MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty chronic periodontitis patients completed this study and received periodontal treatment comprising scaling and root planing plus ultrasonic debridement. Clinical data were recorded at baseline, 6 weeks (R1) after treatment completion (full-mouth or quadrant-scaling and root planing) and 25 weeks after baseline (R2). Serum samples were taken at each time point and cytokines concentrations determined by ELISA.
RESULTS: Following treatment, statistically significant reductions were noted in clinical parameters. However, IL-17A and IL-17E concentrations were significantly greater than baseline values before- and after-adjusting for smoking. The IL-17A:IL-17E ratio was lower at R1 and R2. Serum IL-6 and TNF levels were significantly lower at R1 only. Also exclusively at R1, serum IL-17A and IL-17E correlated positively with clinical parameters, while the IL-17A:IL-17E ratio correlated negatively with probing pocket depth and clinical attachment.
CONCLUSION: Increased serum IL-17E and a reduced IL-17A:IL-17E ratio may be indicative and/or a consequence of periodontal therapy. Therefore, the role of IL-17E in periodontal disease progression and the healing process is worthy of further investigation.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: IL-17E may be a valuable biomarker to monitor the healing process following periodontal treatment as increased IL-17E levels and a reduced IL-17A:IL-17E ratio could reflect clinical improvements post-therapy. Therefore, monitoring serum IL-17E might be useful to identify individuals who require additional periodontal treatment.
METHODS: There were 104 participants in the study: 19 healthy volunteers, 23 patients with periodontitis, 28 patients with T1DM, and 34 patients with T1DM and periodontitis. Levels of blood glucose/glycated hemoglobin (International Federation of Clinical Chemistry [IFCC]) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Levels of IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 in plasma were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In vitro stimulation of OKF6/TERT-2 cells and THP-1 monocytes was performed with combinations of AGE and P. gingivalis LPS. Changes in expression of IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 were monitored by ELISA and real-time polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Patients with diabetes and periodontitis had higher plasma levels of IL-8 than patients with periodontitis alone. Plasma levels of IL-8 correlated significantly with IFCC units, clinical probing depth, and attachment loss. AGE and LPS, alone or in combination, stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 expression in both OKF6/TERT-2 cells and THP-1 monocytes.
CONCLUSIONS: Elevated plasma levels of IL-8 potentially contribute to the cross-susceptibility between periodontitis and T1DM. P. gingivalis LPS and AGE in combination caused significantly greater expression of IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 from THP-1 monocytes and OKF6/TERT-2 cells than LPS alone.