Displaying all 18 publications

  1. Khatun J, Loh TC, Akit H, Foo HL, Mohamad R
    Anim Sci J, 2017 Sep;88(9):1406-1413.
    PMID: 28220633 DOI: 10.1111/asj.12775
    The present study assessed the effect of feeding palm oil (PO), sunflower oil (SO) and their combination on performance, fat deposition, fatty acid composition and lipogenic gene expression of broilers reared for 42 days. A total of 144 1-day-old broilers (Cobb500) were randomly allotted into four treatment diets with each having six replicates of six chicks in each replicate following a completely randomized design. Live weight gain and feed efficiency was significantly (P 
  2. Kareem KY, Loh TC, Foo HL, Asmara SA, Akit H
    Poult Sci, 2017 Apr 01;96(4):966-975.
    PMID: 28339522 DOI: 10.3382/ps/pew362
    This study examined the effects of different combinations of inulin and postbiotics RG14 on growth performance, cecal microbiota, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ileal cytokine expression in broiler chickens. Two-hundred-and sixteen, one-day-old chicks were allocated into 6 treatment groups, namely, a basal diet (negative control, NC), basal diet + neomycin and oxytetracycline (positive control, PC), T1 = basal diet + 0.15% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, T2 = basal diet + 0.3% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, T3 = basal diet + 0.45% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, and T4 = basal diet + 0.6% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, and fed for 6 weeks. The results showed that birds fed T1 and T3 diets had higher (P  0.05) among diets. The NC birds had higher (P
  3. Muhammad AI, Dalia AM, Loh TC, Akit H, Samsudin AA
    BMC Vet Res, 2021 Aug 21;17(1):281.
    PMID: 34419016 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-021-02964-0
    BACKGROUND: The oviduct of a hen provides a conducive environment for egg formation, which needs a large amount of mineral elements from the blood via trans-epithelial permeability. Eggshell is the calcified layer on the outside of an egg that provides protection and is critical for egg quality. However, little is known about the genes or proteins involved in eggshell formation, and their relationship to dietary microminerals. We hypothesized that dietary selenium supplementation in chickens will influence genes involved in eggshell biomineralization, and improve laying hen antioxidant capacity. The objective of this research was to investigate how organic and inorganic dietary selenium supplementation affected mRNA expression of shell gland genes involved in eggshell biomineralization, and selenoproteins gene expression in Lohman Brown-Classic laying hens.

    RESULTS: Shell gland (Uterus) and liver tissue samples were collected from hens during the active growth phase of calcification (15-20 h post-ovulation) for RT-PCR analysis. In the oviduct (shell gland and magnum) and liver of laying hens, the relative expression of functional eggshell and hepatic selenoproteins genes was investigated. Results of qPCR confirmed the higher (p 

  4. Muhammad AI, Dalia AM, Loh TC, Akit H, Samsudin AA
    Vet Res Commun, 2021 Nov 30.
    PMID: 34845583 DOI: 10.1007/s11259-021-09867-3
    This study compares the effects of sodium selenite, selenium yeast, and enriched bacterial organic selenium protein on antioxidant enzyme activity, serum biochemical profiles, and egg yolk, serum, and tissue selenium concentration in laying hens. In a 112-d experiment, 144 Lohman Brown Classic hens, 23-wks old were divided into four equal groups, each has six replicates. They were assigned to 4 treatments: 1) a basal diet (Con), 2) Con plus 0.3 mg/kg feed sodium selenite (SS); 3) Con plus 0.3 mg/kg feed Se-yeast (SY): 4) Con plus 0.3 mg/kg feed bacterial enriched organic Se protein (ADS18) from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteria. On d 116, hens were euthanized (slaughtered) to obtain blood (serum), liver organ, and breast tissue to measure antioxidant enzyme activity, biochemical profiles, and selenium concentration. The results show that antioxidant enzyme activity of hens was increased when fed bacterial organic Se (ADS18), resulting in a significant (P 
  5. Akit H, Collins C, Fahri F, Hung A, D'Souza D, Leury B, et al.
    Animals (Basel), 2016;6(6).
