Introduction: Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia) which is better known locally as Tongkat Ali is an indigenous plant in Malaysia. It belongs to the family of Simaroubaceae and is popular as a traditional medicine for its aphrodisiac properties. Throughout the years, several studies have been conducted to prove its effect on aphrodisiac action, antimalarial, antibacterial and anxiolytic properties but its effect to the cardiovascular system had not been fully explored. This study was aimed to demonstrate the changes that take place in the isolated heart following the injection of the extract. Methods: Three parameters that were measured included the coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), the left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and the heart rate (HR). Eighteen isolated rat hearts were used and were divided equally into three groups. The first group was to observe the effect of Isoprenaline, a β agonist while the second group was to see the effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. The dose which gave the maximum effect for these two positive controls was used to compare with the effect of E. longifolia water extract in the third group of rats. Isolated heart was mounted using the Langendorff apparatus and perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Doses of controls and the extract were instilled through an injection port, and the effect of each dose was monitored. Results: E. longifolia extract was found to reduce the CPP in normotensive rat at two of the highest doses. A dose of 1.0 mg of the extract reduced the CPP significantly from 34.52 ± 4.99 mmHg of the baseline value to 31.99 ± 4.93 mmHg while the dose of 10.0 mg of the extract reduced the CPP
significantly to 32.67 ± 3.89 mmHg. However, there were no significant changes of effect of the extract on the LVDP and HR as compared to control. Conclusion: These early findings suggest that E. longifolia extract may have vasodilatory property, which supports its traditional usage with minimum cardiovascular side effects.
BACKGROUND: Acute life threatening presentations of thyroid disease are uncommon. The aim of this study was to review our experience of emergency thyroid surgery with regard to the incidence, management and outcome to this approach.
METHODS: Forty patients who underwent emergency thyroid surgery from December 1998 to December 2007 were prospectively accrued in this study. There were 30 female and 10 male patients. The mean age was 63.8 years (range, 33-83 years). All patients had total thyroidectomy, except one patient who only had a right hemithyroidectomy for a dominant right multinodular goiter. Eight of the patients had been intubated before referring to our centre.
RESULTS: The mean weight of specimen was 219 g (range, 32-800 g). A histopathology report confirmed 16 patients had multinodular goiters, eight patients had papillary thyroid carcinomas, seven patients had anaplastic cancers, four patients had follicular thyroid carcinomas, two patients had thyroid lymphoma, one patient had medullary carcinoma, one patient had sarcoma and one patient had thyroid abscess. A total of 28 patients were discharged well postoperatively.
CONCLUSION: Acute life threatening presentations of thyroid disease are uncommon. However, early recognition of these problems is crucial and may life saving. Emergency thyroidectomy is important to release the critically obstructed airways. Nonetheless it is associated with higher risk of surgery and complication rate then any elective thyroid surgery.
Over the years, subtotal thyroidectomy has been the mainstay of treatment for toxic goitre; however, total thyroidectomy is increasingly being considered as the procedure of choice. This study aimed to review our experience with total thyroidectomy in toxic goitre and evaluate the outcome of this procedure.
Fish protein hydrolysate was recovered from tilapia by-product (TB) through enzymatic hydrolysis using alcalase enzyme. Hydrolysis reaction of TB was monitored according to the degree of hydrolysis (DH) by employing O-phtaldialdehyde (OPA) method. Optimization process for obtaining high yield of TB protein hydrolysate was performed using response surface methodology (RSM) by optimizing a combination of four independent variables namely, pH (6.5-8.5), temperature (55-70oC), substrate concentration (10-17.5% w/v), and enzyme concentration (1.5-3.5% w/w) with (DH) as a response. The optimum enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were obtained at pH 7.5, temperature of 60oC, substrate concentration of 15% (w/v) and 2.5% (w/w) of enzyme concentration and yielded about 20.20% of DH after hydrolyzing for 120 min. RSM generated model predicted that 20.42% of DH could be achieved at these conditions and this model was valid based on the DH value obtained from the experimental study (20.31%) which was quite similar with the predicted value. High yield of DH obtained from the optimization process could produce fish protein hydrolysate with good nutritional and functional properties.
