This article aims to provide detailed information on Malaysian plants used for treating inflammation. An extensive search on electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and ScienceDirect and conference papers was done to find relevant articles on anti-inflammatory activity of Malaysian medicinal plants. The keyword search terms used were "inflammation," "Malaysia," "medicinal plants," "mechanisms," "in vitro," and "in vivo." As a result, 96 articles on anti-inflammatory activity of Malaysian medicinal plants were found and further reviewed. Forty-six (46) plants (in vitro) and 30 plants (in vivo) have been identified to possess anti-inflammatory activity where two plants, Melicope ptelefolia (Tenggek burung) and Portulaca oleracea (Gelang pasir), were reported to have the strongest anti-inflammatory activity of more than 90% at a concentration of 250 µg/ml. It was showed that the activity was mainly due to the occurrence of diverse naturally occurring phytochemicals from diverse groups such as flavonoids, coumarins, alkaloids, steroids, benzophenone, triterpenoids, curcuminoids, and cinnamic acid. Hence, this current review is a detailed discussion on the potential of Malaysian medicinal plants as an anti-inflammatory agent from the previous studies. However, further investigation on the possible underlying mechanisms and isolation of active compounds still remains to be investigated.
Gout is a type of arthritis that causes painful inflammation in one or more joints. In gout, elevation of uric acid in the blood triggers the formation of crystals, causing joint pain. Malaysia is a mega-biodiversity country that is rich in medicinal plants species. Therefore, its flora might offer promising therapies for gout. This article aims to systematically review the anti-gout potential of Malaysian medicinal plants. Articles on gout published from 2000 to 2017 were identified using PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar with the following keyword search terms: "gout," "medicinal plants," "Malaysia," "epidemiology," "in vitro," and "in vivo." In this study, 85 plants were identified as possessing anti-gout activity. These plants had higher percentages of xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity (>85%); specifically, the Momordica charantia, Chrysanthemum indicum, Cinnamomum cassia, Kaempferia galanga, Artemisia vulgaris, and Morinda elliptica had the highest values, due to their diverse natural bioactive compounds, which include flavonoids, phenolics, tannin, coumarins, luteolin, and apigenin. This review summarizes the anti-gout potential of Malaysian medicinal plants but the mechanisms, active compounds, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and safety of the plants still remain to be elucidated.
Gout is a common disease affected most of the people due to the elevation of uric acid in the blood. Flavonoid and phenolic compounds are reported to exert the anti-gout activity of medicinal plants. Hence, this study aimed at optimizing the extraction conditions of phenolic and flavonoid compounds as well as the anti-gout (xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity) in vitro of Euphorbia hirta using response surface methodology (RSM). The plant part used was the whole plant excluding roots. The effects of three independent variables (extraction time, X1; extraction temperature, X2; and solid-to-liquid ratio, X3) on three response variables (total flavonoid content, Y1; total phenolic content, Y2; and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, Y3) were determined using central composite design (CCD) while phytochemical profiling of the extracts was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Quadratic models produced a satisfactory fitting of the experimental data with regard to total flavonoid content (r2 = 0.9407, p < 0.0001), total phenolic content (r2 = 0.9383, p < 0.0001), and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity (r2 = 0.9794, p < 0.0001). The best extraction conditions observed for total flavonoid content, total phenolic content, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity were at a temperature of 79.07°C for 17.42 min with solid-to-liquid ratio of 1 : 20 g/ml. The optimum values for total flavonoid, total phenolic, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity were 67.56 mg RE/g, 155.21 mg GAE/g, and 91.42%, respectively. The main phytochemical compounds in the optimized E. hirta extract are neochlorogenic acid, quercetin-3β-D-glucoside, syringic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, astragalin, afzelin, and quercetin. As conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated the best conditions to obtain higher xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity and phytochemical compounds which can be further used for the development of anti-gout agents.