Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

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  1. Tahir NM, Al-Sadat N
    Int J Nurs Stud, 2013 Jan;50(1):16-25.
    PMID: 23084438 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.09.006
    Exclusive breastfeeding rates in Malaysia remains low despite the implementation of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) policy in government hospitals. It has been suggested that any form of postnatal lactation support will lead to an increase in exclusive breastfeeding rates.
  2. Al-Sadat N, Binns CW
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2008 Oct;20 Suppl:6-14.
    PMID: 19533855
    The fast increase in the rate of uptake of smoking amongst adolescent girls in Malaysia is a public health concern. The objective of this study was to investigate factors that influenced the initiation of smoking and the effects of advertisement on consolidating the smoking habit among teenage girls in the urban city of Kuala Lumpur. Qualitative research was conducted using both interviews and focus group discussions with groups of adolescent girls. Data collected was analysed using grounded thematic theory methodology and validated using methodological triangulation. The reasons for initiating smoking elicited from the study can be grouped into 4 general themes; influence by peers, influence of seeing parents smoking, misguided belief that it could alleviate stress and finally that it would impress others. Smoking imageries in media and advertisements were not primary influencing factors in the initiation of smoking but it encouraged them to progress to become regulars. Ways should be sought to empower girls to feel more confident about resisting pressures to initiate smoking. This could be done through activities such as positive peer sports, education on how to alleviate stress and curbing of smoking imageries in the media.
  3. Abdullah NN, Aziz NA, Rampal S, Al-Sadat N
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(10):2643-7.
    PMID: 22320967
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia. Of the total cancer cases registered in the National Cancer Registry for 2006, 3,525 were female breast cancer cases. The overall age standardized rate was 39.3 per 100,000 population in 2006. An estimated 30%-40% were diagnosed in the late stages and this had resulted in poor survival rates. The purpose of the study was to determine the factors and barriers related to mammography screening uptake among hospital personnel.

    METHODS: This mixed method explanatory study was carried out on a universal sampling of 707 female personnel aged 40 and above, from June 2007 until November 2007. The study was conducted at University Malaya Medical Centre, a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Pre-tested self-administered questionnaires were mailed to eligible personnel.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of mammography screening uptake was 80.3% (95%CI: 76.8%,83.5%) among 534 respondents. Personnel who had physician recommendation had significantly higher odds of mammography screening uptake compared to those who did not have recommendation, adjusted odds ratio of 21.25 (95%CI:12.71,36.56). Reported barriers can be grouped into several themes; negative perception of the procedure like embarrassment due to the presence of male technicians/radiographers; low confidence with radiologist/radiographers in detecting abnormality; lack of coping skills in dealing with expected results and pain during procedure.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study highlighted that 20% of personnel did not undertake mammography screening although there is no cost incurred and the procedure is fully accessible to them. Opportunistic recommendation by physician and concerns on the procedure should be addressed.
  4. Ibrahim NI, Dahlui M, Aina EN, Al-Sadat N
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(5):2213-8.
    PMID: 22901196
    INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, breast cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in women. However, the survival rate varies across regions at averages of 73%and 57% in the developed and developing countries, respectively.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the survival rate of breast cancer among the women of Malaysia and characteristics of the survivors.

    METHOD: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on secondary data obtained from the Breast Cancer Registry and medical records of breast cancer patients admitted to Hospital Kuala Lumpur from 2005 to 2009. Survival data were validated with National Birth and Death Registry. Statistical analysis applied logistic regression, the Cox proportional hazard model, the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test.

    RESULTS: A total of 868 women were diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2005 and December 2009, comprising 58%, 25% and 17% Malays, Chinese and Indians, respectively. The overall survival rate was 43.5% (CI 0.573-0.597), with Chinese, Indians and Malays having 5 year survival rates of 48.2% (CI 0.444-0.520), 47.2% (CI 0.432-0.512) and 39.7% (CI 0.373-0.421), respectively (p<0.05). The survival rate was lower as the stages increased, with the late stages were mostly seen among the Malays (46%), followed by Chinese (36%) and Indians (34%). Size of tumor>3.0cm; lymph node involvement, ERPR, and HER 2 status, delayed presentation and involvement of both breasts were among other factors that were associated with poor survival.

