Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Xian LJ, Chowdhury SR, Bin Saim A, Idrus RB
    Cytotherapy, 2015 Mar;17(3):293-300.
    PMID: 25456581 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2014.10.005
    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been found to contain a high concentration of growth factors that are present during the process of healing. Studies conducted found that application of PRP accelerates wound healing. In this study, we characterized the skin cell suspension harvested using the co-isolation technique and evaluated the effects of PRP (10% and 20%, v/v) on co-cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts in terms of wound healing.
  2. Fauzi MB, Rashidbenam Z, Bin Saim A, Binti Hj Idrus R
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Nov 25;12(12).
    PMID: 33255581 DOI: 10.3390/polym12122784
    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro skin models have been widely used for cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical applications aiming to reduce animal use in experiment. This study investigate capability of ovine tendon collagen type I (OTC-I) sponge suitable platform for a 3D in vitro skin model using co-cultured skin cells (CC) containing human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) under submerged (SM) and air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions. Briefly, the extracted OTC-I was freeze-dried and crosslinked with genipin (OTC-I_GNP) and carbodiimide (OTC-I_EDC). The gross appearance, physico-chemical characteristics, biocompatibility and growth profile of seeded skin cells were assessed. The light brown and white appearance for the OTC-I_GNP scaffold and other groups were observed, respectively. The OTC-I_GNP scaffold demonstrated the highest swelling ratio (~1885%) and water uptake (94.96 ± 0.14%). The Fourier transformation infrared demonstrated amide A, B and I, II and III which represent collagen type I. The microstructure of all fabricated sponges presented a similar surface roughness with the presence of visible collagen fibers and a heterogenous porous structure. The OTC-I_EDC scaffold was more toxic and showed the lowest cell attachment and proliferation as compared to other groups. The micrographic evaluation revealed that CC potentially formed the epidermal- and dermal-like layers in both SM and ALI that prominently observed with OTC-I_GNP compared to others. In conclusion, these results suggest that OTC_GNP could be used as a 3D in vitro skin model under ALI microenvironment.
  3. Busra MF, Chowdhury SR, bin Ismail F, bin Saim A, Idrus RB
    Adv Skin Wound Care, 2016 Mar;29(3):120-9.
    PMID: 26866868 DOI: 10.1097/01.ASW.0000480556.78111.e4
    OBJECTIVE: When given in conjunction with surgery for treating cancer, radiation therapy may result in impaired wound healing, which, in turn, could cause skin ulcers. In this study, bilayer and monolayer autologous skin substitutes were used to treat an irradiated wound.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single dose of 30 Gy of linear electron beam radiation was applied to the hind limb of nude mice before creating the skin lesion (area of 78.6 mm). Monolayer tissue-engineered skin substitutes (MTESSs) were prepared by entrapping cultured keratinocytes in fibrin matrix, and bilayer tissue-engineered skin substitutes (BTESSs) were prepared by entrapping keratinocytes and fibroblasts in separate layers. Bilayer tissue-engineered skin substitute and MTESS were implanted to the wound area. Gross appearance and wound area were analyzed to evaluate wound healing efficiency. Skin regeneration and morphological appearance were observed via histological and electron microscopy. Protein expressions of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in skin regeneration were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC).

    RESULTS: Macroscopic observation revealed that at day 13, treatments with BTESS completely healed the irradiated wound, whereas wound sizes of 1.1 ± 0.05 and 6.8 ± 0.14 mm were measured in the MTESS-treated and untreated control groups, respectively. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) analysis showed formation of compact and organized epidermal and dermal layers in the BTESS-treated group, as compared with MTESS-treated and untreated control groups. Ultrastructural analysis indicates maturation of skin in BTESS-treated wound evidenced by formation of intermediate filament bundles in the dermal layer and low intercellular space in the epidermal layer. Expressions of TGF-β1, PDGF-BB, and VEGF were also higher in BTESS-treated wounds, compared with MTESS-treated wounds.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that BTESS is the preferred treatment for irradiated wound ulcers.

  4. Selvarajah J, Mh Busra MF, Bin Saim A, Bt Hj Idrus R, Lokanathan Y
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2020 09;31(13):1722-1740.
