Cyphomandra betacea is one of the underutilized fruits which can be found in tropical and subtropical countries. This study was conducted to determine the antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents in different parts (i.e., flesh and peel) of the fruits. Antioxidants were analyzed using DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assays as well as FRAP assay. Anticholinesterase activity was determined using enzymatic assay using acetyl cholinesterase enzyme. For 80% methanol extract, the peel of the fruit displayed higher antioxidant activity in both FRAP and ABTS free radical scavenging assays while the flesh displayed higher antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay. Total phenolic and total flavonoid content were higher in the peel with the values of 4.89 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 3.36 ± 0.01 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Total anthocyanin and carotenoid content were higher in the flesh of the fruit with the values of 4.15 ± 0.04 mg/100 g and 25.13 ± 0.35 mg/100 g. The anticholinesterase was also higher in the peel of C. betacea. The same trends of phytochemicals, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase were also observed in the distilled water extracts. These findings suggested that C. betacea has a potential as natural antioxidant-rich nutraceutical products.
This study documented ethnomedical knowledge of plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and its related symptoms as practiced by the Jakun community of Kampung Peta, situated in Endau Rompin Johor National Park, Johor, Malaysia. Eight key informants were selected by snowball sampling technique and data about medicinal plants were collected by semistructured interviews, participatory observations, and focus group. Qualitative analysis was undertaken using thematic analysis. There were 23 species of plants (22 genera, 20 families) documented and herbarium specimens were deposited at the UTHM Herbarium. Dipterocarpus sublamellatus was recorded for the first time with ethnomedical uses while other species were previously reported. The qualitative approach employed in this study demonstrates the emic perspective in terms of perceptions on traditional herbal medicine, transfer of knowledge, significant taboos related with medicinal plants, and their conservation efforts. Local and biomedical terminology in treatment of TB showed substantial correspondence. The outcomes obtained in the study are worth being further investigated for conservation strategies and are worthy of verifying their ethnomedical claims scientifically.
Six honey samples produced by the stingless bee Heterotrigona itama were analyzed for their plant sources, phenolic compositions, and antioxidant activities. The honey samples were acetolyzed and identified microscopically, and the phenolic compounds were identified by using HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using three different assays (FRAP, DPPH, and ABTS) by spectrophotometry. The melissopalynological analysis showed that 26 pollen types from 14 plant families were identified in the honey. Cocos nucifera and Rhizophora mucronata presented as predominant pollen. A total of 6 phenolic acids such as catechin, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid, and rutin were identified. Rhizophora mucronata honey possessed the highest antioxidant activity in all assays. The result showed the influence of plant sources on the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant properties of stingless bee honey. These findings could be significant contributions for the sustainability of stingless bee industry as well as to promote Malaysian stingless bee honey worldwide.
Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which is known locally in Sabah as "asam kandis" or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content) and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 5.9 ± 0.1 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.0 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC)/100 g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer's agents.
Cassia alata or locally known as Ketepeng Cina (Indonesia) and Gelenggang (Malaysia) has been used as a traditional medicine to treat various diseases, especially skin diseases. In addition, C. alata has been reported to have potential anti allergic, anti inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, and antifungal. Metabolite compounds that have been isolated from C. alata include flavones, flavonols, flavonoids glycosides, alatinon, alanonal and β-sitosterol-β-D-glucoside. The compounds have been isolated mainly from the leaves. Further identification is needed to discover the secondary metabolites from other parts of the plant such as seed, flower and bark which are reported to have potent antibacterial and antifungal activity. Therefore, this article highlights the secondary metabolites and biological activity of this plant which has been shown to have pharmacological properties against selected diseases.
