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  1. Masne Kadar, Nor Afifi Razaob, Hany Naziha Mohd Saibani, Chai, Siaw Chui, Noorashikin Samin
    MyJurnal
    Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disability that has gained increasing attention in Malaysia. Much effort is
    now being taken to include children with autism spectrum disorder in the school system, either in inclusive settings or
    in special educational settings. However, this endeavor raises many challenges for the children with autism spectrum
    disorder, their families and for service providers. The current study uses a qualitative approach to investigate parents’
    perceptions of problems faced by their children with autism spectrum disorder in issues related to academic skills. A faceto-face
    interview was performed with parents of children with autism spectrum disorders who were receiving occupational
    therapy services for their difficulties in academic related skills. Findings indicate that most of the difficulties faced by these
    children are related to skills needed to be accepted at school, such as ability to communicate and socialize and this often
    limit their performance at school. These findings not only raise and discuss important implications for service providers
    such as teachers, health care professionals and policy makers, but also lead to suggestions for future research.
  2. Nor Azlin Mohd Nordin, Nur Amirah Ishak, Nor Azura Azmi, Chai Siaw Chui, Fatimah Hani Hassan
    Jurnal Sains Kesihatan Malaysia, 2018;16(101):203-209.
    MyJurnal
    Neurophobia, defined as ‘the fear of neural sciences and neurology’ is reported among medical students, which threatened their performance in neurology course. This phenomenon has not been studied among rehabilitation sciences students despite the significance of neurology as an area for rehabilitation. In this study we aim to assess the perceptions of neurology course and the possibility of neurophobia existence among rehabilitation sciences students of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). We also aimed to identify learning methods which are regarded as useful among the students. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was conducted among 73 students from School of Rehabilitation Sciences of the university. Questions in the questionnaire were adapted from previous studies, in which neurophobia was indicated by poor knowledge and low confidence level in managing neurology course. Results showed that the percentage of participants who perceived having good knowledge of neurology was significantly higher than the percentage who claimed of having poor knowledge level (90.4% versus 9.6%, p < 0.01). Similarly, the percentage of participants who claimed having high confidence to handle neurology cases was higher than the percentage who expressed lack of confidence (79.2% versus 20.8%, p = 0.03). However, neurology course was perceived as difficult by majority of the participants (78.1%) when compared to other courses. Majority of the participants (97.3%) perceived clinical teaching as a useful method of learning rehabilitation science courses including neurology followed by problem-based learning (90.4%). While limited exposure to neurology cases was claimed as the main reason to why neurology is difficult. In conclusion, although neurology is perceived as a difficult course among rehabilitation sciences students, the students did not report lack of knowledge and confidence in the course. This implies that neurophobia does not exist among UKM rehabilitation students. Enhancement of learning methods may assist in reducing the level of difficulty of neurology course among the students.
  3. Masne Kadar, Chai, Siaw Chui, Geoh, Mei Kei, Nor Afifi Razaob@Razab, Farahiyah Wan Yunus
    MyJurnal
    The development of writing ability is not only important in building a child’s self-esteem, but also essential for academic success in school. Handwriting is an important skill that could affect students’ performance in most academic areas. This study aimed to review the effect of occupational therapy intervention in improving handwriting skills among preschool children. Relevant studies were systematically searched by using standardized keywords across three databases. The initial search identified 1,386 references. Of these studies, there were five quantitative studies that met the inclusion criteria and were methodologically appraised using the McMaster Critical Review Form–Quantitative Studies. All studies reported that preschool children with or without disabilities showed significant improvements in handwriting skills after receiving occupational therapy intervention. One study involved collaboration between teachers and occupational therapists in implementing intervention program to preschool students. Collaboration between teachers and occupational therapists was able to provide teachers with tools and skills that they can use to help students, with or without direct presence of occupational therapists. Overall, findings of this review indicated that preschool children could gain improvement in handwriting skills regardless of their conditions after receiving occupational therapy intervention programs.

  4. Lim YX, Chai SC
    J Hand Ther, 2020 03 04;33(4):553-561.
    PMID: 32143983 DOI: 10.1016/j.jht.2019.09.001
    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

    INTRODUCTION: Adhering to test administration and standardized instructions is important for attainment of accurate and reliable results in performance-based tests.

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To determine test-retest and interrater reliability of standardized translated instruction (St-TI) and spontaneously translated instruction (Sp-TI) of a hand function test.

    METHODS: Four raters and seventy-two subjects were divided into 2 groups: St-TI group, direct administration of the Hong Kong Chinese version of the Jebsen Hand Function Test to subjects by raters; and Sp-TI group, spontaneously translating the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test from English into Chinese by raters. Test-retest and interrater reliability were calculated based on instruction time by the rater and performance time by the subject.

    RESULTS: Test-retest and interrater reliability of instruction time by rater for St-TI has intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.35 to 0.70 and 0.24 to 0.55, respectively, whereas that for Sp-TI was -0.50 to 0.18 and -0.09 to 0.51, respectively. Test-retest and interrater reliability of performance time by subject for St-TI was 0.56 to 0.84 and 0.33 to 0.78, respectively, whereas that for Sp-TI was 0.54 to 0.87 and 0.35 to 0.77, respectively. Sp-TI had two test-retest minimal detectable change percent values that fell within the acceptable range (subtest 3 = 21.9% and subtest 6 = 25.7%).

    CONCLUSION: Instruction time by rater for Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test subtests had generally poor to moderate test-retest and interrater reliability for both St-TI and Sp-TI. Performance time by subject generally had moderate to good reliability, except for St-TI with poor to good interrater reliability.

