Displaying all 16 publications

  1. Naomi R, Bt Hj Idrus R, Fauzi MB
    PMID: 32961877 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17186803
    Cellulose is a naturally existing element in the plant's cell wall and in several bacteria. The unique characteristics of bacterial cellulose (BC), such as non-toxicity, biodegradability, hydrophilicity, and biocompatibility, together with the modifiable form of nanocellulose, or the integration with nanoparticles, such as nanosilver (AgNP), all for antibacterial effects, contributes to the extensive usage of BC in wound healing applications. Due to this, BC has gained much demand and attention for therapeutical usage over time, especially in the pharmaceutical industry when compared to plant cellulose (PC). This paper reviews the progress of related research based on in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials, including the overall information concerning BC and PC production and its mechanisms in wound healing. The physicochemical differences between BC and PC have been clearly summarized in a comparison table. Meanwhile, the latest Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved BC products in the biomedical field are thoroughly discussed with their applications. The paper concludes on the need for further investigations of BC in the future, in an attempt to make BC an essential wound dressing that has the ability to be marketable in the global marketplace.
  2. Bt Hj Idrus R, Abas A, Ab Rahim F, Saim AB
    Tissue Eng Part A, 2015 Dec;21(23-24):2812-6.
    PMID: 26192075 DOI: 10.1089/ten.TEA.2014.0521
    With the worldwide growth of cell and tissue therapy (CTT) in treating diseases, the need of a standardized regulatory policy is of paramount concern. Research in CTT in Malaysia has reached stages of clinical trials and commercialization. In Malaysia, the regulation of CTT is under the purview of the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau (NPCB), Ministry of Health (MOH). NPCB is given the task of regulating CTT, under a new Cell and Gene Therapy Products framework, and the guidelines are currently being formulated. Apart from the laboratory accreditation, researchers are advised to follow Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Therapy from the Medical Development Division, MOH, published in 2009.
  3. Nordin A, Chowdhury SR, Saim AB, Bt Hj Idrus R
    PMID: 32384749 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17093229
    Over-induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) by tumor growth factor beta (TGFβ) in keratinocytes is a key feature in keloid scar. The present work seeks to investigate the effect of Kelulut honey (KH) on TGFβ-induced EMT in human primary keratinocytes. Image analysis of the real time observation of TGFβ-induced keratinocytes revealed a faster wound closure and individual migration velocity compared to the untreated control. TGFβ-induced keratinocytes also have reduced circularity and display a classic EMT protein expression. Treatment of 0.0015% (v/v) KH reverses these effects. In untreated keratinocytes, KH resulted in slower initial wound closure and individual migration velocity, which sped up later on, resulting in greater wound closure at the final time point. KH treatment also led to greater directional migration compared to the control. KH treatment caused reduced circularity in keratinocytes but displayed a partial EMT protein expression. Taken together, the findings suggest the therapeutic potential of KH in preventing keloid scar by attenuating TGFβ-induced EMT.
  4. Sallehuddin N, Nordin A, Bt Hj Idrus R, Fauzi MB
    PMID: 32545210 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17114160
    Nigella sativa (NS) has been reported to have a therapeutic effect towards skin wound healing via its anti-inflammatory, tissue growth stimulation, and antioxidative properties. This review examines all the available studies on the association of Nigella sativa (NS) and skin wound healing. The search was performed in Medline via EBSCOhost and Scopus databases to retrieve the related papers released between 1970 and March 2020. The principal inclusion criteria were original article issued in English that stated wound healing criteria of in vivo skin model with topically applied NS. The search discovered 10 related articles that fulfilled the required inclusion criteria. Studies included comprise different types of wounds, namely excisional, burn, and diabetic wounds. Seven studies unravelled positive results associated with NS on skin wound healing. Thymoquinone has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties, which mainly contributed to wound healing process.
  5. Hasmad HN, Bt Hj Idrus R, Sulaiman N, Lokanathan Y
    Int J Mol Sci, 2022 Feb 03;23(3).
