Management of severe tracheal anomalies remains a clinical challenge. Tissue engineering offers new hope in trachea reconstruction surgery. However to date no optimal technique achieved in the formation of human or animal trachea. The main problem lies on the biomaterial used and the complex city of forming trachea in vivo. This study was aimed at creating tissue-engineered trachea cartilage from easily accessible human and animal nasal septum cartilage using internal scaffold and biodegradable human and animal fibrin.
The emergence of tissue engineering and stem cell research has created a tremendous response amongst scientist in Malaysia. However, despite the enthusiastic to embark on the research we have to carefully divert the research towards our needs. This is due to our responsibility to address the mounting problem of communicable diseases here and a very limited funding. As commercialization is a key objective the combination of products towards treating or diagnosing communicable and non-communicable diseases in the developing country is another important factor. The discussion here is mainly on the evolution of tissue engineering in Malaysia and taking a model of tissue engineering in otolaryngology.
In the present study in vitro expansion of human keratinocytes by supplementing dermal fibroblasts conditioned medium (DFCM) has been reported. Effect of two different DFCM acquired by culturing fibroblasts in keratinocyte-specific medium (defined keratinocytes serum free medium, DFCM-DKSFM) and fibroblast-specific serum free medium (F12: DMEM nutrient mix, DFCM-FD) have been compared. Growth kinetics of keratinocytes in terms of efficiency of cell attachment, expansion index, apparent specific growth rate and growth potential at the end of culture was evaluated in culture supplemented with DFCM-DKSFM and DFCM-FD in comparison with control i.e. DKSFM only. Results indicated that supplementation of DFCM caused significant increase in keratinocyte attachment. Efficiency of keratinocyte attachment in culture supplemented with bFCM-DKSFM was significantly higher compared to those cultured in DFCM-FD and DKSFM. In addition, the expansion index of keratinocytes in cultures supplemented with DFCM-DKSFM and DFCM-FD were 3.7 and 2.2 times higher than that of control condition even though the apparent growth rate and proliferative potential was found significantly lower. These results suggested that supplementation of DFCM enhanced expansion of keratinocyte by increasing efficiency of cell attachment, and DFCM-DKSFM provided suitable condition for in vitro expansion of keratinocytes compared to DFCM-FD and control condition.
Monolayer culture expansion remains as a fundamental step to acquire sufficient number of cells for 3D constructs formation. It has been well-documented that cell expansion is however accompanied by cellular dedifferentiation. In order to promote cell growth and circumvent cellular dedifferentiation, we evaluated the effects of Transforming Growth Factor Beta-2 (TGF-β2), Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) and basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) combination on articular chondrocytes culture and 'chondrocytes-fibrin' construct formation. Chondrocytes were serially cultured in: (1) F12:DMEM+10% Foetal Bovine Serum (FBS) with growth factors (FD10GFs), (2) F12:DMEM+2%FBS with the growth factors (FD2GFs) and, (3) F12:DMEM+10%FBS without growth factors (FD) as control. Cultured chondrocytes were evaluated by means of growth kinetics parameters, cell cycle analysis, quantitative phenotypic expression of collagen type II, aggrecan core protein sox-9 and collagen type I and, immunochemistry technique. Harvested chondrocytes were incorporated with plasma-derived fibrin and were polymerized to form the 3D constructs and implanted subcutaneously at the dorsum of athymic nude mice for eight (8) weeks. Resulted constructs were assigned for gross inspections and microscopic evaluation using standard histochemicals staining, immunochemistry technique and, quantitative phenotypic expression of cartilage markers to reassure cartilaginous tissue formation. Growth kinetics performance of chondrocytes cultured in three (3) types of culture media from the most to least was in the following order: FD10GFs>FD2GFs>FD. Following growth kinetics analysis, we decided to use FD10GFs and FD (control) for further evaluation and 'chondrocytes-fibrin' constructs formation. Chondrocytes cultured in FD10GFs preserved the normal diploid state (2c) with no evidence of aneuploidy, haploidy or tetraploidy. Expression of cartilage-specific markers namely collagen type II, aggrecan core protein and sox-9 were significantly higher in FD10GFs when compared to control. After implantation, 'chondrocytes-fibrin' constructs exhibited firm, white, smooth and glistening cartilage-like properties. FD10GFs constructs formed better quality cartilage-like tissue than FD constructs in term of overall cartilaginous tissue formation, cells organization and extracellular matrix distribution in the specimens. Cartilaginous tissue formation was confirmed by the presence of lacunae and cartilage-isolated cells embedded within basophilic ground substance. Presence of proteoglycan was confirmed by positive Safranin O staining. Collagen type II exhibited immunopositivity at the pericellular and inter-territorial matrix area. Chondrogenic properties of the construct were further confirmed by the expression of genes encoding collagen type II, aggrecan core protein and sox9. In conclusion, FD10GFs promotes the proliferation of chondrocytes and formation of good quality 'chondrocytes-fibrin' constructs which may have potential use of matrix-induced cell implantation.
