As the world's second largest palm oil producer and exporter, Malaysia could capitalize on its oil palm biomass waste for power generation. The emission factors from this renewable energy source are far lower than that of fossil fuels. This study applies an integrated carbon accounting and mitigation (INCAM) model to calculate the amount of CO2 emissions from two biomass thermal power plants. The CO2 emissions released from biomass plants utilizing empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME), as alternative fuels for powering steam and gas turbines, were determined using the INCAM model. Each section emitting CO2 in the power plant, known as the carbon accounting center (CAC), was measured for its carbon profile (CP) and carbon index (CI). The carbon performance indicator (CPI) included electricity, fuel and water consumption, solid waste and waste-water generation. The carbon emission index (CEI) and carbon emission profile (CEP), based on the total monthly carbon production, were determined across the CPI. Various innovative strategies resulted in a 20%-90% reduction of CO2 emissions. The implementation of reduction strategies significantly reduced the CO2 emission levels. Based on the model, utilization of EFB and POME in the facilities could significantly reduce the CO2 emissions and increase the potential for waste to energy initiatives.
The last 20 years have seen an unprecedented breakthrough in the biodiesel industry worldwide leads to abundance of glycerol. Therefore, the economic utilization of glycerol to various value-added chemicals is vital for the sustainability of the biodiesel industry. One of the promising processes is acetalization of glycerol to acetals and ketals for applications as fuel additives. These products could be obtained by acid-catalyzed reaction of glycerol with aldehydes and ketones. Application of different supported heterogeneous catalysts such as zeolites, heteropoly acids, metal-based and acid-exchange resins have been evaluated comprehensively in this field. In this review, the glycerol acetalization has been reported, focusing on innovative and potential technologies for sustainable production of solketal. In addition, the impacts of various parameters such as application of different reactants, reaction temperature, water removal, utilization of crude-glycerol on catalytic activity in both batch and continuous processes are discussed. The outcomes of this research will therefore significantly improve the technology required in tomorrow's bio-refineries. This review provides spectacular opportunities for us to use such renewables and will consequently benefit the industry, environment and economy.
Adsorption of Reactive Black 5 and Congo Red from aqueous solution by coffee waste modified with polyethylenimine was investigated. The removal percentages of both dyes increased with amount of polyethyleneimine in the modified adsorbent. Characterization revealed that polyethyleneimine modification improved the adsorbent surface chemistry, while slight improvement of adsorbent textural properties was also observed. The adsorbent's excellent performance was demonstrated by high removal percentages towards the anionic dyes in most experimental runs. The modelling result showed that anionic dyes adsorption occurred via monolayer adsorption, and chemisorption was the rate-controlling step. The adsorbent possesses higher maximum adsorption capacity towards Reactive Black 5 (77.52 mg/g) than Congo Red (34.36 mg/g), due to the higher number of functional groups in Reactive Black 5 that interact with the adsorbent. This study reveals the potential of adsorbent derived from coffee waste in textile wastewater treatment. Furthermore, surface chemistry modification is proven as an effective strategy to enhance the performance of biowaste-derived adsorbents.
The rapidly increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) threatens the environmental integrity and well-being of humans at a global level. Incineration is regarded as a technically sound technology for the management of MSW. However, the effective management of the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes remains a challenge. This article presents the global dynamics of MSWI ashes research from 1994 to 2018 based on a bibliometric analysis of 1810 publications (research articles and conference proceedings) extracted from the Web of Science database, followed by a comprehensive summary on the research developments in the field. The results indicate the rapid growth of annual publications on MSWI ashes research, with China observed as the most productive country within the study period. Waste Management, Journal of Hazardous Materials, Chemosphere and Waste Management & Research, which accounted for 35.42% of documents on MSWI research, are the most prominent journals in the field. The most critical thematic areas on this topic are MSWI ashes characterisation, dioxin emissions from fly ash, valorisation of bottom ash and heavy metal removal. The evolution of MSWI ashes treatment technologies is also discussed, together with the challenges and future research directions. This is the first bibliometric analysis on global MSWI ashes research based on a sufficiently large dataset, which could provide new insights for researchers to initiate further research with leading institutions/authors and ultimately advance this research field.