Breast cancer is considered as one of the most common cancers all over the world. A huge effort has been made to create a safe and cost effective breast cancer treatment. All of these features exist in the plants sources. In this study, the effect of local vegetable salad, Premna serratifolia (Bebuas) against MCF-7 cells (human breast adenocarcinoma) was determined. The optimum condition to extract breast cancer cytotoxic compound from the plant was investigated and the exact cytotoxic compound was identified as well. To determine the plant cytotoxicity effect against MCF-7 cells, MTT assay was used. Two important parameters in the sonication extraction method which are duration of time and temperature were optimized by carrying out a series of experiments which were designed by Face Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD). The extraction efficiency of each experiment was determined by measuring the yield of extract and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the extract against MCF-7 cells. The results obtained from the experiments were fitted to the second order polynomial model to generate equation that was used to determine best extraction processing condition. Based on the generated equation, the best sonication processing condition to extract the cytotoxic compound is at 30oC for 67 min. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the duration of extraction time has great influence (p
Oil palm frond is known to be the largest contributor to the oil palm residues, providing
up to 50.3% of the total residues. Since it has a very limited utility, an initiative was taken
by this study to investigate its suitability for bio-oil production. Hence, slow pyrolysis was
conducted in an experimental setup equipped with a fixed bed reactor and a liquid collection
system. From the experiments, the effect of reaction temperature on the bio-oil yield was
examined. The characteristics of the obtained bio-oil were also investigated to study its
potential as a substitute of phenol. It was found that at reaction temperature of 375oC,
highest yield of bio-oil was obtained at 38.4 wt%. Meanwhile, the characteristics of oil palm
frond and its bio-oil were found to be approximately similar to the characteristics of typical
softwoods and their bio-oil. Most softwood biomass has been successfully used as a phenol
substitute. Therefore, the potential of this bio-oil to be used as a phenol substitute was
In recent years, consumers’ demand increases for healthier foods with nutritional benefits and similar taste to the origin. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical properties and proximate composition as well as consumer preference of imitation chicken nuggets or ICNs formulated with different percentage of chickpea flour and textured vegetable protein (TVP). A commercial brand of chicken nugget was chosen as control experiment to compare its characteristics with ICNs. Five formulation of ICNs were prepared with the percentage of chickpea flour to TVP of ICNs were: A (30:10), B (25:15), C (20:20), D (15:25), and E (10:30). Results found that all ICNs were found significantly lower (P
Direct tumour extension into the internal jugular veins (IJV) and right atrium in thyroid cancer is extremely uncommon. We report three cases of advanced thyroid cancer invading into the IJV and right atrium. All three patients had well-differentiated thyroid cancer and presented with typical clinical picture of the superior cava syndrome coupled with significant compressive symptoms. Two patients had obvious tumour thrombus extending to the superior vena cava (SVC) and right atrium, whilst in one patient, the thrombus extended to the SVC close to the edge of the right atrium. In all three patients, the intraluminal tumour thrombus was clinically palpable. Involvement of the IJV, SVC and right atrium was confirmed with computed tomography (CT) scan and echocardiography. The decision to extract the thrombus transcervically was made on the basis of the positive "ring sign", which is a thin rim of contrast surrounding the tumour thrombus documented on CT. All three patients underwent total thyroidectomy with segmental resection and ligation of the IJV. The tumour thrombus was successfully extracted transcervically. The histopathology report confirmed follicular carcinoma in all three patients. Two patients had radioiodine ablation therapy postoperatively, and were well 18 months after operation. One patient who had lung metastases documented on chest CT succumbed to the disease due to massive haemoptysis 3 weeks after operation.
BACKGROUND: Identification and preservation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is of major concern in surgery of the thyroid gland. The purpose of this study was to review the surgical anatomy of the nerve and to describe its relationship to other important structures.
METHODS: A total of 325 patients were accrued in this prospective non-randomized study from January 1999 to December 2000. All patients who had total, subtotal and hemithyroidectomies were included in this study. Each side of the thyroid gland was considered as a separate unit in the analysis of the results.
