Phorid flies play an important role in forensic cases and can cause myiasis in humans. Studies on phorid flies species diversity are still limited in Malaysia. This research was carried out to collect information about species and frequency distribution of phorid flies as to provide more information on their roles in forensic and medical entomology. Bait trap was used with 100 g beef liver as baits. The species of the flies were identified using identification keys from Disney as well as Brown and Oliver. There were 449 phorid flies found in Kepong, Kuala Lumpur including Megaselia scalaris, Megaselia spiracularis, Megaselia sp. and phorid flies of genus X. Female phorid flies (98.89%) were found more prone to be trapped compared to male phorid flies (1.11%). Most phorid flies trapped in Kepong, Kuala Lumpur were from genus Megaselia and consisted of female flies. A total of five species of phorid flies probably new to science were also discovered. This study showed that Megaselia flies were found indoors rather than in open spaces. This was corresponding to their discoveries among the decomposing corpse found inside premises.
Natural peptides in insect vectors played an important role in the control of
pathogens. Musca domestica Linnaeus and Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius were
two species of local fly chosen to detect presence of antimicrobial peptide substance.
The screening of the antimicrobial activity was carried using a spectrophotometric
method. Results were obtained much quicker and less laborious. The results showed
larva hemolymph of M. domestica lysed Bacillus subtilis and two Gram negatives,
Escherichia coli and Pseudomona. aeruginosa. The pupae hemolymph only lysed E.
coli. Whereas, the hemolymph of C. megacephala larva showed bactericidal effect
against both of the Gram positives tested, i.e. B. subtilis and Staph. aureus. and no
effect was against the Gram negatives. The pupa showed lytic activity against Staph.
aureus and P. aeruginosa. As a conclusion, the larva and pupa hemolymph of M.
domestica and C. megacephala demonstrated antibacterial activity. However, larva
hemolymph of M. domestica and C. megacephala has broader antibacterial activity
against both Gram positive and negative bacteria.
The adverse effects of prolonged and rampant usage of chemical insecticides in controlling the population of vector arthropod have caused the development of resistance among vector populations as well as non-target organism. Application of plant extracts could be alternative sources for mosquito control. The present study assessed larvicidal activities of methanol extracts of leaf and stem of Jacaranda mimosifolia Don (Family: Bignoniaceae), Melaleuca cajuputi Powell (Family: Myrtaceae), Tabebuia chrysantha (Jacq.) Nicholson (Family: Bignoniaceae), Tabebuia pallida (Lindl.) Miers (Family: Bignoniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea Toll (Family: Bignoniaceae) against dengue vectors, Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) sp. Among plants tested, M. cajuputi exhibited the most effective with the highest mortality against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Leaf extracts showed significantly higher larvicidal effects in relative to stem extracts. The findings also revealed that Ae. aegypti is the most susceptible compared to Ae. albopictus. LC50 values of M. cajuputi leaf extracts were 183.35mg/L and 191.82mg/L against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus respectively. These studies suggest leaf extracts of M. cajuputi have moderate potential as larvicidal against vector larvae of Aedes mosquitoes.
In forensic entomology practice, it is more common to use raw animal tissue to breed dipteran larvae and it often brings unpleasant odour in the laboratory. Few studies suggested the use of synthetic diets, mainly agar-based media, as alternatives to animal tissue but it is rarely being practiced in forensic entomology laboratory. The present study observed the growth of a forensically important fly, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) on raw cow’s liver, nutrient agar, casein agar and cow’s liver agar. A total of 100 M. scalaris eggs were transferred each into the different media and placed in an incubator at 30°C in a continuous dark condition. Data on length and developmental period were collected by randomly sampling three of the largest larvae from each rearing media, twice a day at 0900 and 1500 hours until pupariation. M. scalaris larvae reared on raw cow’s liver recorded the highest mean length (4.23 ± 1.96 mm) followed by cow’s liver agar (3.79 ± 1.62 mm), casein agar (3.14 ± 1.16 mm) and nutrient agar (3.09 ± 1.11 mm). Larval length in raw liver and liver agar were significantly different from those in nutrient and casein agar (p < 0.05). Larvae bred in liver agar and raw liver recorded the shortest larval duration before entering the post-feeding stage (89 hours), followed by nutrient agar (119 hours) and casein agar (184 hours). Total developmental time from oviposition until adult emergence for M. scalaris in liver agar and raw liver was approximately 163 hours. All puparia in nutrient agar and casein agar failed to hatch. This research highlighted the potential use of cow’s liver agar as an alternative diet of raw liver to culture M. scalaris in laboratory.