    CONCLUSIONS: The overall survival rate of Malaysian women with breast cancer was lower than the western figures with Malays having the lowest because they presented at late stage, after a long duration of symptoms, had larger tumor size, and had more lymph nodes affected. There is an urgent need to conduct studies on why there is delay in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer women in Malaysia.

  5. Dahlui M, Ng C, Al-Sadat N, Ismail S, Bulgiba A
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(2):369-72.
    PMID: 21545196
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the rate of breast self examination (BSE) among the female staff of University of Malaya and to determine the role of BSE in detecting breast abnormalities.

    METHODS: A total of 1598 questionnaires were posted to all female staff, aged 35 years and above. Their knowledge on breast cancer, practice of BSE and detection rate of breast abnormality as confirmed by CBE was determined.

    RESULTS: The response rate for this study was 45 percent (714 respondents). The rate of respondents having awareness on breast cancer was 98.7 percent. Eighty four percent (598) of the respondents had performed BSE in their lifetime. However, in only 41% was it regular at the recommended time. Forty seven percent (334) had undergone CBE at least once in a lifetime but only 26% (185) had CBE at least once in the past 3 years, while 23% (165) had had a mammogram. There was a significant relationship between CBE and BSE whereby those who had CBE were twice more likely to do BSE. Nineteen percent (84 respondents) of those who did BSE claimed they had detected a breast lump. Of these, 87% (73) had gone for CBE and all were confirmed as such.

    CONCLUSION: BSE is still relevant as a screening tool of breast cancer since those who detect breast lump by BSE will most probably go for further check up. CBE should be done to all women, especially those at highest risk of breast cancer, to encourage and train for BSE.

  6. Misau YA, Al-Sadat N, Gerei AB
    J Public Health Afr, 2010 Sep 01;1(1):e6.
    PMID: 28299040 DOI: 10.4081/jphia.2010.e6
    Migration of health workers 'Brain drain' is defined as the movement of health personnel in search of a better standard of living and life quality, higher salaries, access to advanced technology and more stable political conditions in different places worldwide. The debate about migration of health workers from the developing to the developed world has remained pertinent for decades now. Regardless of the push and pull factors, migration of health care workers from developing countries to developed ones, have done more harm than good on the health care deliveries in the developing countries. This article reviews the literature on the effects of cross-border migration of health care professionals.
  7. Mohammad AH, Al Sadat N, Loh SY, Chinna K
    Iran Red Crescent Med J, 2015 Feb;17(2):e18776.
    PMID: 25838933 DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.18776
    Social support has been identified as one of the key factors for enhancing the quality of life after stroke. However, a scientific tool that is valid for evaluating social support among stroke survivors in Nigeria has not been developed so far.
  8. Mohammad AH, Al-Sadat N, Siew Yim L, Chinna K
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:302097.
    PMID: 25276774 DOI: 10.1155/2014/302097
    This study aims to test the translated Hausa version of the stroke impact scale SIS (3.0) and further evaluate its psychometric properties. The SIS 3.0 was translated from English into Hausa and was tested for its reliability and validity on a stratified random sample adult stroke survivors attending rehabilitation services at stroke referral hospitals in Kano, Nigeria. Psychometric analysis of the Hausa-SIS 3.0 involved face, content, criterion, and construct validity tests as well as internal and test-retest reliability. In reliability analyses, the Cronbach's alpha values for the items in Strength, Hand function, Mobility, ADL/IADL, Memory and thinking, Communication, Emotion, and Social participation domains were 0.80, 0.92, 0.90, 0.78, 0.84, 0.89, 0.58, and 0.74, respectively. There are 8 domains in stroke impact scale 3.0 in confirmatory factory analysis; some of the items in the Hausa-SIS questionnaire have to be dropped due to lack of discriminate validity. In the final analysis, a parsimonious model was obtained with two items per construct for the 8 constructs (Chi-square/df < 3, TLI and CFI > 0.9, and RMSEA < 0.08). Cross validation with 1000 bootstrap samples gave a satisfactory result (P = 0.011). In conclusion, the shorter 16-item Hausa-SIS seems to measure adequately the QOL outcomes in the 8 domains.
  9. Jeganathan PD, Hairi NN, Al Sadat N, Chinna K
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(6):3483-9.
    PMID: 23886133
    BACKGROUND: To identify the prevalence of different stages of smoking and differences in associated risk factors.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thos longitudinal study started in February 2011 and the subjects were 2552 form one students aged between twelve to thirteen years of from 15 government secondary schools of Kinta, Perak. Data on demographic, parental, school and peer factors were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. We examined the effects of peer, school and parental factors on the five stages of smoking; never smokers, susceptible never smokers, experimenters, current smokers and ex-smokers, at baseline.