    PMID: 35163664 DOI: 10.3390/ijms23031743
    Cardiac patch implantation helps maximize the paracrine function of grafted cells and serves as a reservoir of soluble proangiogenic factors required for the neovascularization of infarcted hearts. We have previously fabricated a cardiac patch, EF-HAM, composed of a human amniotic membrane (HAM) coated with aligned PLGA electrospun fibers (EF). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility and angiogenic effects of EF-HAM scaffolds with varying fiber thicknesses on the paracrine behavior of skeletal muscle cells (SkM). Conditioned media (CM) obtained from SkM-seeded HAM and EF-HAM scaffolds were subjected to multiplex analysis of angiogenic factors and tested on HUVECs for endothelial cell viability, migration, and tube formation analyses. All three different groups of EF-HAM scaffolds demonstrated excellent biocompatibility with SkM. CM derived from SkM-seeded EF-HAM 7 min scaffolds contained significantly elevated levels of proangiogenic factors, including angiopoietin-1, IL-8, and VEGF-C compared to plain CM, which was obtained from SkM cultured on the plain surface. CM obtained from all SkM-seeded EF-HAM scaffolds significantly increased the viability of HUVECs compared to plain CM after five days of culture. However, only EF-HAM 7 min CM induced a higher migration capacity in HUVECs and formed a longer and more elaborate capillary-like network on Matrigel compared with plain CM. Surface roughness and wettability of EF-HAM 7 min scaffolds might have influenced the proportion of skeletal myoblasts and fibroblasts growing on the scaffolds and subsequently potentiated the angiogenic paracrine function of SkM. This study demonstrated the angioinductive properties of EF-HAM composite scaffold and its potential applications in the repair and regeneration of ischemic tissues.
  6. Maarof M, Mh Busra MF, Lokanathan Y, Bt Hj Idrus R, Rajab NF, Chowdhury SR
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 02;9(1):144-161.
    PMID: 30547385 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-00612-z
    Skin substitutes are one of the main treatments for skin loss, and a skin substitute that is readily available would be the best treatment option. However, most cell-based skin substitutes require long production times, and therefore, patients endure long waiting times. The proteins secreted from the cells and tissues play vital roles in promoting wound healing. Thus, we aimed to develop an acellular three-dimensional (3D) skin patch with dermal fibroblast conditioned medium (DFCM) and collagen hydrogel for immediate treatment of skin loss. Fibroblasts from human skin samples were cultured using serum-free keratinocyte-specific media (KM1 or KM2) and serum-free fibroblast-specific medium (FM) to obtain DFCM-KM1, DFCM-KM2, and DFCM-FM, respectively. The acellular 3D skin patch was soft, semi-solid, and translucent. Collagen mixed with DFCM-KM1 and DFCM-KM2 showed higher protein release compared to collagen plus DFCM-FM. In vitro and in vivo testing revealed that DFCM and collagen hydrogel did not induce an immune response. The implantation of the 3D skin patch with or without DFCM on the dorsum of BALB/c mice demonstrated a significantly faster healing rate compared to the no-treatment group 7 days after implantation, and all groups had complete re-epithelialization at day 17. Histological analysis confirmed the structure and integrity of the regenerated skin, with positive expression of cytokeratin 14 and type I collagen in the epidermal and dermal layer, respectively. These findings highlight the possibility of using fibroblast secretory factors together with collagen hydrogel in an acellular 3D skin patch that can be used allogeneically for immediate treatment of full-thickness skin loss.
  7. N Amirrah I, Mohd Razip Wee MF, Tabata Y, Bt Hj Idrus R, Nordin A, Fauzi MB
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Sep 22;12(9).
    PMID: 32972012 DOI: 10.3390/polym12092168
    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a chronic wound frequently delayed from severe infection. Wound dressing provides an essential barrier between the ulcer and the external environment. This review aimed to analyse the effectiveness of antibacterial collagen-based dressing for DFU treatment in a clinical setting. An electronic search in four databases, namely, Scopus, PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE(R), and ISI Web of Science, was performed to obtain relevant articles published within the last ten years. The published studies were included if they reported evidence of (1) collagen-based antibacterial dressing or (2) wound healing for diabetic ulcers, and (3) were written in English. Both randomised and non-randomised clinical trials were included. The search for relevant clinical studies (n) identified eight related references discussing the effectiveness of collagen-based antibacterial wound dressings for DFU comprising collagen impregnated with polyhexamethylene biguanide (n = 2), gentamicin (n = 3), combined-cellulose and silver (n = 1), gentian violet/methylene blue mixed (n = 1), and silver (n = 1). The clinical data were limited by small sample sizes and multiple aetiologies of chronic wounds. The evidence was not robust enough for a conclusive statement, although most of the studies reported positive outcomes for the use of collagen dressings loaded with antibacterial properties for DFU wound healing. This study emphasises the importance of having standardised clinical trials, larger sample sizes, and accurate reporting for reliable statistical evidence confirming DFU treatment efficiency.