The present study was conducted to determine the cytotoxicity effect of Eurycoma longifolia (Jack.) leaf extracts and also its possible anticancer mechanism of action against breast cancer cell lines: non-hormone-dependent MDA-MB-231 and hormone-dependent MCF-7. The leaves of E. longifolia were processed into unfermented and fermented batches before drying using freeze and microwave-oven drying techniques. Obtained extracts were tested for cytotoxicity effect using MTT assay and phenolic determination using HPLC-DAD technique. The most toxic sample was analyzed for its apoptotic cell quantification, cell cycle distribution, and the expression of caspases and apoptotic protein using flow cytometry technique. Fragmentation of DNA was tested using an agarose gel electrophoresis system. The results determined that the unfermented freeze-dried leaf extract was the most toxic towards MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, in a dose-dependent manner. This extract contains the highest phenolics of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, ECG, and EGCG. The DNA fragmentation was observed in both cell lines, where cell cycle was arrested at the G2/M phase in MCF-7 cells and S phase in MDA-MB-231 cells. The number of apoptotic cells for MDA-MB-231 was increased when the treatment was prolonged from 24 h to 48 h but slightly decreased at 72 h, whereas apoptosis in MCF-7 cells occurred in a time-dependent manner. There were significant activities of cytochrome c, caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 apoptotic protein in MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas MCF-7 cells showed significant activities for caspase-8, cytochrome c, Bax, p53, and Bcl-2 apoptotic protein. These results indicate the ability of unfermented freeze-dried leaf extract of E. longifolia to induce apoptosis cell death on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, as well as real evidence on sample preparation effect towards its cytotoxicity level.
The study aimed to investigate the phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of 80% methanol extract of Lepidozia borneensis. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were analysed using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using FRAP, ABTS, and DPPH assays while the effects of L. borneensis on the proliferation of MCF-7 cell line were evaluated by using MTT assay. The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 12.42 ± 0.47 mg GAE/g and 9.36 ± 1.29 mg CE/g, respectively. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of at least 35 compounds. The extract was found to induce cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cell line with IC50 value of 47.33 ± 7.37 µg/mL. Cell cycle analysis showed that the extract induced significant arrest at G0/G1 at 24 hours of treatment. After 72 hours of treatment, the proportion of cells in G0/G1 and G2-M phases had decreased significantly as compared to their control. Apoptosis occurred during the first 24 hours and significantly increased to 30.8% after 72 hours of treatment. No activation of caspase 3 was observed. These findings suggest that L. borneensis extract has the potential as natural antioxidant and anticancer agents.
Apoptosis is often the end result of oxidative damage to neurons. Due to shared pathways between oxidative stress, apoptosis and antioxidant defence systems, an oxidative insult could end up causing cellular apoptosis or survival depending on the severity of the insult and cellular responses. Plant bioresources have received close attention in recent years for their potential role in regulating the pathways involved in apoptosis and oxidative stress in favour of cell survival. Rice bran is a bioactive-rich by-product of rice milling process. It possesses antioxidant properties, making it a promising source of antioxidants that could potentially prevent oxidative stress-induced neurodegenerative diseases.
This study was conducted to investigate the potential of bambangan (Mangifera pajang) fruit extracts in the protection against oxidative damage caused by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in the human hepatocellular HepG2 cell line. Proteins which might be involved in the cytoprotective mechanism were investigated using western blotting technique. Quercetin was used as a positive control. The results showed that only the kernel extract of M. pajang and quercetin displayed cytoprotective activity in HepG2 cells, with EC(50) values of 1.2 and 5.3μg/ml, respectively. Expression of quinone reductase, glutathione reductase and methionine sulfoxide reductase A proteins were significantly up-regulated by quercetin, suggesting their involvement in the cytoprotective activity of quercetin. However, expressions of only glutathione reductase and methionine sulfoxide reductase A proteins were significantly up-regulated by the kernel extract, again suggesting their involvement in the cytoprotective activity of bambangan kernel extract. Future study is needed to investigate the involvement of other cytoprotective proteins in the cytoprotection mechanism.