A four-month cross-sectional study found five species of parasitoids parasitizing puparia of filth flies breeding at the Taman Beringin landfill in Kepong and a poultry farm in Sungai Pelek, Sepang, Selangor. Effect of monthly rainfalls towards density of flies and percentage of parasitoids emerging from collected puparia were also analyzed. Spalangia sp. was the most common, consisting of Spalangia endius Walker, S. cameroni Perkins and S. gemina Boucek. Other parasitoids collected were Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Rondani and Exoristobia phillipinensis Ashmead. The parasitized fly hosts were Musca domestica Linn. and Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius. S. endius was the most common parasitoid attacking M. domestica at both locations. M. domestica was the most common fly found at the Sg. Pelek poultry farm whereas C. megacephala was the most numerous at the Taman Beringin landfill. During heavy rainfall month of November 2003, density of flies were high whereas the emerging parasitoids were low at both landfill and poultry farm. The present study revealed the endemic presence of parasitoids especially S. endius in both poultry farm and garbage landfill and the potential of the parasitoid species in fly control in Malaysia.
This study was carried out in Agricultural Park, Teluk Cempedak and Bukit Pelindung at Kuantan, Pahang in October 2007. These three areas were different in ecological characteristic, Agricultural Park is a lowland region in Kuantan rural area, Teluk Cempedak is Kuantan’s most famous beach, and Bukit Pelindung is a reserved rainforest which is 200 meters from the sea level. Fly specimens were collected using four different kinds of baits: dry prawn, salted fish, pork and mango. Each of these baits was placed in a plastic container and exposed for one hour to attract flies. Within 5 minutes, flies started swarming around the baits. The flies were more attracted to the pork and salted fish compared to the other two baits. Fifty one flies, one moth (Lepidoptera) and one wasp (Hymenoptera) were collected. In Agricultural Park, two Lucilia cuprina, one Chrysomya megacephala and one Sarcophaga sp. were collected. For Teluk Cempedak beach, there were two Sarcophagids, 31 Chrysomya megacephala, five Musca domestica, one Lucilia cuprina and one moth were caught. Flies collected from Bukit Pelindung included five C.megacephala, two Sarcophagids, one Musca domestica and one wasp. Most C.megacephala were attracted to the pork and salted fish.
Entomologi forensik adalah satu bidang ilmu yang menggunakan serangga sebagai bahan bukti untuk menganggarkan selang masa kematian atau selang post-mortem (PMI). Penentuan PMI tersebut berdasarkan kepada saiz dan peringkat perkembangan serangga. Chrysomya villeneuvi merupakan salah satu spesies langau yang boleh dijadikan sebagai petunjuk yang baik untuk menganggarkan PMI apabila ia ditemukan pada mayat. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan suatu data asas dan graf perkembangan bagi lalat Ch. villeneuvi pada suhu yang berbeza. Data yang diperoleh juga digunakan untuk membangunkan jadual jam darjah terkumpul (ADH). Justifikasi kajian dijalankan kerana data perkembangan lalat spesies ini belum dibangunkan di Malaysia. Penentuan PMI terpaksa dilakukan dengan berpandukan kepada data perkembangan Ch. megacephala. Ini akan menyebabkan pengiraan PMI menjadi kurang tepat. Kajian terdahulu juga hanya melibatkan kajian berkaitan morfologi dan tingkah laku spesies ini. Kajian perkembangan telur, larva dan pupa lalat Ch. villeneuvi dijalankan pada suhu bawah 25, 27, 30, 33 dan 37ºC di makmal dengan menggunakan kebuk pertumbuhan serangga. Sumber asal lalat dewasa diperoleh dengan meletakkan bangkai tikus di Pusat Penyelidikan Universiti Malaya, Batu 16, Gombak. Lalat dewasa dipelihara di makmal untuk dijadikan sumber koloni. Lebih kurang 150 biji telur dibiakkan dengan meletakkannya