    PMID: 32458725 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2020.1774841
    Nasal injury following nasal surgery is an adverse consequence, and prompt treatment should be initiated. Nasal packing, either non-absorbable or absorbable, are commonly used after nasal surgery to prevent bleeding and promote wound healing. In the current study, a novel gelatine sponge crosslinked with genipin was evaluated for suitability to be used as nasal packing and compared to one of the frequently used commercial nasal packing made up of polyurethane. Gelatine at 7% and 10% (w/v) concentration were crosslinked with varying concentrations of genipin, 0.5%, 0.25%, and 0.2% (v/v). The gelatine sponges were further characterised by its water uptake ability, biodegradation, water vapour transmission rate, porosity, contact angle, chemical composition, crosslinking degree, and mechanical properties. The gelatine sponges absorbed five times more water than their dry weight and were degraded within five days. The water vapour transmission rate of the gelatine sponges was 1187.7 ± 430.2 g/(m-2 day) for 7% gelatine and 779.4 ± 375.5 g/(m-2 day) for 10% gelatine. Crosslinking of gelatine with genipin resulted in lower porosity and did not affect the wettability of gelatine sponge (contact angle: 95.3 ± 12.1° for 7% gelatine and 88.4 ± 7.2° for 10% gelatine). In terms of biodegradability, the gelatine sponges took 24-48 h to degrade completely. Genipin crosslinking improved the degradation resistance and mechanical strength of gelatine sponge. The physical and chemical properties of the gelatine sponge, i.e. biodegradability and mechanical durability, support its potential as nasal packing.
  5. Nordin A, Bin Saim A, Ramli R, Abdul Hamid A, Mohd Nasri NW, Bt Hj Idrus R
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2020 Jul;27(7):1801-1810.
    PMID: 32565699 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.05.020
    Poor oral health has been associated with several chronic and systemic disease. Currently, the most common method of teeth cleaning is the use of a toothbrush together with dentifrices. However, natural chewing stick such as S. persica miswak is still used in many developing countries due to their low cost and availability. The present review aims to summarize the evidences on effectiveness of miswak in promoting oral health. The search was performed using Medline via Ebscohost, Scopus and Google Scholar database to obtain relevant articles published between 2010 to May 2020 using the following set of keywords 1) Miswak OR Salvadora OR persica AND 2) dental OR caries OR plaque OR oral OR orthodontics. Isolated microbial inhibition studies were excluded from the review due to its well-established wealth of literature. Miswak was administered as ten different forms, namely mouthwash, toothpaste, chewing stick, essential oil, aqueous extract, ethanol extract, probiotic spray, dental varnish, dental cement or chewing gum. All studies reported a positive effect of miswak as an anti-plaque, anti-gingivitis, anti-cariogenic, promotion of gingival wound healing, whitening properties, orthodontic chain preservation, and biocompatibility with oral cells. Miswak in its different forms demonstrated positive effect towards oral health maintenance and management.
  6. Mohd Yunus MH, Rashidbenam Z, Fauzi MB, Bt Hj Idrus R, Bin Saim A
    Molecules, 2021 Nov 06;26(21).
    PMID: 34771136 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26216724
    The normal function of the airway epithelium is vital for the host's well-being. Conditions that might compromise the structure and functionality of the airway epithelium include congenital tracheal anomalies, infection, trauma and post-intubation injuries. Recently, the onset of COVID-19 and its complications in managing respiratory failure further intensified the need for tracheal tissue replacement. Thus far, plenty of naturally derived, synthetic or allogeneic materials have been studied for their applicability in tracheal tissue replacement. However, a reliable tracheal replacement material is missing. Therefore, this study used a tissue engineering approach for constructing tracheal tissue. Human respiratory epithelial cells (RECs) were isolated from nasal turbinate, and the cells were incorporated into a calcium chloride-polymerized human blood plasma to form a human tissue respiratory epithelial construct (HTREC). The quality of HTREC in vitro, focusing on the cellular proliferation, differentiation and distribution of the RECs, was examined using histological, gene expression and immunocytochemical analysis. Histological analysis showed a homogenous distribution of RECs within the HTREC, with increased proliferation of the residing RECs within 4 days of investigation. Gene expression analysis revealed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in gene expression level of proliferative and respiratory epithelial-specific markers Ki67 and MUC5B, respectively, within 4 days of investigation. Immunohistochemical analysis also confirmed the expression of Ki67 and MUC5AC markers in residing RECs within the HTREC. The findings show that calcium chloride-polymerized human blood plasma is a suitable material, which supports viability, proliferation and mucin secreting phenotype of RECs, and this suggests that HTREC can be a potential candidate for respiratory epithelial tissue reconstruction.