Osteoporosis in elderly men is becoming an important health issue with the aging society. Elderly men with androgen deficiency are exposed to osteoporosis and can be treated with testosterone replacement. In this study, Eurycoma longifolia (EL), a plant with androgenic effects, was supplemented to an androgen-deficient osteoporotic aged rat as alternative to testosterone. Aged 12 months old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups of normal control (NC), sham-operated (SO), orchidectomised-control (OrxC), orchidectomised and supplemented with EL (Orx + El) and orchidectomised and given testosterone (Orx + T). After 6 weeks of treatment, serum osteocalcin, serum terminal C-telopeptide Type 1 collagen (CTX) and the fourth lumbar bone calcium were measured. There were no significant differences in the osteocalcin levels before and after treatment in all the groups. The CTX levels were also similar for all the groups before treatment. However, after treatment, orchidectomy had caused significant elevation of CTX compared to normal control rats. Testosterone replacements in orchidectomised rats were able to prevent the rise of CTX. Orchidectomy had also reduced the bone calcium level compared to normal control rats. Both testosterone replacement and EL supplementation to orchidectomised rats were able to maintain the bone calcium level, with the former showing better effects. As a conclusion, EL prevented bone calcium loss in orchidectomised rats and therefore has the potential to be used as an alternative treatment for androgen deficient osteoporosis.
Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as "mundu" belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell.
Nigella sativa Linn. (N. sativa) and its bioactive constituent Thymoquinone (TQ) have demonstrated numerous pharmacological attributes. In the present study, the neuroprotective properties of Thymoquinone-rich fraction (TQRF) and TQ against hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced neurotoxicity in differentiated human SH-SY5Y cells were investigated. TQRF was extracted using supercritical fluid extraction while TQ was acquired commercially, and their effects on H2O2 were evaluated using cell viability assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, morphological observation, and multiplex gene expression. Both TQRF and TQ protected the cells against H2O2 by preserving the mitochondrial metabolic enzymes, reducing intracellular ROS levels, preserving morphological architecture, and modulating the expression of genes related to antioxidants (SOD1, SOD2, and catalase) and signaling genes (p53, AKT1, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, JNK, and NF-κβ). In conclusion, the enhanced efficacy of TQRF over TQ was likely due to the synergism of multiple constituents in TQRF. The efficacy of TQRF was better than that of TQ alone when equal concentrations of TQ in TQRF were compared. In addition, TQRF also showed comparable effects to TQ when the same concentrations were tested. These findings provide further support for the use of TQRF as an alternative to combat oxidative stress insults in neurodegenerative diseases.
Gout is a type of arthritis that causes painful inflammation in one or more joints. In gout, elevation of uric acid in the blood triggers the formation of crystals, causing joint pain. Malaysia is a mega-biodiversity country that is rich in medicinal plants species. Therefore, its flora might offer promising therapies for gout. This article aims to systematically review the anti-gout potential of Malaysian medicinal plants. Articles on gout published from 2000 to 2017 were identified using PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar with the following keyword search terms: "gout," "medicinal plants," "Malaysia," "epidemiology," "in vitro," and "in vivo." In this study, 85 plants were identified as possessing anti-gout activity. These plants had higher percentages of xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity (>85%); specifically, the Momordica charantia, Chrysanthemum indicum, Cinnamomum cassia, Kaempferia galanga, Artemisia vulgaris, and Morinda elliptica had the highest values, due to their diverse natural bioactive compounds, which include flavonoids, phenolics, tannin, coumarins, luteolin, and apigenin. This review summarizes the anti-gout potential of Malaysian medicinal plants but the mechanisms, active compounds, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and safety of the plants still remain to be elucidated.