ke dalam bekas yang mengandungi 200 g hati lembu sebagai sumber makanan untuk larva yang baru menetas. Lima ekor larva diukur panjangnya setiap tiga jam untuk mendapatkan satu nilai purata untuk setiap suhu. Pemprosesan slaid dan pengambilan foto larva dilakukan untuk mengetahui peringkat perkembangan larva. Ch. villeneuvi mengambil masa selama 9.40 ± 0.02 hari pada suhu 25ºC, 9.34 ± 0.04 hari (27ºC), 9.00 ± 0.07 hari (30ºC), 7.95 ± 0.02 hari (33ºC) dan 7.51 ± 0.02 hari (37ºC) untuk melengkapkan satu kitar hidup. Pada suhu pembiakan yang berbeza, terdapat perbezaan signifikan (p<0.001) ke atas masa perkembangan kitar hidup lalat Ch. villeneuvi. Semakin tinggi suhu dan nilai ADH, semakin pendek satu kitar hidup lalat Ch. villeneuvi. Kajian ini menyatakan tentang tempoh peringkat dalam kitar hidup berdasarkan suhu membantu dalam pembangunan data ADH. Penyiasat forensik di Malaysia boleh menganggarkan PMI berdasarkan graf perkembangan dan data ADH yang diperoleh daripada kajian ini apabila Ch. villeneuvi ditemui pada mayat.
In a forensic acarology study, conducted in a secondary forest of Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan
Malaysia (UKM) in Bangi, Selangor, six carcasses consisted of three monkeys and three rabbits were placed individually
in steel enclosures and observed for 35 days. The carcasses, the soil beneath them and pitfall traps were checked daily
for insects and mites. A species of mesostigmatid mite, Macrocheles scutatiformis was discovered and this is a first time
reported in Malaysia. There are about 94.0% of Macrocheles present inside the cages of the monkey and rabbit carcasses.
Most mites in this study were collected from soil beneath the carcasses, on a dung beetle and a Chrysomya rufifacies
larva. Our findings showed that M. scutatiformis have a potential role in forensic investigation involving dead animals
perhaps corpses especially during the dry stage of decomposition.
This study was carried out in an oil palm plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor in September 2007 by using pigs (Sus scrofa L.) as a carcass model in a forensic entomological research. A 2.5 month old pig (10 kg) which died naturally was hanged on a palm tree to observe the insect succession and decomposition stages. Observation was made for 16 days; one afternoon visit per day and all climatological data were recorded. On the first day, adult muscids of Ophyra spinigera Stein and Musca domestica L. were observed, however no blowfly (Calliphoridae) activities were sighted. Fly eggs wer seen on the second day on both sides of the face, inside nostrils and genitourinary area. Adults of Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) congregated on the head and anal areas. Adult flies and maggots (first and second instars) were observed in the mouth and anus of the pig on the third day of hanging. Adult yellow jackets (Vespidae) and spiders (Arachnida) were found preying on some adult flies. Rove beetles (Staphilinidae) were also discovered on the pig carcass. Only a few ants (Formicidae) were sighted. Maggot masses were found in eye orbits, neck, and genital organs on the fourth day of hanging and some maggots were seen falling down to the ground. The dominant maggot species identified on this day was Ch. megacephala. On the sixth day, the head, neck, and anus were in the stage of active decay. Maggots of Ch. rufifacies were abundant on the seventh day and was the dominant species. On day eight the carcass fell onto the ground. Chrysomya rufifacies maggots were found underneath the pig carcass and they started to migrate and pupated under the soil. On the tenth day, third instar Op. spinigera maggots were found under the carcass. The rate of carcass decomposition slowed down and became stable from tenth day onwards to the sixteenth day of decomposition. Thereafter, most of the remaining parts of the body remained dried and devoid of any insects.