  7. Ng MH, Duski S, Tan KK, Yusof MR, Low KC, Rose IM, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:345910.
    PMID: 25165699 DOI: 10.1155/2014/345910
    Calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes have not been used to repair load-bearing bone defects due to their weak mechanical property. In this study, we reevaluated the functional outcomes of combining ceramic block with osteogenic-induced mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma (TEB) to repair critical-sized segmental tibial defect. Comparisons were made with fresh marrow-impregnated ceramic block (MIC) and partially demineralized allogeneic bone block (ALLO). Six New Zealand White female rabbits were used in each study group and three rabbits with no implants were used as negative controls. By Day 90, 4/6 rabbits in TEB group and 2/6 in ALLO and MIC groups resumed normal gait pattern. Union was achieved significantly faster in TEB group with a radiological score of 4.50 ± 0.78 versus ALLO (1.06 ± 0.32), MIC (1.28 ± 0.24), and negative controls (0). Histologically, TEB group scored the highest percentage of new bone (82% ± 5.1%) compared to ALLO (5% ± 2.5%) and MIC (26% ± 5.2%). Biomechanically, TEB-treated tibiae achieved the highest compressive strength (43.50 ± 12.72 MPa) compared to those treated with ALLO (15.15 ± 3.57 MPa) and MIC (23.28 ± 6.14 MPa). In conclusion, TEB can repair critical-sized segmental load-bearing bone defects and restore limb function.
  8. Salem SA, Hwei NM, Bin Saim A, Ho CC, Sagap I, Singh R, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2013 Aug;101(8):2237-47.
    PMID: 23349110 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.34518
    The chief obstacle for reconstructing the bladder is the absence of a biomaterial, either permanent or biodegradable, that will function as a suitable scaffold for the natural process of regeneration. In this study, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) plus collagen or fibrin was evaluated for its suitability as a scaffold for urinary bladder construct. Human adipose-derived stem cells (HADSCs) were cultured, followed by incubation in smooth muscle cells differentiation media. Differentiated HADSCs were then seeded onto PLGA mesh supported with collagen or fibrin. Evaluation of cell-seeded PLGA composite immersed in culture medium was performed under a light and scanning microscope. To determine if the composite is compatible with the urodynamic properties of urinary bladder, porosity and leaking test was performed. The PLGA samples were subjected to tensile testing was pulled until PLGA fibers break. The results showed that the PLGA composite is biocompatible to differentiated HADSCs. PLGA-collagen mesh appeared to be optimal as a cell carrier while the three-layered PLGA-fibrin composite is better in relation to its leaking/ porosity property. A biomechanical test was also performed for three-layered PLGA with biological adhesive and three-layered PLGA alone. The tensile stress at failure was 30.82 ± 3.80 (MPa) and 34.36 ± 2.57 (MPa), respectively. Maximum tensile strain at failure was 19.42 ± 2.24 (mm) and 23.06 ± 2.47 (mm), respectively. Young's modulus was 0.035 ± 0.0083 and 0.043 ± 0.012, respectively. The maximum load at break was 58.55 ± 7.90 (N) and 65.29 ± 4.89 (N), respectively. In conclusion, PLGA-Fibrin fulfils the criteria as a scaffold for urinary bladder reconstruction.
  9. Abdul Ghani N', Razali RA, Chowdhury SR, Fauzi MB, Bin Saim A, Ruszymah BHI, et al.
    Biomedicines, 2022 Dec 09;10(12).
    PMID: 36551960 DOI: 10.3390/biomedicines10123203
    A key event in wound healing is re-epithelialisation, which is mainly regulated via paracrine signalling of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors secreted by fibroblasts. Fibroblast-secreted factors can be collected from the used culture medium, known as dermal fibroblast conditioned medium (DFCM). The goal of this study was to optimise the culture condition to acquire DFCM and evaluate its effect on keratinocyte attachment, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Confluent fibroblasts were cultured with serum-free keratinocyte-specific (DFCM-KM) and fibroblast-specific (DFCM-FM) medium at different incubation times (Days 1, 2, and 3). DFCM collected after 3 days of incubation (DFCM-KM-3 and DFCM-FM-3) contained a higher protein concentration compared to other days. Supplementation of DFCM-KM-3 enhanced keratinocyte attachment, while DFCM-FM-3 significantly increased the keratinocyte wound-healing rate, with an increment of keratinocyte area and collective cell migration, which was distinctly different from DFCM-KM-3 or control medium. Further analysis confirmed that the presence of calcium at higher concentrations in DFCM-FM facilitated the changes. The confluent dermal fibroblasts after 3 days of incubation with serum-free culture medium produced higher proteins in DFCM, resulting in enhanced in vitro re-epithelialisation. These results suggest that the delivery of DFCM could be a potential treatment strategy for wound healing.
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