This study aimed to compare the effects of three different media on the in vivo chondrogenesis of sheep bone marrow stem cells (BMSC). Sheep BMSC were cultured in F12:DMEM + 10% FBS, chondrogenic medium containing 5ng/ml TGF,3 + 50ng/ml IGF-1 and UKM-MECC for three weeks. The cultured cells were then harvested for construct formation with fibrin. Constructed tissues were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice for in vivo development. Cell aggregates were formed in both chondrogenic medium and UKM-MECC demonstrated the early chondrogenesis process. After five weeks of in vivo development, both chondrogenic medium and UKM-MECC promoted cartilage matrix synthesis confirmed by Safranin O staining.
The angiogenic potential of native skin (NS), keratinocytes single skin equivalent (SSE-K), fibroblasts single skin equivalent (SSE-F) and bilayered skin equivalent secreting angiogenic growth factors such as transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the in vitro systems at 24, 48, 72 hours and 7 days was compared using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Bilayered skin equivalent exhibit highest release of growth factors within 24 hours to 7 days of culture compared to NS, SSE-K and SSE-F. This proved the potential of bilayered skin equivalent in producing and sustaining growth factors release to enhance angiogenesis, fibroblasts proliferation, matrix deposition, migration and growth of keratinocytes.
Hearing loss is a common sensory deficit in humans. The hearing loss may be conductive, sensorineural, or mixed, syndromic or nonsyndromic, prelingual or postlingual. Due to the complexity of the hearing mechanism, it is not surprising that several hundred genes might be involved in causing hereditary hearing loss. There are at least 82 chromosomal loci that have been identified so far which are associated with the most common type of deafness--non-syndromic deafness. However, there are still many more which remained to be discovered. Here, we report the mapping of a locus for autosomal recessive, non-syndromic deafness in a family in Malaysia. The investigated family (AC) consists of three generations--parents who are deceased, nine affected and seven unaffected children and grandchildren. The deafness was deduced to be inherited in an autosomal recessive manner with 70% penetrance. Recombination frequencies were assumed to be equal for both males and females. Using two-point lod score analysis (MLINK), a maximum lod score of 2.48 at 0% recombinant (Z = 2.48, theta = 0%) was obtained for the interval D14S63-D14S74. The haplotype analysis defined a 14.38 centiMorgan critical region around marker D14S258 on chromosome 14q23.2-q24.3. There are 16 candidate genes identified with positive expression in human cochlear and each has great potential of being the deaf gene responsible in causing non-syndromic hereditary hearing loss in this particular family. Hopefully, by understanding the role of genetics in deafness, early interventional strategies can be undertaken to improve the life of the deaf community.
Bone marrow harvested by aspiration contains connective tissue progenitor cells which can be selectively isolated and induced to express bone phenotype in vitro. The osteoblastic progenitor can be estimated by counting the number of cells attach using the haemacytometer. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that human aging is associated with a significant change on the number of osteoblastic progenitors in the bone marrow. Bone marrow aspirates were harvested from 38 patients, 14 men (age 11-70) and 24 women (age 10-70) and cultured in F12: DMEM (1:1). In total 15 bone marrow samples have been isolated from patients above 40 years old (men/women) of age. Fourteen (93.3%) of this samples failed to proliferate. Only one (6.7%) bone marrow sample from a male patient, aged 59 years old was successfully cultured. Seventy percent (16/23) of the samples from patient below than 40 years old were successfully cultured. However, our observation on the survival rate for cells of different gender from patient below 40 years old does not indicate any significant difference. From this study, we conclude that the growth of bone marrow stromal cells possibly for bone engineering is better from bone marrow aspirates of younger patient.