This article aims to provide detailed information on Malaysian plants used for treating inflammation. An extensive search on electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and ScienceDirect and conference papers was done to find relevant articles on anti-inflammatory activity of Malaysian medicinal plants. The keyword search terms used were "inflammation," "Malaysia," "medicinal plants," "mechanisms," "in vitro," and "in vivo." As a result, 96 articles on anti-inflammatory activity of Malaysian medicinal plants were found and further reviewed. Forty-six (46) plants (in vitro) and 30 plants (in vivo) have been identified to possess anti-inflammatory activity where two plants, Melicope ptelefolia (Tenggek burung) and Portulaca oleracea (Gelang pasir), were reported to have the strongest anti-inflammatory activity of more than 90% at a concentration of 250 µg/ml. It was showed that the activity was mainly due to the occurrence of diverse naturally occurring phytochemicals from diverse groups such as flavonoids, coumarins, alkaloids, steroids, benzophenone, triterpenoids, curcuminoids, and cinnamic acid. Hence, this current review is a detailed discussion on the potential of Malaysian medicinal plants as an anti-inflammatory agent from the previous studies. However, further investigation on the possible underlying mechanisms and isolation of active compounds still remains to be investigated.
Despite all of the control strategies, tuberculosis (TB) is still a major cause of death globally and one-third of the world's population is infected with TB. The drugs used for TB treatment have drawbacks of causing adverse side effects and emergence of resistance strains. Plant-derived medicines have since been used in traditional medical system for the treatment of numerous ailments worldwide. There were nine major review publications on antimycobacteria from plants in the last 17 years. However, none is focused on Southeast Asian medicinal plants. Hence, this review is aimed at highlighting the medicinal plants of Southeast Asian origin evaluated for anti-TB. This review is based on literatures published in various electronic database. A total of 132 plants species representing 45 families and 107 genera were reviewed; 27 species representing 20.5% exhibited most significant in vitro anti-TB activity (crude extracts and/or bioactive compounds 0-<10 µg/ml). The findings may motivate various scientists to undertake the project that may result in the development of crude extract that will be consumed as complementary or alternative TB drug or as potential bioactive compounds for the development of novel anti-TB drug.
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) remains one of the deadliest, infectious diseases worldwide. The detrimental effects caused by the existing anti-TB drugs to TB patients and the emergence of resistance strains of M. tuberculosis has driven efforts from natural products researchers around the globe in discovering novel anti-TB drugs that are more efficacious and with less side effects. There were eleven main review publications that focused on natural products with anti-TB potentials. However, none of them specifically emphasized antimycobacterial phenolic compounds. Thus, the current review's main objective is to highlight and summarize phenolic compounds found active against mycobacteria from 2000 to 2017. Based on the past studies in the electronic databases, the present review also focuses on several test organisms used in TB researches and their different distinct properties, a few types of in vitro TB bioassay and comparison between their strengths and drawbacks, different methods of extraction, fractionation and isolation, ways of characterizing and identifying isolated compounds and the mechanism of actions of anti-TB phenolic compounds as reported in the literature.
Gout is a common disease affected most of the people due to the elevation of uric acid in the blood. Flavonoid and phenolic compounds are reported to exert the anti-gout activity of medicinal plants. Hence, this study aimed at optimizing the extraction conditions of phenolic and flavonoid compounds as well as the anti-gout (xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity) in vitro of Euphorbia hirta using response surface methodology (RSM). The plant part used was the whole plant excluding roots. The effects of three independent variables (extraction time, X1; extraction temperature, X2; and solid-to-liquid ratio, X3) on three response variables (total flavonoid content, Y1; total phenolic content, Y2; and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, Y3) were determined using central composite design (CCD) while phytochemical profiling of the extracts was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Quadratic models produced a satisfactory fitting of the experimental data with regard to total flavonoid content (r2 = 0.9407, p < 0.0001), total phenolic content (r2 = 0.9383, p < 0.0001), and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity (r2 = 0.9794, p < 0.0001). The best extraction conditions observed for total flavonoid content, total phenolic content, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity were at a temperature of 79.07°C for 17.42 min with solid-to-liquid ratio of 1 : 20 g/ml. The optimum values for total flavonoid, total phenolic, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity were 67.56 mg RE/g, 155.21 mg GAE/g, and 91.42%, respectively. The main phytochemical compounds in the optimized E. hirta extract are neochlorogenic acid, quercetin-3β-D-glucoside, syringic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, astragalin, afzelin, and quercetin. As conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated the best conditions to obtain higher xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity and phytochemical compounds which can be further used for the development of anti-gout agents.