    PMID: 27338483 DOI: 10.3390/ani6060038
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary lecithin on skeletal muscle gene expression of collagen precursors and enzymes involved in collagen synthesis and degradation. Finisher gilts with an average start weight of 55.9 ± 2.22 kg were fed diets containing either 0, 4, 20 or 80 g/kg soybean lecithin prior to harvest for six weeks and the rectus abdominis muscle gene expression profile was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Lecithin treatment down-regulated Type I (α1) procollagen (COL1A1) and Type III (α1) procollagen (COL3A1) mRNA expression ( p < 0.05, respectively), indicating a decrease in the precursors for collagen synthesis. The α-subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H) mRNA expression also tended to be down-regulated ( p = 0.056), indicating a decrease in collagen synthesis. Decreased matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) mRNA expression may reflect a positive regulatory response to the reduced collagen synthesis in muscle from the pigs fed lecithin ( p = 0.035). Lecithin had no effect on tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and lysyl oxidase mRNA expression. In conclusion, lecithin down-regulated COL1A1 and COL3A1 as well as tended to down-regulate α-subunit P4H expression. However, determination of muscle collagen content and solubility are required to support the gene functions.
  6. Saeed OA, Sazili AQ, Akit H, Ebrahimi M, Alimon AR, Samsudin AA
    BMC Vet Res, 2019 Jul 08;15(1):233.
    PMID: 31286932 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-019-1976-8
    BACKGROUND: The increasing costs of feed has subsequently increased the costs of production of livestock, thereby decreasing the profit margin of this sector. The utilization of agro-industrial by-products has to some extent substitute some of the corn grains and soyabean meal, commonly used in animal feeds. In Malaysia, palm kernel cake (PKC) is a by-product of the oil palm industry and is frequently used to supply both crude protein (14-16% CP) and energy (11 MJ/kg) in ruminants. The energy and protein content are adequate for maintenance in the majority of ruminants. However, highly available energy supplementation is known to improve growth performance and protein deposition. This study was carried out to determine the effect on the quality of meat and fatty acid composition of the semitendinosus (ST), supraspinatus (SS), and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles of Dorper lambs by including corn as an energy source in a basal diet of PKC urea-treated rice straw.

    RESULTS: The results show that the LL muscle-drip loss was greater in animals supplemented with 5% corn compared to the other groups. Higher pH values of SS and LL muscles were observed in animals supplemented with 5 and 10% corn. Furthermore, the L* value of ST muscle was increased in lambs fed on 5% corn while, reduced in those fed on 0% corn, but the a* and b* values were not significantly different in the treatment groups. The fatty acid composition of the SS muscles showed that lambs fed on 10% corn had higher levels of sum PUFA n-3 compared to those fed on 0% corn. The concentration of C18:1trans11 and CLA c12 t10 in ST muscle from the lambs fed on supplemented diets were higher than those of the controls.

    CONCLUSION: This study has concluded the supplementation of corn as a source of energy into a PKC urea-treated rice straw-based diet increased the PUFA concentrations of muscles as compared to control groups.

  7. Akit H, Collins CL, Fahri FT, Hung AT, D'Souza DN, Leury BJ, et al.
    Meat Sci, 2014 Mar;96(3):1147-51.
    PMID: 24334033 DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.10.028
    The influence of dietary lecithin at doses of 0, 4, 20 or 80 g/kg fed to finisher gilts for six weeks prior to slaughter on growth performance, carcass quality and pork quality was investigated. M. longissimus lumborum (loin) was removed from 36 pig carcasses at 24h post-mortem for Warner-Bratzler shear force, compression, collagen content and colour analyses. Dietary lecithin increased dressing percentage (P=0.009). Pork chewiness and collagen content were decreased by dietary lecithin (P<0.05, respectively), suggesting that improved chewiness may be due to decreased collagen content. However, dietary lecithin had no effect on shear force, cohesiveness or hardness (P>0.05, respectively). Dietary lecithin reduced loin muscle L* values and increased a* values (P<0.05, respectively) but no changes on b* values (P=0.56). The data showed that dietary lecithin improved dressing percentage and resulted in less chewy and less pale pork.
  8. Khatun J, Loh TC, Foo HL, Akit H, Khan KI
    Front Vet Sci, 2020;7:619.