RESULTS: Two hundred and seventy-six patients had thyroidectomies as their primary operation, while 49 patients had them as a reoperative procedure. There were 276 women and 46 men (6:1 female to male ratio) with a mean age of 43.1 years (range: 10-84 years). The total number of dissections was 502. The RLN was clearly identified in 491 (97.8%) dissections: single trunk in 323 dissections (65.8%), two extralaryngeal branches in 164 dissections (33.4%), and three extralaryngeal branches in three dissections (0.6%). One non-recurrent laryngeal nerve was encountered (0.2%) in the series. The proximity of the RLN to the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) was noted in 444 (90.4%) dissections: 372 (83.8%) nerves were described to be posterior and intertwined between the branches of the ITA, and in 72 (16.2%) RLNs, they were observed to be anterior to the ITA. The close association of RLN to an enlarged tubercle of Zuckerkandl was documented in 381 dissections (73.7%). A total of 231 RLNs (60.8%) was seen in the tracheoesophageal groove, 18 (4.9%) nerves were observed to be lateral to the trachea, and in 109 (28.3%), they were posterior in location. Of concern in 23 (6.0%) dissections the RLN was on the anterior surface of the thyroid gland, which is at highest risk of injury before curving down to pass behind the tubercle of Zuckerkandl. It appears that the anterior course of the RLN was seen more often in the reoperative procedures to the thyroid gland (20%).
CONCLUSIONS: Although various methods of localizing the RLN have been described, surgeons should be aware of the variations and have a thorough knowledge of normal anatomy in order to achieve a high standard of care. This will ensure the integrity and safety of the RLN in thyroid surgery. The anatomical variation may be minor in degree, but is of great importance as it may affect the outcome of the surgery and the patient's quality of life.
BACKGROUND: Thyroid surgery is usually performed under general anaesthesia. However, for a selected group of patients, local anaesthesia may be preferable. The aim of this study was to review the authors' experiences with local anaesthesia with regard to the safety and outcome of this approach.
METHODS: A total of 65 consecutive patients who underwent primary thyroid surgery were accrued prospectively into this study from May to December 1999. A field block with 0.5% bupivacaine and adrenaline in 1:200 000 dilutions was given in all cases. In addition, light sedative and narcotics were given as necessary to achieve patient comfort and cooperation. The pain experienced during surgery was recorded using a visual analogue scoring system on a scale of 1-10.
RESULTS: Unilateral thyroid resection was performed in 58 patients, isthmectomy in four patients and bilateral thyroid resection in three patients, two of which were in their second trimester of pregnancy diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer. There were 55 women and 10 men with an average age of 38.2 years (range: 18-67 years). No conversion to general anaesthetic was needed, and the mean operating time was 80 min. The postoperative recovery was quick with this technique and, of interest, 22 (33.9%) patients were discharged within 6 h following the surgery. Overall 62 (95.4%) patients were discharged in the first 24 h and three (4.6%) patients after 24 h. There were no significant postoperative complications encountered except for wound infection in two (3.1%) patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid surgery under local anaesthesia can be performed safely in a selected group of patients. It offers an effective alternative approach to general anaesthesia and is associated with low morbidity and high levels of patient satisfaction.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. There is a marked geographical difference in the worldwide incidence of breast cancer, with a higher incidence in developed countries compared to developing countries. From 1998 to 2001, new cases of breast cancer presenting to the breast clinics at Hospital Kuala Lumpur and University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, were reviewed; the race, age and stage at presentation were analysed. Of 774 cases seen in Hospital Kuala Lumpur, only 5.2% (40/774) were impalpable breast cancers diagnosed on mammography. The prevalent age group was 40 to 49 years, and the median age was 50 years. The average size of the tumour was 5.4 cm in diameter. Malay women appear to have larger tumours and a later stage at presentation than other ethnic groups; 50% to 60% were in late stages (Stages 3 and 4). During the same period, 752 new cases of breast cancer were seen in the University Malaya Medical Centre. The average tumour size was 4.2 cm, and 30% to 40% were in late stages. The age incidence was similar. The delay in presentation of breast cancer was attributed to a strong belief in traditional medicine, the negative perception of the disease, poverty and poor education, coupled with fear and denial. A prospective, population-based study is required to determine the demographic pattern of breast cancer and the factors delaying presentation. These findings will have important implications in future programmes to promote the early detection of breast cancer, as well as in understanding geographical as well as racial variations in the incidence of breast cancer.