Skin is the largest organ in human system and plays a vital role as a barrier against environment and pathogens. Skin regeneration is important in tissue engineering especially in cases of chronic wounds. With the tissue engineering technology, these skins equivalent have been use clinically to repair burns and wounds. Consented redundant skin samples were obtained from patients aged 9 to 65 years old. Skin samples were digested with dispase, thus separating the epidermis and the dermis layer. The epidermis layer was trypsinized and cultured in DKSFM in 6-well plate at 37 degrees C and 5% CO2. Once confluent, the culture were trypsinized and the cells were pooled. Cells were counted using haemacytometer. Doubling time and viability were calculated and analysed. From the result, we conclude that doubling time and viability of in vitro keratinocytes cultured in DKSFM media is not age dependant.
We have previously formulated an optimized human chondrocytes growth medium based on 2% fetal bovine serum supplementation. For clinical usage, the animal serum must be replaced by patient own serum. We investigated the effects of human serum concentration for human nasal septum chondrocytes monolayer culture and cartilage reconstruction. Human serum demonstrated a dose dependent manner in promoting chondrocytes growth and cartilage engineering.
The regulation roles of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFbeta2) in human nasal septum chondrocytes monolayer culture and cartilage engineering was investigated in this study. The role of IGF-1 with bFGF and TGFbeta2 was investigated by measuring chondrocyte growth kinetic and collagen genes expression. IGF-1 together with bFGF and TGFbeta2 promote cartilage tissue engineering, increase type II collagen expression and enhance the histological features of engineered cartilage.
This study was to investigate the effects of insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS) on the proliferation and quantitative gene expression of adult human nasal septum chondrocytes in monolayer culture expansion and the formation of tissue engineered hyaline cartilage. Effects of ITS on human nasal septum chondrocytes monolayer culture expansion and gene expression were evaluated in various culture media either added with 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or 1 ng/mL basic fibroblast growth factor plus 1 ng/mL transforming growth factor or both serum and growth factors supplementation in comparison with medium added with 10%FBS. Chondrocytes cultured in medium added with 2% fetal bovine serum and growth factors either supplemented with or without ITS were then mixed with pluronic F-127 hydrogel for in vivo tissue engineered cartilage formation in nude mice model. Engineered tissues were removed after 8 weeks of implantation and evaluated with histological staining, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and quantitative gene expression analysis. ITS promoted human chondrocytes proliferation and reduced chondrocytes dedifferentiation in media supplemented with serum and growth factors. ITS with 2% FBS and growth factors provided 15-fold increased in chondrocytes number by the end of the culture period compared to the standard culture medium used in chondrocytes culture (medium added with 10% FBS). Engineered tissue resulted from ITS supplementation demonstrated higher quality of cartilage formation. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated the benefits of ITS supplementation in human chondrocytes monolayer culture and tissue engineering cartilage formation.
Standard fibroblast culture medium usually contains fetal bovine serum (FBS). In theory, unknown risks of infection from bovine disease or immune reaction to foreign proteins may occur if standard culture method is used for future human tissue-engineering development. Human serum (HS) theoretically would be another choice in providing a safer approach and autologous clinically reliable cells.
Tracheal replacement is performed after resection of a portion of the trachea that was impossible to reconnect via direct anastomosis. A tissue-engineered trachea is one of the available options that offer many advantages compared to other types of graft. Fabrication of a functional tissue-engineered trachea for grafting is very challenging, as it is a complex organ with important components, including cartilage, epithelium and vasculature. A number of studies have been reported on the preparation of a graftable trachea. A laterally rigid but longitudinally flexible hollow cylindrical scaffold which supports cartilage and epithelial tissue formation is the key element. The scaffold can be prepared via decellularization of an allograft or fabricated using biodegradable or non-biodegradable biomaterials. Commonly, the scaffold is seeded with chondrocytes and epithelial cells at the outer and luminal surfaces, respectively, to hasten tissue formation and improve functionality. To date, several clinical trials of tracheal replacement with tissue-engineered trachea have been performed. This article reviews the formation of cartilage tissue, epithelium and neovascularization of tissue-engineered trachea, together with the obstacles, possible solutions and future. Furthermore, the role of the bioreactor for in vitro tracheal graft formation and recently reported clinical applications of tracheal graft were also discussed. Generally, although encouraging results have been achieved, however, some obstacles remain to be resolved before the tissue-engineered trachea can be widely used in clinical settings.
