• 1 Centre of Research for Sustainable Uses of Natural Resources (CoR-SUNR), Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 84600 Muar, Johor, Malaysia
  • 2 Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Abdurrab, Pekanbaru 28292, Riau, Indonesia
  • 3 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, Indonesia
PMID: 32047524 DOI: 10.1155/2020/4501261


Gout is a common disease affected most of the people due to the elevation of uric acid in the blood. Flavonoid and phenolic compounds are reported to exert the anti-gout activity of medicinal plants. Hence, this study aimed at optimizing the extraction conditions of phenolic and flavonoid compounds as well as the anti-gout (xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity) in vitro of Euphorbia hirta using response surface methodology (RSM). The plant part used was the whole plant excluding roots. The effects of three independent variables (extraction time, X1; extraction temperature, X2; and solid-to-liquid ratio, X3) on three response variables (total flavonoid content, Y1; total phenolic content, Y2; and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, Y3) were determined using central composite design (CCD) while phytochemical profiling of the extracts was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Quadratic models produced a satisfactory fitting of the experimental data with regard to total flavonoid content (r2 = 0.9407, p < 0.0001), total phenolic content (r2 = 0.9383, p < 0.0001), and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity (r2 = 0.9794, p < 0.0001). The best extraction conditions observed for total flavonoid content, total phenolic content, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity were at a temperature of 79.07°C for 17.42 min with solid-to-liquid ratio of 1 : 20 g/ml. The optimum values for total flavonoid, total phenolic, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity were 67.56 mg RE/g, 155.21 mg GAE/g, and 91.42%, respectively. The main phytochemical compounds in the optimized E. hirta extract are neochlorogenic acid, quercetin-3β-D-glucoside, syringic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, astragalin, afzelin, and quercetin. As conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated the best conditions to obtain higher xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity and phytochemical compounds which can be further used for the development of anti-gout agents.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.