Large goitres are common in the developing world, particularly in Asia and Africa. Nonetheless, large fungating goitres are extremely rare and represent a unique challenge to surgeons. Surgery should always be considered, when the general condition of the patient permits, to provide a better quality of life as it offers the only hope of long-term survival. The potential gain with surgery is that it allows maximum benefit for more effective radioactive iodine ablation and radiotherapy treatment. We report two cases of large fungating thyroid cancers complicated by anaemia and foul-smelling discharge.
The hypercalcaemic crisis of hyperparathyroidism is an endocrine emergency that is invariably fatal if untreated. Despite emergency parathyroidectomies to treat hypercalcaemic crisis, mortality rates remain high. The rapid decline of serum calcium levels after removal of an adenoma and its adverse effect on the heart contributes to the development of postoperative complications and death. The cornerstone of surgical treatment for hypercalcaemic crisis is to begin infusion of high doses of calcium immediately after successful removal of parathyroid adenomas to allow gradual and well-controlled decline of serum calcium to avoid fatal myocardial complications.
Composting is a good recycling method to fully utilise all the organic wastes present in kitchen waste due to its high nutritious matter within the waste. In this present study, the optimised mixture proportions of kitchen waste containing vegetable scraps (V), fish processing waste (F) and newspaper (N) or onion peels (O) were determined by applying the simplex-centroid mixture design method to achieve the desired initial moisture content and carbon-to-nitrogen (CN) ratio for effective composting process. The best mixture was at 48.5% V, 17.7% F and 33.7% N for blends with newspaper while for blends with onion peels, the mixture proportion was 44.0% V, 19.7% F and 36.2% O. The predicted responses from these mixture proportions fall in the acceptable limits of moisture content of 50% to 65% and CN ratio of 20-40 and were also validated experimentally.
In a survey of starch-based foods sampled from retail outlets in Malaysia, fungal colonies were mostly detected in wheat flour (100%), followed by rice flour (74%), glutinous rice grains (72%), ordinary rice grains (60%), glutinous rice flour (48%) and corn flour (26%). All positive samples of ordinary rice and glutinous rice grains had total fungal counts below 10(3) cfu/g sample, while among the positive rice flour, glutinous rice flour and corn flour samples, the highest total fungal count was more than 10(3) but less than 10(4) cfu/g sample respectively. However, in wheat flour samples total fungal count ranged from 10(2) cfu/g sample to slightly more than 10(4) cfu/g sample. Aflatoxigenic colonies were mostly detected in wheat flour (20%), followed by ordinary rice grains (4%), glutinous rice grains (4%) and glutinous rice flour (2%). No aflatoxigenic colonies were isolated from rice flour and corn flour samples. Screening of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2 using reversed-phase HPLC were carried out on 84 samples of ordinary rice grains and 83 samples of wheat flour. Two point four percent (2.4%) of ordinary rice grains were positive for aflatoxin G1 and 3.6% were positive for aflatoxin G2. All the positive samples were collected from private homes at concentrations ranging from 3.69-77.50 micrograms/kg. One point two percent (1.2%) of wheat flour samples were positive for aflatoxin B1 at a concentration of 25.62 micrograms/kg, 4.8% were positive for aflatoxin B2 at concentrations ranging from 11.25-252.50 micrograms/kg, 3.6% were positive for aflatoxin G1 at concentrations ranging from 25.00-289.38 micrograms/kg and 13.25% were positive for aflatoxin G2 at concentrations ranging from 16.25-436.25 micrograms/kg. Similarly, positive wheat flour samples were mostly collected from private homes.