  8. Selvarajah J, Mh Busra MF, Bin Saim A, Bt Hj Idrus R, Lokanathan Y
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2020 09;31(13):1722-1740.
    PMID: 32458725 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2020.1774841
    Nasal injury following nasal surgery is an adverse consequence, and prompt treatment should be initiated. Nasal packing, either non-absorbable or absorbable, are commonly used after nasal surgery to prevent bleeding and promote wound healing. In the current study, a novel gelatine sponge crosslinked with genipin was evaluated for suitability to be used as nasal packing and compared to one of the frequently used commercial nasal packing made up of polyurethane. Gelatine at 7% and 10% (w/v) concentration were crosslinked with varying concentrations of genipin, 0.5%, 0.25%, and 0.2% (v/v). The gelatine sponges were further characterised by its water uptake ability, biodegradation, water vapour transmission rate, porosity, contact angle, chemical composition, crosslinking degree, and mechanical properties. The gelatine sponges absorbed five times more water than their dry weight and were degraded within five days. The water vapour transmission rate of the gelatine sponges was 1187.7 ± 430.2 g/(m-2 day) for 7% gelatine and 779.4 ± 375.5 g/(m-2 day) for 10% gelatine. Crosslinking of gelatine with genipin resulted in lower porosity and did not affect the wettability of gelatine sponge (contact angle: 95.3 ± 12.1° for 7% gelatine and 88.4 ± 7.2° for 10% gelatine). In terms of biodegradability, the gelatine sponges took 24-48 h to degrade completely. Genipin crosslinking improved the degradation resistance and mechanical strength of gelatine sponge. The physical and chemical properties of the gelatine sponge, i.e. biodegradability and mechanical durability, support its potential as nasal packing.
  9. Maarof M, Chowdhury SR, Saim A, Bt Hj Idrus R, Lokanathan Y
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Apr 22;21(8).
    PMID: 32331278 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21082929
    Fibroblasts secrete many essential factors that can be collected from fibroblast culture medium, which is termed dermal fibroblast conditioned medium (DFCM). Fibroblasts isolated from human skin samples were cultured in vitro using the serum-free keratinocyte-specific medium (Epilife (KM1), or define keratinocytes serum-free medium, DKSFM (KM2) and serum-free fibroblast-specific medium (FM) to collect DFCM-KM1, DFCM-KM2, and DFCM-FM, respectively). We characterised and evaluated the effects of 100-1600 µg/mL DFCM on keratinocytes based on attachment, proliferation, migration and gene expression. Supplementation with 200-400 µg/mL keratinocyte-specific DFCM-KM1 and DFCM-KM2 enhanced the attachment, proliferation and migration of sub-confluent keratinocytes, whereas 200-1600 µg/mL DFCM-FM significantly increased the healing rate in the wound healing assay, and 400-800 µg/mL DFCM-FM was suitable to enhance keratinocyte attachment and proliferation. A real-time (RT2) profiler polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array showed that 42 genes in the DFCM groups had similar fold regulation compared to the control group and most of the genes were directly involved in wound healing. In conclusion, in vitro keratinocyte re-epithelialisation is supported by the fibroblast-secreted proteins in 200-400 µg/mL DFCM-KM1 and DFCM-KM2, and 400-800 µg/mL DFCM-FM, which could be useful for treating skin injuries.
  10. Che Man R, Sulaiman N, Ishak MF, Bt Hj Idrus R, Abdul Rahman MR, Yazid MD
    PMID: 33114632 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17217825
    Anti-atherogenic therapy is crucial in halting the progression of inflammation-induced intimal hyperplasia. The aim of this concise review was to methodically assess the recent findings of the different approaches, mainly on the recruitment of chemokines and/or cytokine and its effects in combating the intimal hyperplasia caused by various risk factors. Pubmed and Scopus databases were searched, followed by article selection based on pre-set inclusion and exclusion criteria. The combination of keywords used were monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 OR MCP-1 OR TNF-alpha OR TNF-α AND hyperplasia OR intimal hyperplasia OR neointimal hyperplasia AND in vitro. These keywords combination was incorporated in the study and had successfully identified 77 articles, with 22 articles were acquired from Pubmed, whereas 55 articles were obtained from Scopus. However, after title screening, only twelve articles meet the requirements of defined inclusion criteria. We classified the data into 4 different approaches, i.e., utilisation of natural product, genetic manipulation and protein inhibition, targeted drugs in clinical setting, and chemokine and cytokines induction. Most of the articles are working on genetic manipulation targeted on specific pathway to inhibit the pro-inflammatory factors expression. We also found that the utilisation of chemokine- and cytokine-related treatments are emerging throughout the years. However, there is no study utilising the combination of approaches that might give a better outcome in combating intimal hyperplasia. Hopefully, this concise review will provide an insight regarding the usage of different novel approaches in halting the progression of intimal hyperplasia, which serves as a key factor for the development of atherosclerosis in cardiovascular disease.