    RESULTS: In the sample, 19.3% were susceptible never smokers, 5.5% were current smokers 6% were experimenters and 3.1% were ex-smokers. Gender, ethnicity, best friends' smoking status, high peer pressure, higher number of relatives who smoked and parental monitoring were found to be associated with smoking stages. Presence of parent-teen conflict was only associated with susceptible never smokers and experimenters whereas absence of home discussion on smoking hazards was associated with susceptible never smokers and current smokers.

    CONCLUSIONS: We identified variations in the factors associated with the different stages of smoking. Our results highlight that anti-smoking strategies should be tailored according to the different smoking stages.

  10. Nik Farid ND, Che' Rus S, Dahlui M, Al-Sadat N
    Singapore Med J, 2013 Dec;54(12):695-701.
    PMID: 24356756
    INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the determinants of sexual intercourse initiation among incarcerated adolescents aged 12-19 years in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This was a sequential mixed-method research project that was conducted in two phases. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the first and second phases, respectively. Data was collected via a survey using self-reported questionnaires from 1,082 adolescents, and from in-depth interviews and the written essays of 29 participants. The participants were recruited from 22 welfare institutions in peninsular Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Among the study participants, 483 were male and 599 were female. Overall, 62.3% of the incarcerated adolescents had initiated sexual intercourse at least once. The mean age at first sexual intercourse for both genders was 14.0 years. Individual factors found to be associated with previous sexual intercourse were the female gender (odds ratio [OR] 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-2.74), previous alcohol use (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.10-2.94), previous illicit drug use (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.07-3.22), permissive attitude toward premarital sex (OR 4.34; 95% CI 2.17-8.70), and sexual abuse during childhood (OR 5.41; 95% CI 3.52-8.32). Qualitative findings revealed that the reasons for initiation of sexual intercourse among these adolescents were partner influence, inability to control sex drive, family issues, and the perception of sex as an expression of love.

    CONCLUSION: The determinants of sexual intercourse initiation among incarcerated Malaysian adolescents are comparable to those of developed countries. However, in Malaysia, sexual and reproductive health programmes for such adolescents should be tailored to address their specific needs.