    PMID: 33195499 DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00619
    This study set out to examine the combined effects of the supplementation of a dietary palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO) blend, 0. 25% L-Arginine (L-Arg), and different levels of vitamin E (Vit E) on growth performance, fat deposition, cytokine expression, and immune response in broilers. A total of 216 1-day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb500) were randomly distributed into six dietary groups as follows: Diet 1: 6% palm oil (negative control); Diet 2: PO and SO blend (4% palm oil and 2% sunflower oil) + 0.25% L-Arg (positive control); Diet 3: (PO and SO blend + 0.25% L-Arg) + 20 mg/kg Vit E; Diet 4: (PO and SO blend + 0.25% L-Arg) + 50 mg/kg Vit E; Diet 5: (PO and SO blend + 0.25% L-Arg) + 100 mg/kg Vit E; and Diet 6: (PO and SO blend + 0.25% L-Arg) + 150 mg/kg Vit E. Weight gain and serum IgG and IgM increased while feed conversion ratio, fat deposition, and plasma cholesterol decreased in broilers fed Vit E with the oil blend and L-Arg, compared to those fed the negative control (Diet 1). Expression of IFN and TNF-α were reduced, whereas TGF-ß1 was up-regulated as the level of Vit E increased in the broiler diets. In summary, the combination of oil blend, L-Arg, and Vit E at a level of 50 mg/kg increased the performance and altered the expression of cytokines that may positively influence immune function in broiler chickens.
  9. Muhammad AI, Mohamed DAA, Chwen LT, Akit H, Samsudin AA
    Foods, 2021 Apr 16;10(4).
    PMID: 33923439 DOI: 10.3390/foods10040871
    The chicken egg is one of nature's flawlessly preserved biological products, recognized as an excellent source of nutrients for humans. Selenium (Se) is an essential micro-element that plays a key role in biological processes. Organic selenium can be produced biologically by the microbial reduction of inorganic Se (sodium selenite). Therefore, the possibility of integrating Se enriched bacteria as a supplement in poultry feed can provide an interesting source of organic Se, thereby offering health-related advantages to humans. In this study, bacterial selenoproteins from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was used as a dietary supplement with other Se sources in Lohman brown Classic laying hens to study the egg yolk color, egg yolk and breast antioxidant profile, oxidative stability, and storage effect for fresh and stored egg yolk at 4 ± 2 °C for 14-days. The results showed that dietary Se supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) improved egg yolk color, the antioxidant profile of egg yolk, and breast meat (total carotenoid and phenol content). When the Se treated groups were compared to control groups, there was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in total cholesterol in fresh and stored egg yolk and breast muscle. In hens that were fed ADS18-Se, the primary oxidation products (MDA) concentrations in the eggs, breast, and thigh muscle, and plasma were significantly (p < 0.05) lower. However, the MDA content increased (p < 0.05) with an extended storage time in egg yolk. In comparison to inorganic Se and basal diets, egg yolk from hens fed organic Se remained fresh for two weeks. The egg yolk color, antioxidant profile, and oxidative status of egg yolk and tissue improve with dietary Se organic supplementation (ADS18 > Se-Yeast). The source of supplemented organic Se is critical for egg enrichment and antioxidant properties. As a result, ''functional eggs'' enriched with organic Se becomes possible to produce.
  10. Kareem KY, Loh TC, Foo HL, Akit H, Samsudin AA
    BMC Vet Res, 2016;12(1):163.
    PMID: 27496016 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-016-0790-9
    Postbiotics (metabolic products by lactic acid bacteria) and prebiotics have been established as substitute to antibiotics in order to enhance immunity and growth performance in broiler chickens. Nonetheless, insufficient information is available on the effects of postbiotics and prebiotics combination on growth performance, faecal microbiota, pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA), as well as liver insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNA expressions in broiler chickens. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of different types of postbiotics with different levels of prebiotic (inulin) on broiler for those parameters.
  11. Saeed OA, Sazili AQ, Akit H, Alimon AR, Samsudin AAB
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2018 Dec;50(8):1859-1864.