  11. Mat Afandi MA, Maarof M, Chowdhury SR, Bt Hj Idrus R
    Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2020 12;17(6):835-845.
    PMID: 32767029 DOI: 10.1007/s13770-020-00283-3
    BACKGROUND: One of the long-standing problems of myoblasts in vitro expansion is slow cell migration and this causes fibroblast population to exceed myoblasts. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of laminin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) on co-cultured myoblasts and fibroblasts for cell attachment, proliferation and migration.

    METHODS: Skeletal human muscle cells were cultured in four different conditions; control, EGF, laminin (Lam) and laminin EGF (Lam + EGF). Using live imaging system, their cellular properties; attachment, migration and growth were exposed to Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, and EGF-receptor (EGF-R) inhibitor, gefitinib were measured.

    RESULTS: Myoblast migration and proliferation was enhanced significantly by synergistic stimulation of laminin and EGF (0.61 ± 0.14 µm/min, 0.008 ± 0.001 h-1) compare to that by EGF alone (0.26 ± 0.13 µm/min, 0.004 ± 0.0009 h-1). However, no changes in proliferation and migration were observed for fibroblasts among the culture conditions. Inhibition of Rho kinase resulted in the increase of the myoblast migration on the laminin-coated surface with EGF condition (0.64 ± 0.18 µm/min). Compared to the untreated conditions, myoblasts cultured on the laminin-coated surface and EGF demonstrated elongated morphology, and average cell length increase significantly. In contrast, inhibition of EGF-R resulted in the decrease of myoblast migration on the laminin coated surface with EGF supplemented condition (0.43 ± 0.05 µm/min) in comparison to the untreated control (0.53 ± 0.05 µm/min).

    CONCLUSION: Laminin and EGF preferentially enhance the proliferation and migration of myoblasts, and Rho kinase and EGF-R play a role in this synergistic effect. These results will be beneficial for the propagation of skeletal muscle cells for clinical applications.

  12. Nordin A, Bin Saim A, Ramli R, Abdul Hamid A, Mohd Nasri NW, Bt Hj Idrus R
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2020 Jul;27(7):1801-1810.
    PMID: 32565699 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.05.020
    Poor oral health has been associated with several chronic and systemic disease. Currently, the most common method of teeth cleaning is the use of a toothbrush together with dentifrices. However, natural chewing stick such as S. persica miswak is still used in many developing countries due to their low cost and availability. The present review aims to summarize the evidences on effectiveness of miswak in promoting oral health. The search was performed using Medline via Ebscohost, Scopus and Google Scholar database to obtain relevant articles published between 2010 to May 2020 using the following set of keywords 1) Miswak OR Salvadora OR persica AND 2) dental OR caries OR plaque OR oral OR orthodontics. Isolated microbial inhibition studies were excluded from the review due to its well-established wealth of literature. Miswak was administered as ten different forms, namely mouthwash, toothpaste, chewing stick, essential oil, aqueous extract, ethanol extract, probiotic spray, dental varnish, dental cement or chewing gum. All studies reported a positive effect of miswak as an anti-plaque, anti-gingivitis, anti-cariogenic, promotion of gingival wound healing, whitening properties, orthodontic chain preservation, and biocompatibility with oral cells. Miswak in its different forms demonstrated positive effect towards oral health maintenance and management.
  13. Mohd Yunus MH, Rashidbenam Z, Fauzi MB, Bt Hj Idrus R, Bin Saim A
    Molecules, 2021 Nov 06;26(21).
