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  1. Al-Herz W, Babiker F
    Cell. Physiol. Biochem., 2017;42(6):2295-2306.
    PMID: 28848148 DOI: 10.1159/000480002
    BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the cardioprotective effects of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) in rats subjected to regional myocardial ischemia reperfusion (I/R).

    METHODS: Langendorff-perfused rat hearts were used in this study. Hearts subjected to regional ischemia served as a negative untreated control. The effects of IVIG pre- and post-ischemic treatment on left ventricular function, coronary vascular dynamics and contractility were assessed. IVIG were administered in either a low or high dose. The infarct size was determined using triphenyltetrazolium chloride and through biochemical assays using the measured creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels. Apoptosis was evaluated by the TUNEL assay, and the caspase-3 expression level was assessed by immunoblotting. The cytokine levels were measured by ELISA.

    RESULTS: Low and high doses of immunoglobulins administered 2 hours before sacrifice, before the ischemic insult or at reperfusion resulted in a significant improvement in cardiac hemodynamics, coronary vascular dynamics and heart contractility. A significant decrease in the infarct size and cardiac enzymes was also evident compared to those in the control. IVIG administered as an infusion at reperfusion or pre-treatment resulted in a marked decrease in myocyte apoptosis, which was associated with decreased levels of caspase-3 expression in the supernatants of homogenized left ventricles. Infusion of IVIG both pre-ischemia and at reperfusion did not show the same protective effects.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a novel protection to the heart by low and high doses of IVIG given either pre- or post-ischemia.

  2. Al-Herz W, Chou J, Delmonte OM, Massaad MJ, Bainter W, Castagnoli R, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2018;9:3146.
    PMID: 30697212 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.03146
    Objective: To present the genetic causes of patients with primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) in Kuwait between 2004 and 2017. Methods: The data was obtained from the Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders Registry. Genomic DNA from patients with clinical and immunological features of PID was sequenced using Sanger sequencing (SS), next generation sequencing (NGS) of targeted genes, whole exome sequencing (WES), and/or whole genome sequencing (WGS). Functional assays were utilized to assess the biologic effect of identified variants. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for 22q11.2 deletion and genomic hybridizations arrays were performed when thymic defects were suspected. Results: A total of 264 patients were registered during the study period with predominance of patients with immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity (35.2%), followed by combined immunodeficiencies with associated syndromic features (24%). Parental consanguinity and family history suggestive of PID were reported in 213 (81%) and 145 patients (55%), respectively. Genetic testing of 206 patients resulted in a diagnostic yield of 70%. Mutations were identified in 46 different genes and more than 90% of the reported genetic defects were transmitted by in an autosomal recessive pattern. The majority of the mutations were missense mutations (57%) followed by deletions and frame shift mutations. Five novel disease-causing genes were discovered. Conclusions: Genetic testing should be an integral part in the management of primary immunodeficiency patients. This will help the delivery of precision medicine and facilitate proper genetic counseling. Studying inbred populations using sophisticated diagnostic methods can allow better understanding of the genetics of primary immunodeficiency disorders.
  3. Bousfiha A, Jeddane L, Al-Herz W, Ailal F, Casanova JL, Chatila T, et al.
    J. Clin. Immunol., 2015 Nov;35(8):727-38.
    PMID: 26445875 DOI: 10.1007/s10875-015-0198-5
    There are now nearly 300 single-gene inborn errors of immunity underlying phenotypes as diverse as infection, malignancy, allergy, auto-immunity, and auto-inflammation. For each of these five categories, a growing variety of phenotypes are ascribed to Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases (PID), making PIDs a rapidly expanding field of medicine. The International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) PID expert committee (EC) has published every other year a classification of these disorders into tables, defined by shared pathogenesis and/or clinical consequences. In 2013, the IUIS committee also proposed a more user-friendly, phenotypic classification, based on the selection of key phenotypes at the bedside. We herein propose the revised figures, based on the accompanying 2015 IUIS PID EC classification.
  4. Marciano BE, Huang CY, Joshi G, Rezaei N, Carvalho BC, Allwood Z, et al.
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2014 Apr;133(4):1134-41.
    PMID: 24679470 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2014.02.028
    BACKGROUND: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a syndrome characterized by profound T-cell deficiency. BCG vaccine is contraindicated in patients with SCID. Because most countries encourage BCG vaccination at birth, a high percentage of patients with SCID are vaccinated before their immune defect is detected.

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to describe the complications and risks associated with BCG vaccination in patients with SCID.

    METHODS: An extensive standardized questionnaire evaluating complications, therapeutics, and outcomes regarding BCG vaccination in patients given a diagnosis of SCID was widely distributed. Summary statistics and association analysis was performed.

    RESULTS: Data on 349 BCG-vaccinated patients with SCID from 28 centers in 17 countries were analyzed. Fifty-one percent of the patients had BCG-associated complications, 34% disseminated and 17% localized (a 33,000- and 400-fold increase, respectively, over the general population). Patients receiving early vaccination (≤1 month) showed an increased prevalence of complications (P = .006) and death caused by BCG-associated complications (P < .0001). The odds of experiencing complications among patients with T-cell numbers of 250/μL or less at diagnosis was 2.1 times higher (95% CI, 1.4-3.4 times higher; P = .001) than among those with T-cell numbers of greater than 250/μL. BCG-associated complications were reported in 2 of 78 patients who received antimycobacterial therapy while asymptomatic, and no deaths caused by BCG-associated complications occurred in this group. In contrast, 46 BCG-associated deaths were reported among 160 patients treated with antimycobacterial therapy for a symptomatic BCG infection (P < .0001).

    CONCLUSIONS: BCG vaccine has a very high rate of complications in patients with SCID, which increase morbidity and mortality rates. Until safer and more efficient antituberculosis vaccines become available, delay in BCG vaccination should be considered to protect highly vulnerable populations from preventable complications.

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