Enzymatic methods have been used to cleave the C- or N-terminus polyhistidine tags from histidine tagged proteins following expanded bed purification using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). This study assesses the use of Factor Xa and a genetically engineered exopeptidase dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-1 (DAPase-1) for the removal of C-terminus and N-terminus polyhistidine tags, respectively. Model proteins consisting of maltose binding protein (MBP) having a C- or N-terminal polyhistidine tag were used. Digestion of the hexahistidine tag of MBP-His(6) by Factor Xa and HT15-MBP by DAPase-1 was successful. The time taken to complete the conversion of MBP-His(6) to MBP was 16 h, as judged by SDS-PAGE and Western blots against anti-His antibody. When the detagged protein was purified using subtractive IMAC, the yield was moderate at 71% although the overall recovery was high at 95%. Likewise, a yield of 79% and a recovery of 97% was obtained when digestion was performed with using "on-column" tag digestion. On-column tag digestion involves cleavage of histidine tag from polyhistidine tagged proteins that are still bound to the IMAC column. Digestion of an N-terminal polyhistidine tag from HT15-MBP (1 mg/mL) by the DAPase-I system was superior to the results obtained with Factor Xa with a higher yield and recovery of 99% and 95%, respectively. The digestion by DAPase-I system was faster and was complete at 5 h as opposed to 16 h for Factor Xa. The detagged MBP proteins were isolated from the digestion mixtures using a simple subtractive IMAC column procedure with the detagged protein appearing in the flowthrough and washing fractions while residual dipeptides and DAPase-I (which was engineered to exhibit a poly-His tail) were adsorbed to the column. FPLC analysis using a MonoS cation exchanger was performed to understand and monitor the progress and time course of DAPase-I digestion of HT15-MBP to MBP. Optimization of process variables such as temperature, protein concentration, and enzyme activity was developed for the DAPase-I digesting system on HT15-MBP to MBP. In short, this study proved that the use of either Factor Xa or DAPase-I for the digestion of polyhistidine tags is simple and efficient and can be carried out under mild reaction conditions.
Determining factors that affect healthcare utilization by the elderly is vital for the health system to be more responsive in providing care to this vulnerable group. The main objective of this paper is to identify the effect of the predisposing, enabling, and need factors on doctor visits and in-patient care for the elderly residing in the northern region of Malaysia. A multistage cluster sampling was used in selecting the sample for the study. A total of 1414 respondents aged 60 and over were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. A probit model was used in estimating the utilization equations. At a significance level of 0.05, except for age, all predisposing and enabling factors were not statistically significant in affecting the doctor visits. On the other hand, being a male, smoker, medical insurance holder or had not actively involved in social interaction within the reference period increases the likelihood of being in-patient. Health-related variables remain the most significant factors that determine healthcare utilization, including both doctor visits and in-patient stays, in the area of study, which suggests that government policies to improve population health may influence the level of healthcare use in the future.
Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBs) is a rare and startling phenomenon of purple discolouration in the urine or urinary catheter and bag. It is reported in chronically debilitated elderly patients, mostly in women on long-term urinary catheters. Its prevalence is strikingly more common in nursing home residents. Several factors contribute to the formation of indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) pigments from a breakdown of dietary tryptophan, which stains the urine purple. These factors include constipation, dysmotility of the bowel, bowel bacterial overgrowth, dehydration, and urinary tract infection. The presence of purple urine may cause undue alarm to both the patient and the doctor. Thus, we present this case report on an 86-year-old woman, a nursing home resident on a long-term urinary catheter, who presented to the primary care clinic. Her urine cleared after antibiotic therapy, replacement of her urinary catheter, and supportive management, which included hydration and nutrition. In addition to these measures, reducing the time between urinary catheter changes was recommended to prevent recurrence of this condition.
The thermoluminescence kinetic parameters of Ge-doped flat fibre have been investigated comprehensively using the computerized glow curve deconvolution analysis. The Ge-doped flat fibre was irradiated to 6 MV and 10 MV photon beam with dose ranging from 100 cGy to 300 cGy. Analysis was done using WinGCF software on the dependence of the glow curve intensity on dose delivered and the determination of the trap parameters. Ge-doped flat fibre was found to be linear over the entire dose range explored for both 6 MV and 10 MV irradiations with r2 value of 0.9955 and 0.9933 respectively. The glow curve consists of five individual glow peaks. The peak height increases with increasing irradiation dose. The first peak (P1) is a dominant individual peak for low temperature peak (LTP) with the maximum temperature ranging from 167.4°C to 179.0°C for both beams studied. Meanwhile, peak (P4) is a dominant individual glow curve for high temperature peak (HTP) with maximum temperature for 6 MV and 10 MV and is observed between 264.5°C to 279.4°C. Peak 1 has the lowest activation energy which is less than 0.72 eV while peak 2 shows the highest activation energy (1.3 eV < Ea < 2.1 eV) which indicates the deepest electrons trap. The results showed that the peak integral will increases as the dose increases. The Ge-doped flat fibre demonstrated the second-order kinetic peak behavior by exhibiting the symmetric shape of the glow curve with high temperature half of the curve slightly broader than the low temperature half, which suggests the possibility of electron retrapping.