    PMID: 34771136 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26216724
    The normal function of the airway epithelium is vital for the host's well-being. Conditions that might compromise the structure and functionality of the airway epithelium include congenital tracheal anomalies, infection, trauma and post-intubation injuries. Recently, the onset of COVID-19 and its complications in managing respiratory failure further intensified the need for tracheal tissue replacement. Thus far, plenty of naturally derived, synthetic or allogeneic materials have been studied for their applicability in tracheal tissue replacement. However, a reliable tracheal replacement material is missing. Therefore, this study used a tissue engineering approach for constructing tracheal tissue. Human respiratory epithelial cells (RECs) were isolated from nasal turbinate, and the cells were incorporated into a calcium chloride-polymerized human blood plasma to form a human tissue respiratory epithelial construct (HTREC). The quality of HTREC in vitro, focusing on the cellular proliferation, differentiation and distribution of the RECs, was examined using histological, gene expression and immunocytochemical analysis. Histological analysis showed a homogenous distribution of RECs within the HTREC, with increased proliferation of the residing RECs within 4 days of investigation. Gene expression analysis revealed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in gene expression level of proliferative and respiratory epithelial-specific markers Ki67 and MUC5B, respectively, within 4 days of investigation. Immunohistochemical analysis also confirmed the expression of Ki67 and MUC5AC markers in residing RECs within the HTREC. The findings show that calcium chloride-polymerized human blood plasma is a suitable material, which supports viability, proliferation and mucin secreting phenotype of RECs, and this suggests that HTREC can be a potential candidate for respiratory epithelial tissue reconstruction.
  14. Bt Hj Idrus R, Sainik NQAV, Nordin A, Saim AB, Sulaiman N
    PMID: 32455701 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17103613
    Cardiovascular disease is a major public health burden worldwide. Myocardial infarction is the most common form of cardiovascular disease resulting from low blood supply to the heart. It can lead to further complications such as cardiac arrhythmia, toxic metabolite accumulation, and permanently infarcted areas. Honey is one of the most prized medicinal remedies used since ancient times. There is evidence that indicates honey can function as a cardioprotective agent in cardiovascular diseases. The present review compiles and discusses the available evidence on the effect of honey on cardiovascular diseases. Three electronic databases, namely, PubMed, Scopus, and MEDLINE via EBSCOhost, were searched between January 1959 and March 2020 to identify reports on the cardioprotective effect of honey. Based on the pre-set eligibility criteria, 25 qualified articles were selected and discussed in this review. Honey investigated in the studies included varieties according to their geological origin. Honey protects the heart via lipid metabolism improvement, antioxidative activity, blood pressure modulation, heartbeat restoration, myocardial infarct area reduction, antiaging properties, and cell apoptosis attenuation. This review establishes honey as a potential candidate to be explored further as a natural and dietary alternative to the management of cardiovascular disease.
  15. Lokanathan Y, Ng MH, Hasan S, Ali A, Mahmod M, Htwe O, et al.
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2014 Aug;118(2):231-4.
    PMID: 24598302 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2014.02.002
    We evaluated bridging of 15 mm nerve gap in rat sciatic nerve injury model with muscle-stuffed vein seeded with olfactory ensheathing cells as a substitute for nerve autograft. Neurophysiological recovery, as assessed by electrophysiological analysis was faster in the constructed biological nerve conduit compared to that of autograft.
  16. Harun MH, Sepian SN, Chua KH, Ropilah AR, Abd Ghafar N, Che-Hamzah J, et al.
    Hum. Cell, 2013 Mar;26(1):35-40.
    PMID: 21748521 DOI: 10.1007/s13577-011-0025-0
    The anterior surface of the eye is covered by several physically contiguous but histologically distinguishable epithelia overlying the cornea, limbus, bulbar conjunctiva, fornix conjunctiva, and palpebral conjunctiva. The self-renewing nature of the conjunctival epithelia makes their long-term survival ultimately dependent on small populations of stem cells. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the expression of the stem cell genes Sox2, OCT4, NANOG, Rex1, NES, and ABCG2 in cultured human conjunctival epithelium from different conjunctival zones, namely, the bulbar, palpebral and fornix zones. Three samples were taken from patients with primary pterygium and cataract (age range 56-66 years) who presented to our eye clinic at the UKM Medical Centre. The eye was examined with slit lamp to ensure there was no underlying ocular surface diseases and glaucoma. Conjunctival tissue was taken from patients who underwent a standard cataract or pterygium operation as a primary procedure. Tissues were digested, cultured, and propagated until an adequate number of cells was obtained. Total RNA was extracted and subjected to expression analysis of conjunctival epithelium genes (KRT4, KRT13, KRT19) and stem cell genes (Sox2, OCT4, NANOG, Rex1, NES, ABCG2) by reverse transcriptase-PCR and 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. The expression of Sox2, OCT4, and NANOG genes were detected in the fornical cells, while bulbar cells only expressed Sox2 and palpebral cells only expressed OCT4. Based on these results, the human forniceal region expresses a higher number of stem cell genes than the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva.
    Study site: Eye clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
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