Flies from the family Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae and Muscidae are usually found on human cadavers or animal carcasses. However, there are many other families of Diptera and Coleoptera that were found associated with animal carcasses, which have not been reported in Malaysia. In this paper, we report dipterans from the family Micropezidae: Mimegralla albimana Doleschall, 1856, Neriidae: Telostylinus lineolatus (Wiedemann 1830); Sepsidae: Allosepsis indica (Wiedemann 1824), Ulidiidae: Physiphora sp. and a beetle (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridium sp.) as opportunist species feeding on oozing fluid during the decomposition process. They did not oviposit on the pig carcasses, therefore, their role in estimation of time of death is of little importance. However, they could provide clues such as locality and types of habitats of the crime scene.
Dichloromethane and methanolic extracts of each plant were tested for their antiplasmodial activity on chloroquineresistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum (FCB strain), based on lactate dehydrogenase activity. Cytotoxicity was assessed with the MTT test on MRC-5 human diploid embryonic lung cells. Most extracts of ten selected plants used in Malay traditional medicine in Malaysia had activity in vitro. This supports continued investigations of traditional medicine in the search for new antimalarial agent. The compounds responsible for the observed antiplasmodial effects are under investigation.
The anatomical structures of the first, second and third instars of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) were examined by light microscopy. Observations were documented on the three main characteristics; the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior spiracle and posterior spiracle. The first instar larva bore cornuae of fairly pigmented delineation with slim hypostomal sclerite and distinct dental sclerite. First instar did not have obscured anterior spiracle but posterior spiracles were obscured with thin lining of opened peritreme. Intersegmental spines were evident. The second instar larva displayed a prominent anterodorsal process approaching closer to hypostomal sclerite while upper margin of the dorsal cornua was slightly pigmented. Each anterior spiracle consisted of nine to ten papillae, arranged in a single row. Peritreme of the posterior spiracle thick, opening at the end of peritreme was not wide and confined to two spiracular slits. The third instar larva showed a prominent arch of the ventral cornua with broad and bold appearance. It approached the dorsal cornua and became narrow at the incision median. The anterior spiracle consisted of a single row of nine to ten papillae while intersegmental spine could be identified with one to three dark pigmented tips. A dark pigmented and wide periterime was observed confining three short and thick spiracular slits while button was poorly pigmented. The most distinctive feature of this second and third instar larva was the slender, thorn-like tubercle with numerous spined tips on the middle line segment of the body. These findings provide identification features of C. rufifacies larvae instars.
This paper reports the infestation of psocid, Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae) in the insect museum at Medical Entomology Unit, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur. These tiny organisms were recognised as museum insect pest and found frequently in the insect boxes containing mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches and butterflies. They feed on dead insect specimens and cause severe physical damages to the valuable reference specimens collected in the early 20th century. Hence, it is important to control their population immediately to prevent them from causing further deterioration to the museum collection.
An entomological study was conducted in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, Malaysia in May until September 2007 revealing five species of butterflies (all from family Nymphalidae) were attracted to pig carcasses placed in an oil palm plantation. Euploea mulciber (Cramer 1777), Hypolimnas bolina (Linnaeus 1758), Elymnias hypermnestra (Linnaeus 1763), Mycalesis mineus (Linnaeus 1758) and Ypthima baldus (Fabricius 1775) came to the carcasses at different stages of decomposition. From this study, we know that nymphalid butterflies are attracted to carcasses but their roles are most probably unimportant in post-mortem estimation.
Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) dan Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) adalah merupakan dua spesies lalat penting yang boleh dijadikan sebagai penunjuk terbaik untuk menganggarkan selang masa kematian atau Post Mortem Interval (PMI) untuk kegunaan dalam sains forensik. Penentuan PMI adalah berdasarkan kepada saiz dan peringkat perkembangan larva. Kajian perkembangan telur, larva dan pupa lalat Ch. megacepahala dan Ch. rufifacies dijalankan di bawah suhu 27ºC, 30ºC dan 33ºC di makmal dengan menggunakan kebuk pertumbuhann serangga. Data daripada kajian digunakan untuk menghasilkan satu graf pertumbuhan dan Jam Darjah Terkumpul (ADH) bagi kedua-dua spesies. Ch. megacephala mengambil masa selama 9.15 hari pada suhu 27ºC, 8.54 hari (30ºC) dan 6.76 hari (33ºC) untuk melengkapkan satu kitar hidup. Pada C. rufifacies pula, kitar hidupnya lebih lama berbanding Ch. megacephala iaitu 9.92 hari pada suhu 27ºC, 9.13 hari (30ºC) dan 7.44 hari (33ºC). Telur bagi kedua-dua spesies menetas lebih cepat pada suhu 33ºC berbanding dua suhu yang lainnya. Nilai ADH yang rendah pada sesuatu suhu, menunjukkan sesuatu spesies lebih cepat melengkapkan suatu kitar hidup. Penemuan ini berguna dalam menganggarkan selang masa kematian bagi mayat yang dijumpai pada suhu persekitaran yang berlainan.
The Students' Resilience and Interpersonal Skills Development Education (STRIDE) is a preventive drug education programme. The rational of this programme is that preventive drug education has to begin early in age, before the development of social attitudes and behaviour of students. A pre and a post intervention surveys were performed to evaluate the impact of this programme. Nine schools from three states were identified to participate in the intervention. These schools were selected based on their locations in high-drug-use areas (where the prevalence of drug use exceeds 0.5% of the student population). The new intervention curriculum was put into practice for three months in the nine schools. The overall scores obtained by each respondent to assess their knowledge on drugs and its implications were analysed. The results showed that the programme made a positive impact from the pre to post intervention programme by using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (p < 0.05). A high percentage of the questions showed significant evidence through the McNemar matched pair Chi-Squared test with Bonferonni correction that there were positive shifts in the answers by comparing the pre and post intervention results (p < 0.05). Recommendations have been discussed with the Ministry of Education to integrate this programme into the national primary school curriculum.
Mesosomes of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 treated with antibiotics were examined morphologically under the electron microscope. The Transmission Electron Microscope Rapid Method was used to eliminate the artifacts due to sample processing. Mesosomes were seen in all the antibiotic treated bacteria and not in the control group. The main factor that contributes to the formation of mesosomes in the bacteria was the mode of action of the antibiotics. The continuous cytoplasmic membrane with infolding (mesosomes) as in the S. aureus ATCC 25923 is therefore confirmed as a definite pattern of membrane organization in gram positive bacteria assaulted by amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and oxacillin antibiotics. Our preliminary results show oxacillin and vancomycin treated bacteria seemed to have deeper and more mesosomes than those treated with amikacin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Further research is needed to ascertain whether the deep invagination and the number of mesosomes formed is associated with the types of antibiotic used.
This preliminary study was carried out in a palm oil plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor in 17 May 2007 by using pig (Sus scrofa) as a carcass model in forensic entomological research. A 3 month old pig (8.5 kg) that died of pneumonio was placed in the field to observe the decomposition stages and the fauna succession of forensically important flies. Observation was made for two weeks; two visits per day and all climatological data were recorded. The first visitor to the pig carcass was a muscid fly, seen within a minute, and followed by ants and spiders. Within half an hour, calliphorid flies came over. On the second day (fresh), few calliphorid and sarcophagid flies were found on the carcass. Two different species of moths were trapped in the hanging net. The first larva mass occurred on the third day (bloated) around the mouthpart, with some L1 and L2 found in the eyes. Reduvid bugs and Staphylinidae beetles were recovered on the fourth day (active decay), and new maggot masses occurred in the eyes and anus. L3 larvae could be found beneath the pig carcass on the fourth day. On the fifth day (active decay), new maggot masses were found on neck, thorax, and hind legs. Advance decay occurred on the sixth day with abundant maggots covering all over the body. The main adult fly population was Chrysomya megacephala (day 2 to day 6), but the larvae population was mainly those of Chrysomya rufifacies (day 4 to day 14). The dry stage began on the eighth day. Hermetia illucens adult was caught on day-13, and a larvae mass of Chrysomya rufifacies was seen burrowing under the soil. This forensic entomological research using pig carcass model was the first record in this country.