    PMID: 29948778 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1636-1
    This study investigated the effect of different levels of corn supplementation as energy source into palm kernel cake-urea-treated rice straw basal diet on urinary excretion of purine derivatives, nitrogen utilization, rumen fermentation, and rumen microorganism populations. Twenty-seven Dorper lambs were randomly assigned to three treatment groups and kept in individual pens for a 120-day period. The animals were subjected to the dietary treatments as follows: T1: 75.3% PKC + 0% corn, T2: 70.3% PKC + 5% corn, and T3: 65.3% PKC + 10% corn. Hypoxanthine and uric acid excretion level were recorded similarly in lambs supplemented with corn. The microbial N yield and butyrate level was higher in corn-supplemented group, but fecal N excretion, T3 has the lowest level than other groups. Lambs fed T3 had a greater rumen protozoa population while the number of R. flavefaciens was recorded highest in T2. No significant differences were observed for total bacteria, F. succinogenes, R. albus, and methanogen population among all treatment. Based on these results, T3 could be fed to lambs without deleterious effect on the VFA and N balance.
  12. Saeed OA, Sazili AQ, Akit H, Alimon AR, Samsudin AA
    Animals (Basel), 2019 Oct 11;9(10).
    PMID: 31614434 DOI: 10.3390/ani9100781
    Twenty-seven Dorper lambs were used to determine the effect of supplementing corn as a source of energy into the palm kernel cake (PKC) urea-treated rice straw basal diet on the blood metabolic profile and metals in lambs. The lambs were randomly allotted to three experimental treatments according to their initial body weight for a 120 day trial. Dietary treatments were: T1 (control diet) = 75.3% of PKC + 0% corn, T2 = 70.3% of PKC + 5% corn, and T3 = 65.3% of PKC + 10% corn. The results of this study indicated that copper (Cu), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) concentration intake, retention, and its absorption from the gut and apparent mineral digestibility were highly significant for the levels of corn supplementation. The biochemical and hematological parameters remained within normal levels with the treatments, but the white blood cell, eosinophil count, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) were significantly higher in T3. Treatment 3 significantly increased the concentration of Se and Fe, while Zn was reduced in the blood serum of lambs on day 120. The result shows that the inclusion of corn has no effect on the hematological and biochemical parameters of lambs after incorporating corn into the PKC-based diet at 5% and 10%.
  13. Danladi Y, Loh TC, Foo HL, Akit H, Md Tamrin NA, Naeem Azizi M
    Animals (Basel), 2022 Apr 03;12(7).
    PMID: 35405905 DOI: 10.3390/ani12070917
    Background: This experiment was designed to investigate how replacing antibiotics with postbiotics and paraprobiotics could affect growth performance, small intestine morphology, immune status, and hepatic growth gene expression in broiler chickens. Methods: The experiment followed a completely randomized design (CRD) in which eight treatments were replicated six times with seven birds per replicate. A total of 336, one-day-old (COBB 500) chicks were fed with the eight treatment diets, which include T1 = negative control (Basal diet), T2 = positive control (Basal diet + 0.01% (w/w) Oxytetracycline), T3 = Basal diet + 0.2% (v/w) postbiotic TL1, T4 = Basal diet + 0.2% (v/w) postbiotic RS5, T5 = Basal diet + 0.2% (v/w) paraprobiotic RG11, T6 = Basal diet + 0.2% (v/w) postbiotic RI11, T7 = Basal diet + 0.2% (v/w) paraprobiotic RG14, T8 = Basal diet + 0.2% (v/w) paraprobiotic RI11, for 35 days in a closed house system. Results: The growth performance indicators (final body weight, cumulative weight gain, and feed conversion ratio) were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by the dietary treatments. However, feed intake recorded a significant (p < 0.05) change in the starter and finisher phases across the dietary treatments. Paraprobiotic RG14 had significantly (p < 0.05) lower abdominal fat and intestines. Villi heights were significantly (p < 0.05) increased, while the crypt depth decreased significantly due to dietary treatments. The dietary treatments significantly influenced colon mucosa sIgA (p < 0.05). Similarly, plasma immunoglobulin IgM level recorded significant (p < 0.05) changes at the finisher phase. In this current study, the hepatic GHR and IGF-1 expressions were significantly (p < 0.05) increased by postbiotics and paraprobiotics supplementation. Conclusions: Therefore, it was concluded that postbiotics and paraprobiotics differ in their effect on broiler chickens. However, they can replace antibiotics without compromising the growth performance, carcass yield, and immune status of broiler chickens.
