AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to provide a comprehensive report on the ethnomedicinal use, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, molecular mechanisms, and nutritional values of C. nutans. The present review will open new avenues for further in-depth pharmacological studies of C. nutans for it to be developed as a potential nutraceutical and to improve the available products in the market.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: All the available information on C. nutans was collected using the key words "Clinacanthus nutans" and/or "ethnomedicine" and/or "phytochemicals" and/or "anticancer" and/or "anti-inflammatory" and/or "antiviral" through an electronic search of the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Clinical Trials.org, SciFinder Scholar, Scopus, and Google Scholar. In addition, unpublished materials, Ph.D. and M.Sc. dissertations, conference papers, and ethnobotanical textbooks were used. The Plant List (www.theplantlist.org) and International Plant Name Index databases were used to validate the scientific name of the plant.
RESULTS: The literature supported the ethnomedicinal uses of C. nutans as recorded in Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia for various purposes. Bioactivities experimentally proven for C. nutans include cytotoxic, anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antimicrobial, and chemotherapeutic (in aquaculture) activities. Most of these activities have so far only been investigated in chemical, cell-based, and animal assays. Various groups of phytochemicals including five sulfur-containing glycosides, eight chlorophyll derivatives, nine cerebrosides, and a monoacylmonogalactosyl glycerol are present in C. nutans. The presence of two glycerolipids, four sulfur-containing compounds, six known flavones, a flavanol, four flavonols, two phytosterols, one polypeptide, and various phenolics and fatty acids largely influences its diverse bioactivities. Numerous reports justify the ethnomedicinal use of C. nutans as an antiviral agent in treating herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections and as part of a traditional anticancer anti-inflammatory concoction agent for various inflammatory diseases. C. nutans tea was reported to have a good percentage of carbohydrate, crude protein, minerals, essential amino acids, nonessential amino acids, and essential fatty acids. Acute, subacute, and subchronic toxicity studies demonstrated that oral administration of ethanol and methanol extracts of C. nutans to male Swiss albino mice and male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, respectively, did not lead to any toxicity or adverse effects on the animal behavior and organs when used in amounts as high as 2g/kg.
CONCLUSION: The collected literatures demonstrated that, as an important traditional medicine, C. nutans is a promising ethnomedicinal plant with various extracts and bioactive compounds exhibiting multifarious bioactivities. However, it is important for future studies to conduct further in vitro and in vivo bioactivity evaluations systematically, following the standard pharmacology guidelines. It is crucial to elucidate in-depth molecular mechanisms, structure-activity relationships, and potential synergistic and antagonistic effects of multi-component extracts and bioactive constituents derived from C. nutans. Further studies should also focus on comprehensive toxicity that includes long-term effects and adverse effects on target organs of C. nutans and bioactive compounds in correlation with the specific pharmacological effects.
AIM OF THE STUDY: (1) To identify some of the medicinal plants mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Ahadith textbooks of the period 700-1500 AD; (2) to compare them with presently used traditional medicines; (3) to evaluate their value based on modern research; and (4) to investigate the contributions of Islamic scholars to the development of the scientific branches, particularly medicine.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed relating to 12 medicinal plants mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Ahadith using textbooks, Al-Azhar scholars, published articles, the plant list website (http://www.theplantlist.org/), the medicinal plant names services website (http://mpns.kew.org/mpns-portal/) and web databases (PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The Islamic Golden Age was a step towards modern medicine, with unique insights and multi-disciplinary aspects. Traditional Islamic Medicine has had a significant impact on the development of various medical, scientific and educational activities. Innumerable Muslim and non-Muslim physicians have built on the strong foundation of Traditional Islamic Medicine by translating the described natural remedies and effects. The influences of different ancient cultures on the traditional uses of natural products were also documented in Islamic Scriptures in the last part of the second millennium. The divine teachings of Islam combine natural and practical healing and incorporate inherited science and technology.
CONCLUSION: In this review, we discuss Traditional Islamic Medicine with reference to both medical recommendations mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Prophetic Traditional Medicine (al-Tibb al-Nabawi). Although the molecular mechanisms and functions of some of the listed medicinal plants and their derivatives have been intensively studied, some traditional remedies have yet to be translated into clinical applications.