Chitin, being the second most abundant biopolymer after cellulose, has been gaining popularity since its initial discovery by Braconot in 1811. However, fundamental knowledge and literature on chitin and its derivatives from insects are difficult to obtain. The most common and sought-after sources of chitin are shellfish (especially crustaceans) and other aquatic invertebrates. The amount of shellfish available is obviously restricted by the amount of food waste that is allowed; hence, it is a limited resource. Therefore, insects are the best choices since, out of 1.3 million species in the world, 900,000 are insects, making them the most abundant species in the world. In this review, a total of 82 samples from shellfish-crustaceans and mollusks (n = 46), insects (n = 23), and others (n = 13)-have been collected and studied for their chemical extraction of chitin and its derivatives. The aim of this paper is to review the extraction method of chitin and chitosan for a comparison of the optimal demineralization and deproteinization processes, with a consideration of insects as alternative sources of chitin. The methods employed in this review are based on comprehensive bibliographic research. Based on previous data, the chitin and chitosan contents of insects in past studies favorably compare and compete with those of commercial chitin and chitosan-for example, 45% in Bombyx eri, 36.6% in Periostracum cicadae (cicada sloughs), and 26.2% in Chyrysomya megacephala. Therefore, according to the data reported by previous researchers, demonstrating comparable yield values to those of crustacean chitin and the great interest in insects as alternative sources, efforts towards comprehensive knowledge in this field are relevant.
Breast cancer is among the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death among women globally. Malaysia is a country that is rich in medicinal plant species. Hence, this research aims to explore the secondary metabolites, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activities of Dioscorea bulbifera leaf collected from Endau Rompin, Johor, Malaysia. Antioxidant activity was assessed using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assays, while the cytotoxicity of D. bulbifera on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines was tested using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis were assessed using flow cytometry analysis. Phytochemical profiling was conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed that methanol extract had the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assays, followed by ethyl acetate and hexane extracts. D. bulbifera tested against MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines showed a pronounced cytotoxic effect with IC50 values of 8.96 μg/mL, 6.88 μg/mL, and 3.27 μg/mL in MCF-7 and 14.29 μg/mL, 11.86 μg/mL, and 7.23 μg/mL in MDA-MB-231, respectively. Cell cycle analysis also indicated that D. bulbifera prompted apoptosis at various stages, and a significant decrease in viable cells was detected within 24 h and substantially improved after 48 h and 72 h of treatment. Phytochemical profiling of methanol extract revealed the presence of 39 metabolites such as acetic acid, n-hexadecanoic acid, acetin, hexadecanoate, 7-tetradecenal, phytol, octadecanoic acid, cholesterol, palmitic acid, and linolenate. Hence, these findings concluded that D. bulbifera extract has promising anticancer and natural antioxidant agents. However, further study is needed to isolate the bioactive compounds and validate the effectiveness of this extract in the In in vivo model.
Hevea brasiliensis is exploited for its latex production, and it is the only viable source of natural rubber worldwide. The demand for natural rubber remains high due its high-quality properties, which synthetic rubber cannot compete with. In this paper, we present transcriptomic data and analysis of three H. brasiliensis clones using tissue from latex and bark tissues collected from 10-year-old plant. The combined, assembled transcripts were mapped onto an H. brasiliensis draft genome. Gene ontology analysis showed that the most abundant transcripts related to molecular functions, followed by biological processes and cellular components. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were also identified, and these can be useful for selection of parental and new clones in a breeding program. Data generated by RNA sequencing were deposited in the NCBI public repository under accession number PRJNA629890.