Case Report: We report a case study of parotid squamous cell carcinoma in a 29-year-old male masquerading as an ear polyp.
Conclusion: Parotid gland primary squamous cell carcinoma is a rapidly advancing neoplasm which carries poor prognosis despite multimodality treatment. Diligent clinical and histopathological evaluation is imperative to discriminate this rare aggressive disease from the metastatic and other primary cancers of the parotid. A high index of suspicion is crucial in refractory aural polyps to arrive at early diagnosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed through SCOPUS database and Google Scholar from January till March 2018. All published articles which developed stature estimation from different types of bone, methods and type of statures (i.e. living stature, forensic stature and cadaveric stature) were included in this study. Risks of biases were also assessed. Population studies with no regression equations were excluded from the study.
RESULTS: Seven studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified. In the South-East Asia region, regression equations for stature estimation were developed in Thailand and Malaysia. In these studies, bone measurements were done either by radiography, direct bone measurement, or palpation on body surface for anatomical bony prominence. All of these studies used various parts of bones for stature estimation.
CONCLUSION: The most widely used regression equations for stature estimation in South-East Asian population were from the Thailand population. Further research is recommended to develop regression equations for other South-East Asian countries.
METHODS: In this study, prior to synthesis, quality control analysis method for 18F-Fluorocholine was developed and validated, by adapting the equipment set-up used in 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FFDG) routine production. Quality control on the 18F-Fluorocholine was performed by means of pH, radionuclidic identity, radio-high performance liquid chromatography equipped with ultraviolet, radio- thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and filter integrity test.
RESULTS: Post-synthesis; the pH of 18F-Fluorocholine was 6.42 ± 0.04, with half-life of 109.5 minutes (n = 12). The radiochemical purity was consistently higher than 99%, both in radio-high performance liquid chromatography equipped with ultraviolet (r-HPLC; SCX column, 0.25 M NaH2PO4: acetonitrile) and radio-thin layer chromatography method (r-TLC). The calculated relative retention time (RRT) in r-HPLC was 1.02, whereas the retention factor (Rf) in r-TLC was 0.64. Potential impurities from 18F-Fluorocholine synthesis such as ethanol, acetonitrile, dimethylethanolamine and dibromomethane were determined in gas chromatography. Using our parameters, (capillary column: DB-200, 30 m x 0.53 mm x 1 um) and oven temperature of 35°C (isothermal), all compounds were well resolved and eluted within 3 minutes. Level of ethanol and acetonitrile in 18F-Fluorocholine were detected below threshold limit; less than 5 mg/ml and 0.41 mg/ml respectively. Meanwhile, dimethylethanolamine and dibromomethane were undetectable.
CONCLUSION: A convenient, efficient and reliable quality control analysis work-up procedure for 18FFluorocholine has been established and validated to comply all the release criteria. The convenient method of quality control analysis may provide a guideline to local GMP radiopharmaceutical laboratories to start producing 18F-Fluorocholine as a tracer for prostate cancer imaging.
Methods: Each 24-well plate of Vero cells infected with all four DENV serotypes, singly, was subjected to treatments with various doses of AR-12. Following 48 h of incubation, inhibitory efficacies of AR-12 against the different DENV serotypes were evaluated by conducting a virus yield reduction assay whereby DENV RNA copy numbers present in the collected supernatant were quantified using qRT-PCR. The underlying mechanism(s) possibly involved in the compound's inhibitory activities were then investigated by performing molecular docking on several potential target human and DENV protein domains.
Results: The qRT-PCR data demonstrated that DENV-3 was most potently inhibited by AR-12, followed by DENV-1, DENV-2 and DENV-4. Our molecular docking findings suggested that AR-12 possibly exerted its inhibitory effects by interfering with the chaperone activities of heat shock proteins.
Conclusions: These results serve as vital information for the design of future studies involving in vitro mechanistic studies and animal models, aiming to decipher the potential of AR-12 as a potential therapeutic option for DENV infection.