  14. Saeed OA, Kee LT, Sazili AQ, Akit H, Jahromi MF, Alimon AR, et al.
    3 Biotech, 2019 Apr;9(4):146.
    PMID: 30944793 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-019-1681-0
    This study aimed to determine influence of corn inclusion on glutathion peroxidase (GPx) activity, selected minerals concentration, and gene expression in sheep-fed palm kernel cake (PKC) and urea-treated rice straw. Twenty-seven of Dorper sheep were divided into three groups and fed a basal diet of (20% rice straw and 80% concentrate) with addition of ground corn at either 0% (T1), 5% (T2), or 10% (T3), respectively. After 120 days feeding trial, all animals were slaughtered and tissue samples of kidney, liver, and muscles were taken for enzyme and mineral analyses. The results showed that Cu concentration in the liver was lower treatment T3 compared to the control and T2. The serum activity of GPx was higher in T2 than in T3 at day 120 of experiment. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations decreased at day 80 in sheep on T3, whereas MDA of liver increased linearly with increasing corn supplementation. The qRT-PCR analyses revealed significant up-regulation of ATP7A and MIa genes in T3, while hepatic Cu/Zn SOD, GPx1, and GPx4 mRNA showed a higher expression in lamb hepatocytes in T3 compared to those on T1. Present study results suggest that feeding PKC as basal diet can increase antioxidant activity, but cause liver dysfunction in sheep. Inclusion corn was found to regulate transcriptional levels of the GPx family and metallothionein genes. These genes may play a role in the antioxidant protection response and reduce incidence of toxicity associated with Cu.
  15. Azizi MN, Loh TC, Foo HL, Akit H, Izuddin WI, Yohanna D
    Animals (Basel), 2023 May 09;13(10).
    PMID: 37238013 DOI: 10.3390/ani13101582
    The study was designed to analyze the effects of brown seaweed (BS) and green seaweed (GS) on blood plasma antioxidant enzyme activities, hepatic antioxidant genes expression, blood plasma lipid profile, breast meat quality, and chemical composition in broiler chickens. The dietary treatment groups contained basal diet [negative control (NC)], basal diet + vitamin E (100 mg/kg feed) [positive control (PC)], basal diet + 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, and 1.25% BS and GS supplements separately. The findings showed that both BS and GS exhibited remarkable antioxidant activity. In contrast, the maximum antioxidant activity was recorded by BS (55.19%), which was significantly higher than the GS (25.74%). Results showed that various levels of BS and GS had no significant effects on broiler blood plasma catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities. The hepatic superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene mRNA expression was significantly higher for birds fed 0.50% and 0.75% BS. Regarding the plasma lipid profile, the total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were higher (p < 0.05) for birds fed 0.75 and 1% BS compared to the negative and positive control groups. The findings showed that different levels of BS and GS had significantly higher breast meat crude protein (CP) content.
  16. Muhammad AI, Mohamed DA, Chwen LT, Akit H, Samsudin AA
    Animals (Basel), 2021 Jun 04;11(6).
    PMID: 34199988 DOI: 10.3390/ani11061681
    The use of toxic and less bioavailable inorganic selenium can now be supplemented with an alternative organic source from bacterial species in nutrition for human and animal benefit. This study investigated the effects of selenium sources on laying performance, egg quality characteristics, intestinal morphology, caecum microbial population, and digesta volatile fatty acids in laying hens. One hundred and forty-four Lohman Brown Classic laying hens, at 23 weeks of age, were divided into four experimental groups (36 hens in each), differing in form of Se supplementation: no Se supplementation (Con), 0.3 mg/kg of inorganic Se in the form of sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), 0.3 mg/kg of organic Se from selenium yeast (Se-Yeast), and 0.3 mg/kg of organic Se from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (bacterial organic Se, ADS18). The results showed that different dietary Se sources significantly affected laying rate, average egg weight, daily egg mass, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and live bodyweight (LBW) (p < 0.05). However, average daily feed intake and shell-less and broken eggs were unaffected (p > 0.05) among the treatment groups. The findings revealed that selenium sources had no (p > 0.05) effect on egg quality (external and internal) parameters. However, eggshell breaking strength and Haugh unit were significantly (p < 0.05) improved with organic (ADS18 or Se-yeast) Se-fed hens compared to the control group. In addition, egg yolk and breast tissue Se concentrations were higher (p < 0.05) in the dietary Se supplemented group compared to the control. Intestinal histomorphology revealed that hens fed ADS18 or Se-Yeast groups had significantly (p < 0.05) higher villi height in the duodenum and jejunum compared to those fed Na2SeO3 or a basal diet. However, when compared to organic Se fed (ADS18 or Se-Yeast) hens, the ileum villus height was higher (p < 0.05) in the basal diet group; with the lowest in the SS among the treatment groups. A significant increase (p < 0.05) of Lactobacilli spp. and Bifidobacteria spp., and a decrease of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. population were observed in the organic (ADS18 or Se-yeast) compared to inorganic supplemented and control hens. The individual digesta volatile fatty acid (VFA) was significantly different, but with no total VFA differences. Thus, bacterial selenoprotein or Se-yeast improved the performance index, egg quality characteristics, egg yolk and tissue Se contents, and intestinal villus height in laying hens. Moreover, caecum beneficial microbes increased with a decrease in the harmful microbe population and affected individual cecal volatile fatty acids without affecting the total VFA of the laying hens digesta.