  11. Hamza AM, Al-Sadat N, Loh SY, Jahan NK
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:350281.
    PMID: 24982864 DOI: 10.1155/2014/350281
    This study aims to identify the predictors in the different aspects of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to measure the changes of functional status over time in a cohort of Nigerian stroke survivors. A prospective observational study was conducted in three hospitals of Kano state of Nigeria where stroke survivors receive rehabilitation. The linguistic-validated Hausa versions of the stroke impact scale 3.0, modified Rankin scale, Barthel index and Beck depression inventory scales were used. Paired samples t-test was used to calculate the amount of changes that occur over time and the forward stepwise linear regression model was used to identify the predictors. A total of 233 stroke survivors were surveyed at 6 months, and 93% (217/233) were followed at 1 year after stroke. Functional disabilities were significantly reduced during the recovery phase. Motor impairment, disability, and level of depression were independent predictors of HRQoL in the multivariate regression analysis. The involvement of family members as caregivers is the key factor for those survivors with improved functional status. Thus, to enhance the quality of poststroke life, it is proposed that a holistic stroke rehabilitation service and an active involvement of family members are established at every possible level.
  12. Al-Sadat N, Misau AY, Zarihah Z, Maznah D, Tin Tin Su
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2010 Jul;22(3 Suppl):175S-180S.
    PMID: 20566551 DOI: 10.1177/1010539510372835
    The use of tobacco by adolescents is a major public health concern worldwide. There are 1.2 billion smokers globally, of which more than 50% are young people. The Southeast Asian countries have about 600 million tobacco smokers within the global burden of tobacco users. Most smokers begin at early stage of life and persist through adulthood. Malaysia alone has about 5 million smokers, 20% of whom are younger than 18 years old. Many factors are implicated in the continuous rising trend of tobacco use among adolescents in Southeast Asia. A triad of family, environmental, and individual factors synergistically acts to motivate adolescents toward smoking. This article discusses the current trends of tobacco use and implications of increasing rise in adolescent smoking in the Southeast Asia region.
  13. Alibrahim OA, Al-Sadat N, Elawad NA
    J Public Health Afr, 2010 Sep 01;1(1):e7.
    PMID: 28299041 DOI: 10.4081/jphia.2010.e7
    Depression is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the year 2000 depression accounted for 4.4% of the global disability adjusted life years (DALYs). The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a population of 28 million people and is one of the countries experiencing demographic transition in its population structure. Improvements in socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with increased chronic diseases including chronic mental diseases like depression, but still there is no comprehensive review summarizing the various reports currently existing in the literature. Although individual studies within Saudi Arabia have reported prevalence rates and risks, the quality of such studies need to be subjected to rigorous assessment and their findings pooled to give combined weighted evidence that will provide basis for targeted intervention. Pooled risks have the advantage of adjusting inherent variations within sampled populations and therefore providing more reliable estimates even though there are concerns about possible magnification of smaller individual risks.
  14. Marzuki N, Ismail S, Al-Sadat N, Ehsan FZ, Chan CK, Ng CW
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Nov;27(8 Suppl):86S-93S.
    PMID: 26085477 DOI: 10.1177/1010539515590180
    Despite the high costs involved and the lack of definitive evidence of sustained effectiveness, many low- and middle-income countries had begun to strengthen their health information system using information and communication technology in the past few decades. Following this international trend, the Malaysian Ministry of Health had been incorporating Telehealth (National Telehealth initiatives) into national health policies since the 1990s. Employing qualitative approaches, including key informant interviews and document review, this study examines the agenda-setting processes of the Telehealth policy using Kingdon's framework. The findings suggested that Telehealth policies emerged through actions of policy entrepreneurs within the Ministry of Health, who took advantage of several simultaneously occurring opportunities--official recognition of problems within the existing health information system, availability of information and communication technology to strengthen health information system and political interests surrounding the national Multimedia Super Corridor initiative being developed at the time. The last was achieved by the inclusion of Telehealth as a component of the Multimedia Super Corridor.
  15. Dahlui M, Jahan NK, Majid HA, Jalaludin MY, Murray L, Cantwell M, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(6):e0129628.
    PMID: 26068668 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0129628
    Smoking among Malaysian adolescents remains a public health concern despite concerted efforts in tobacco control. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence and determinants of current-smoking status in young adolescents. This cross sectional study used the first round of the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Research Team's prospective cohort study. It was conducted in three States of the Central and Northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia between March and May 2012. The study used the multistage stratified sampling design. A total of 1,342 adolescents of both sexes, aged 12-13 years, were sampled from randomly selected urban and rural national schools. Information on current smoking status and associated factors were collected by a self-administered, pre-tested, validated, structured questionnaire. Seven percent of the samples were current-smokers; the majority (62%) of them started smoking at the age of 11 years or below. The prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher in males (odds ratio [OR] = 2.37; 95% CI: 1.46, 3.84), those who were influenced by smoker friends (OR = 8.35; 95% CI: 4.90, 14.25), who were unaware of the health risks of smoking (OR =1.85; 95% CI: 1.02, 3.36) and who reported a lack of satisfaction about their overall life (OR =3.26; 95% CI: 1.73, 6.12). The study findings provide valuable information to strengthen the existing school-based smoking prevention program through integration of social competence and social influence curricula. The program should empower the young adolescents to refuse tobacco offers, to overcome social influences and to resist peer pressure to avoid starting smoking. Particular focuses to include mental health service to prevent both emotional and behavioural problems are needed.
