attended three HIV outpatient clinics in Malaysia. Questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic data while CD4 count and viral load data were gathered from hospital's record. Multiple factors were assessed for their predictive effects on CD4 count recovery (≥500 cells/mm3 ) and viral load suppression (≤50 copies/mL) using binary logistic regression. Most of the subjects were male (149/87.6%), in the age group 30 to 39 years old (78/45.9%) and got infected via homosexual contact (82/48.2%). Indians were associated with 11 times higher chance for CD4 recovery as compared to Malays at 8 to 12 months of HAART (adjusted OR: 10.948, 95% CI: 1.873, 64.001, P = .008). Viral load suppression was positively influenced by intravenous drug use (IVDU) status (adjusted OR: 35.224, 95% CI: 1.234, 1000.489, P = .037) at 4 to 6 months of HAART. Higher pretreatment CD4 count was a positive predictor for both initial immunological and virological responses while higher pretreatment viral load was a negative predictor for virological suppression only. In conclusion, ethnicity plays a significant role in determining early immune reconstitution in Malaysia, besides pretreatment CD4 count. Further studies are needed to identify possible biological factors underlying this association.
  17. Fish-Low CY, Abu Bakar S, Othman F, Chee HY
    Trop Biomed, 2018 Dec 01;35(4):1154-1159.
    PMID: 33601863
    Dengue virus (DENV) is maintained and circulated in both sylvatic/enzootic and endemic/human cycles and spill over infection of sylvatic DENV into human populations has been reported. Extensive deforestation and increase human activities in forest may increase the risk of human exposure to sylvatic dengue infection and this may become a threat to human. Present study investigated the changes in cell morphology and viral morphogenesis upon infection with sylvatic and endemic ecotypes in human monocytic U-937 cells using transmission electron microscopy. Autophagy, a process that is either pro-viral or anti-viral, was observed in U-937 cells of both infections, however only the replication of endemic DENV was evidenced. An insight into the infection responses of sylvatic progenitors of DENV in susceptible host cells may provide better understanding on dengue emergence in human populations.
  18. Hassan H, Abu Bakar S, Halim KN, Idris J, Ahmad Saad FF, Nordin AJ
    J Labelled Comp Radiopharm, 2015 Sep-Oct;58(11-12):458-9.
    PMID: 26395258 DOI: 10.1002/jlcr.3347
    (18)F-Fluoromethylcholine ((18)F-FCH) has been suggested as one of the reputable imaging tracers for diagnosis of prostate tumour in PET/CT examination. Nevertheless, it has never been synthesised in Malaysia. We acknowledged the major problem with (18)F-FCH is due to its relatively low radiochemical yield at the end of synthesis (EOS). Therefore, this technical note presents improved (18)F-FCH radiochemical yields after carrying out optimisation on azeotropic drying of non-carrier-added (18)F-Fluorine.
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