  17. Izuddin WI, Loh TC, Nayan N, Akit H, Noor AM, Foo HL
    Front Vet Sci, 2023;10:1192841.
    PMID: 37519991 DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2023.1192841
    The palm oil, palm kernel oil and soybean oil have unique and distinctive fatty acid chain length and saturation profiles, and how they affect lipid peroxidation, fatty acid intake and metabolism is worth exploring in poultry. This study elucidated the influence the dietary oils on lipid peroxidation, blood lipid profiles, fatty acid deposition of liver, serum and yolk and the expression of liver genes related to lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in laying hens. About 150 Hisex brown laying hens were fed diets containing crude palm oil (CPO), red palm oil (RPO), refined palm oil (RBD), palm kernel oil (PKO) or soybean oil (SBO) for 16 weeks. Serum, liver and yolk lipid peroxidation were not different between dietary oils. The PKO increased liver, serum and yolk medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). There was no difference in liver saturated fatty acids (SFA). The CPO and RPO reduced serum SFA, but the PKO increased yolk SFA. The SBO increased polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in liver serum and yolk. No difference in liver elaidic acid (C18:1-trans), but SBO lowered elaidic acid (C18:1-trans) in serum. Higher very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in CPO than RPO and SBO and greater serum lipase in CPO, RBD and PKO than SBO. There was no difference in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP-II) between oils. Apolipoprotein VLDL-II (APOVLDL2) was upregulated in palm oils and apolipoprotein B-100 (APOB) in RBD. Downregulation in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) was observed in palm oils and PKO. In conclusion, different dietary oils greatly influence several aspects of fatty acid metabolism, deposition and lipoprotein profiles but have no influence on reducing lipid peroxidation.
  18. Azizi MN, Loh TC, Foo HL, Akit H, Izuddin WI, Shazali N, et al.
    Animals (Basel), 2021 Jul 20;11(7).
    PMID: 34359273 DOI: 10.3390/ani11072147
    This study aimed to analyse the nutritional properties, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) of broiler chickens fed with brown seaweed (BS) and green seaweed (GS). Proximate analysis was performed to determine the nutrient composition of seaweed. The amino acids were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the minerals content. The gross energy (GE) was determined using a fully automatic bomb calorimeter, and the AME value was calculated. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was used as an indigestible marker to calculate the AID. A digestibility trial was conducted to investigate the effects of seaweeds on crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), amino acids (AA) and minerals digestibility, and AME on broiler chickens. Thirty-six broiler chickens were randomly distributed into two dietary treatment groups with six replicates and three birds per replicate. Results showed that brown and green seaweed was a source of macro and micronutrients. For the AME and AID of seaweed-based diets, the results showed that the AME value for BS and GS was 2894.13 and 2780.70 kcal/kg, respectively. The AID of BS and GS was 88.82% and 86.8% for EE, 82.03% and 80.6% for OM, 60.69% and 57.80% for CP, 48.56 and 44.02% for CF, and 17.97 and 19.40% for ash contents, respectively. Meanwhile, the AID of CP and CF was significantly higher for BS compared to the GS. Findings showed that the AID of various AA was 40.96 to 77.54%, and the AID of selected minerals (Ca, Na, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe) for both BS and GS groups were above 90%.
Related Terms
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links