  16. Farid ND, Rus SC, Dahlui M, Al-Sadat N, Aziz NA
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14 Suppl 3:S9.
    PMID: 25437631 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-S3-S9
    In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia.
  17. Su TT, Sallehuddin BA, Murniati HH, Swinder J, Al Sadat N, Saimy I
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(1):175-9.
    PMID: 22502663
    The objective of the study is to investigate the success rate of quit attempts and identify factors associated with success or failure of quit attempts in a quit smoking clinic. A cohort study was conducted with 495 smokers who enrolled in a quit smoking clinic from 2005 to 2008. The factors leading to quit smoking successfully were "being Malay", "having high blood pressure" "type of Nicotine Replacement Therapy" and "duration of follow up". In contrast, clerical staff had negative association to quit smoking. People who started smoking in their teenage years had a high risk of relapse. Integration of active follow up and tailor-made support programmes for quitters appear necessary in order to maintain their non-smoking status and encourage them to be permanent quitters. Integration of quit smoking clinics and primary care clinics could be another potential step for the success of quit smoking programmes.
  18. Reidpath DD, Ling ML, Wellington E, Al-Sadat N, Yasin S
    Nicotine Tob. Res., 2013 Mar;15(3):729-33.
    PMID: 22990215 DOI: 10.1093/ntr/nts177
    INTRODUCTION: It is held that younger smoking initiates are more likely to become regular smokers. The definitions of smoking initiation (a puff, part of a cigarette, a whole cigarette) are inconsistent and raise questions about the robustness of the view. We sought to re-examine the relationship using adolescent smoking data from 3 European countries.
    METHODS: A stratified secondary, logistic regression analysis of Global Youth Tobacco Survey data was conducted using a design-based analysis. Subgroup analyses were conducted of 13- to 15-year olds from Latvia (high smoking prevalence), Slovenia (moderate prevalence), and Montenegro (low prevalence) who had initiated smoking. The outcome was current smoking--smoking everyday for the past 30 days, or smoking 10 or more days in the past 30 days. Smoking initiation was operationalized as a single puff of a cigarette, and age of smoking initiation was a derived continuous measure.
    RESULTS: In Latvia, there was a significant association between age of smoking initiation and current smoking for males (p < .05) and females (p < .001) when smoking was operationalized as smoking every day. It was only significant in female adolescents (p < .001) for smoking 10 or more days. In Slovenia and Montenegro, there was no significant relationship between age of smoking initiation and current smoking for either males or females.
    CONCLUSIONS: The evidence about the relationship between age of smoking initiation and current smoking is not clear. Explanations for the findings may relate to a lack of power, the specificity of the measure, or problems with the theory.
  19. Farid ND, Aziz NA, Al-Sadat N, Jamaludin M, Dahlui M
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(9):e106469.
    PMID: 25188003 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106469
    Breast cancer is the most common cause of deaths and the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women worldwide. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of breast cancer screening, specifically on clinical breast examination, and the predictors of its uptake among women in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was carried out in five selected districts whereby women aged between 20 to 64 years old, from a total of 1000 households were interviewed. A total of 1192 women responded to the survey of which 53.3% reported had ever done clinical breast examination. Significant associations with clinical breast examination were noted for income and distance from the hospital. These factors should be considered in developing interventions aimed at promoting clinical breast examination. In particular, healthcare providers should be proactive in raising awareness about clinical breast examination among women in Malaysia.
  20. Suriawati AA, Majid HA, Al-Sadat N, Mohamed MN, Jalaludin MY
    Nutrients, 2016 Oct 24;8(10).
    PMID: 27783041
    BACKGROUND: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC) in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

    SETTING: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: The subjects were from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Cohort study (MyHeARTs).

    METHODS: The data included seven-day diet histories, anthropometric measurements, and the BMC of calcaneal bone using a portable broadband ultrasound bone densitometer. Nutritionist Pro software was used to calculate the dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes from the diet histories, based on the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Food Database guidance for the dietary calcium intake and the Singapore Energy and Nutrient Composition of Food Database for vitamin D intake.

    RESULTS: A total of 289 adolescents (65.7% females) were recruited. The average dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D were 377 ± 12 mg/day and 2.51 ± 0.12 µg/day, respectively, with the majority of subjects failing to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) of Malaysia for dietary calcium and vitamin D. All the subjects had a normal Z-score for the BMC (-2.00 or higher) with a mean of 0.55 ± 0.01. From the statistical analysis of the factors contributing to BMC, it was found that for those subjects with a higher intake of vitamin D, a higher combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium resulted in significantly higher BMC quartiles. The regression analysis showed that the BMC might have been influenced by the vitamin D intake.

    CONCLUSIONS: A combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium is positively associated with the BMC.

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