Fibrin has excellent biocompatibility and biological properties to support tissue regeneration and promote wound healing. However, the role of diluted fibrin in wound healing has yet to be elucidated as it is commonly used in high concentration. This study was aimed to examine the effects of diluted plasma-derived fibrin (PDF) on keratinocyte and fibroblast wound healing in term of cell proliferation, migration, extracellular matrix (ECM) production and soluble factor secretion. Two PDF concentrations, 10 and 20% (v/v) were tested on keratinocytes and fibroblasts indirectly co-cultured in the transwell system. The control group was cultured with 5% FBS. Results showed that PDF reduced the keratinocyte growth rate and fibroblast migration, and increased the fibroblast ECM gene expression whereby significant differences were found between the 20% PDF group and the 5% FBS group. Similar trend was seen for the 10% PDF group but the differences were not significant. Comparison of the soluble factors between the PDF groups demonstrated that the level of growth-related oncogene alpha, interleukin-8 and epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide-78 were significantly higher in the 10% PDF group, whilst interleukin-1 alpha and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor were significantly more concentrated in the 20% PDF group. Our results suggested that PDF selectively elevated the expression of collagen type 1 and collagen type 3 in fibroblasts but slowed down the migration in concentration-dependent manner. These novel findings provide new insight into the role of PDF in wound healing and may have important implications for the use of fibrin in skin tissue engineering.
The objectives of this study were to determine the optimum concentration of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in foetal bovine serum (FBS) or human serum (HS) supplemented medium for adult human nasal septum chondrocyte culture and to evaluate the potential of cartilage regeneration.
Autogenous bone graft is the gold standard for fusion procedure. However, pain at donor site and inconsistent outcome have left a surgeon to venture into some other technique for spinal fusion. The objective of this study was to determine whether osteogenesis induced bone marrow stem cells with the combination of ceramics granules (HA or TCP/HA), and fibrin could serve as an alternative to generate spinal fusion. The sheep's bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were aspirated form iliac crest and cultured for several passages until confluence. BMSCs were trypsinized and seeded on hydroxyapatite scaffold (HA) and tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP/HA) for further osteogenic differentiation in the osteogenic medium one week before implantation. Six adult sheep underwent three-level, bilateral, posterolateral intertransverse process fusions at L1-L6. Three fusion sites in each animal were assigned to three treatments: (a) HA constructs group/L1-L2, (b) TCP/HA constructs group/L2-L3, and (c) autogenous bone graft group/L5-L6. The spinal fusion segments were evaluated using radiography, manual palpation, histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) 12 weeks post implantation. The TCP/HA constructs achieved superior lumbar intertransverse fusion compared to HA construct but autogenous bone graft still produced the best fusion among all.
In recent years, the use of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) implantation has provided an alternative treatment for osteoarthritis. The objective of this study is to determine whether or not an intra-articular injection of a single dose of autologous chondrogenic induced BMSC could retard the progressive destruction of cartilage in a surgically induced osteoarthritis in sheep. Sheep BMSCs were isolated and divided into two groups. One group was cultured in chondrogenic media containing (Ham's F12:DMEM, 1:1) FD+1% FBS+5 ng/ml TGFβ3+50 ng/ml IGF-1 (CM), and the other group was cultured in the basal media, FD+10% FBS (BM). The procedure for surgically induced osteoarthritis was performed on the donor sheep 6 weeks prior to intra-articular injection into the knee joint of a single dose of BMSC from either group, suspended in 5 ml FD at density of 2 million cells/ml. The control groups were injected with basal media, without cells. Six weeks after injection, gross evidence of retardation of cartilage destruction was seen in the osteoarthritic knee joints treated with CM as well as BM. No significant ICRS (International Cartilage Repair Society) scoring was detected between the two groups with cells. However macroscopically, meniscus repair was observed in the knee joint treated with CM. Severe osteoarthritis and meniscal injury was observed in the control group. Interestingly, histologically the CM group demonstrated good cartilage histoarchitecture, thickness and quality, comparable to normal knee joint cartilage. As a conclusion, intra-articular injection of a single dose of BMSC either chondrogenically induced or not, could retard the progression of osteoarthritis (OA) in a sheep model, but the induced cells indicated better results especially in meniscus regeneration.
Study site: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur
Current development in the field of tissue engineering led to the idea of repairing and regenerating the respiratory airway through in vitro reconstruction using autologous respiratory epithelial (RE). To ensure the capability of proliferation, the stem cell property of RE cells from the nasal turbinate should be evaluated. Respiratory epithelial cells from six human nasal turbinates were harvested and cultured in vitro. The gene expression of FZD-9 and BST-1 were expressed in passage 2 (P2) and passage 4 (P4). The levels of expression were not significant between both passages. The RE cells exhibit the stem cell properties, which remains even after serial passaging.