Major goal of dental treatment is to eradicate the existing diseases of the oral cavity and implement preventive measures to control the spread of the diseases. Various interventions are being used to cure the dental diseases. Due to the nanostructures, high surface volume and biocompatibility, Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been experimented in the treatment of gum diseases, dental caries, tissue engineering, dental implantology and diagnosis of cancers. GNPs possess antifungal and antibacterial activity, hence are incorporated in various biomaterials to potentiate the effect. They also enhance the mechanical properties of materials leading to improved outcomes. They are available in different sizes and concentrations to exhibits its beneficial outcomes. These properties of GNPs make these materials as choice of fillers in biomaterials. This review aims to discuss the effect of incorporation of GNPs in several biomaterials used for dental and medical applications.
Maintenance of oral health is a major challenge in dentistry. Different materials have been used to treat various dental diseases, although treatment success is limited by features of the biomaterials used. To overcome these limitations, materials incorporated with nanoparticles (NPs) can be used in dental applications including endodontics, periodontics, tissue engineering, oral surgery, and imaging. The unique properties of NPs, including their surface:volume ratio, antibacterial action, physical, mechanical, and biological characteristics, and unique particle size have rendered them effective vehicles for dental applications. In this review, we provide insights into the various applications of NPs in dentistry, including their benefits, limitations, properties, actions and future potential.
Dendrimers are hyperbranched nanoparticle structures along with its surface modifications can to be used in dental biomaterials for biomimetic remineralisation of enamel and dentin. The review highlights the therapeutic applications of dendrimers in the field of dentistry. It addresses the possible mechanisms of enhancement of mechanical properties of adhesives and resins structure. Dendrimers due to its unique construction of possessing inner hydrophobic and outer hydrophilic structure can act as drug carrier for delivery of antimicrobial drugs for treatment of periodontal diseases and at peripheral dental implant areas. Dendrimers due to its hyperbranched structures can provides a unique drug delivery vehicle for delivery of a drug at specific site for sustained release for therapeutic effects. Thus, dendrimers can be one of the most important constituents which can be incorporated in dental biomaterials for better outcomes in dentistry.
Dental treatment is provided for a wide variety of oral health problems like dental caries, periodontal diseases, periapical infections, replacement of missing teeth and orthodontic problems. Various biomaterials, like composite resins, amalgam, glass ionomer cement, acrylic resins, metal alloys, impression materials, bone grafts, membranes, local anaesthetics, etc., are used for dental applications. The physical and chemical characteristics of these materials influence the outcome of dental treatment. It also impacts on the biological, allergic and toxic potential of biomaterials. With innovations in science and their positive results, there is also a need for awareness about the biological risks of these biomaterials. The aim of dental treatment is to have effective, yet safe, and long-lasting results for the benefit of patients. For this, it is important to have a thorough understanding of biomaterials and their effects on local and systemic health. Materials used in dentistry undergo a series of analyses before their oral applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first and original review that discusses the reasons for and studies on the toxicity of commonly used biomaterials for applications in dentistry. It will help clinicians to formulate a methodical approach for the selection of dental biomaterials, thus providing an awareness for forecasting their risk of toxic reactions.