  5. Noor Mukminin Ahmad, Masne Kadar, Chai, Siaw Chui, Hanif Farhan Mohd Rasdi, Nor Afifi Razaob@Razab, Dzalani Harun
    MyJurnal
    Inappropriate responses towards sensory input received from the environment, also known as sensory processing difficulties (SPD) may affect daily living activities of the children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Sensory Processing Measure Home Form (SPM Home Form) as a parent report measure for SPD is available in English and other foreign languages. To enhance the applicability and meaningfulness of SPM Home Form for the Malay speaking population, a study that focuses on translating, adapting, and validating the SPM Home Form into the Malay language was conducted. The development of the Malay version of the SPM Home Form (SPM-MV Home Form) involved three steps: 1) Item evaluation, 2) Forward and backward translation, and 3) Expert review and content validity. The process of translation and adaptation of the form was performed according to standard guidelines. No item was excluded from the original SPM Home Form as all the items were considered by the expert panel as appropriate and relevance to evaluate the activity and social participation among children in Malaysia. Content validity as measured by 10 experts in occupational therapy is high. The mean of sub-scales I-CVI is between 0.96 and 1.00. The total S-CVI of the form is 0.95 with sub-scales S-CVI range between 0.82 and 1.00. Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency was reported at 0.80 and ICC for test-retest reliability ranged from 0.80 to 0.97. The SPM-MV Home Form has high potential to be used for assessing SPD among children ages 5-12 years in Malaysia.

  6. Ooi HK, Chai SC, Kadar M
    Clin Rehabil, 2020 Apr;34(4):515-523.
    PMID: 32037862 DOI: 10.1177/0269215520905050
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of pressure (Lycra) garment on the spasticity and function of the arm in the early stages after stroke.

    DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial.

    SETTING: Occupational therapy unit of a public hospital.

    SUBJECTS: A total of 46 adults with stroke.

    INTERVENTION: After random assignment, for six weeks, both intervention group and control group received a 2 hour/week conventional occupational therapy program, with the intervention group receiving an extra 6 hour/day pressure garment application (long glove).

    MAIN MEASURES: Modified Modified Ashworth Scale, Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand Outcome Measure, and Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test. Eligibility measures: Mini Mental State Examination and Modified Modified Ashworth Scale. Assessments were performed at baseline and six weeks postintervention.

    RESULTS: There were 21 participants with the mean age of 51.19 (8.28) years in the intervention group and 22 participants with the mean (SD) age of 52.82 (8.71) years in the control group. The intervention group had median (interquartile range (IQR)) post-stroke duration of 1 (1) month, while for the control group, they were 2 (2) months. There was no difference in spasticity, and both perceived and actual arm functions between the groups at six weeks after baseline.

    CONCLUSION: Wearing a pressure garment on the arm for 6 hours daily had no effect in controlling spasticity or on improving arm function in the early stages after stroke.

  7. Chai SC, Teoh RF, Razaob NA, Kadar M
    Hong Kong J Occup Ther, 2017 Dec;30(1):42-48.
    PMID: 30186079 DOI: 10.1016/j.hkjot.2017.05.002
    Objective/Background: Occupational therapy that focuses on servicing clients demands motivated workers for quality service delivery. The objectives of this study were: (a) to determine the level of work motivation among occupational therapy graduates in Malaysia and (b) to determine if there is a difference in work motivation among these graduates based on work sector, job position, length of work experience, and gender.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited occupational therapy bachelor's degree graduates using an online survey. The Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale (WEIMS) was used to measure level of work motivation.

    Results: Responses from 82 (60.3%) graduates (male: 26.8%; female: 73.2%) were analysed. Sixty-two (75.6%) graduates worked locally and 20 (24.4%) worked in foreign countries. The average Work Self-Determination Index (W-SDI) score for WEIMS is +11.38 with 78 (95.1%) of graduates demonstrated a self-determined motivational profile and 4 (4.9%) demonstrated a nonself-determined profile. Graduates in the private sector (13.10 ± 6.47) show significantly higher W-SDI score compared to those in the public sector (9.40 ± 6.06), p = 0.01. W-SDI scores appeared higher among clinician (11.67 ± 6.40), case manager (13.33), and others (14.90 ± 8.23); and those with work experience of 5-6 years (13.11 ± 6.90) and less than one year (12.65 ± 7.12). Male (10.29 ± 6.86) and female (11.79 ± 6.39) graduates shared equally high score. There is no significant difference in W-SDI score based on job position, length of work experience, and gender.

    Conclusion: Occupational therapy graduates have high work motivation as evident by their self-determined profile. Only work sector imposes difference in work motivation among these graduates. Copyright © 2017, Hong Kong Occupational Therapy Association. Published by Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  8. Kadar M, Ibrahim S, Razaob NA, Chai SC, Harun D
    Aust Occup Ther J, 2018 02;65(1):63-68.
    PMID: 29315609 DOI: 10.1111/1440-1630.12441
    BACKGROUND/AIM: The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale is a tool often used to assess independence among elderly at home. Its suitability to be used with the elderly population in Malaysia has not been validated. This current study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale - Malay Version to Malay speaking elderly in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This study was divided into three phases: (1) translation and linguistic validity involving both forward and backward translations; (2) establishment of face validity and content validity; and (3) establishment of reliability involving inter-rater, test-retest and internal consistency analyses. Data used for these analyses were obtained by interviewing 65 elderly respondents.

    RESULTS: Percentages of Content Validity Index for 4 criteria were from 88.89 to 100.0. The Cronbach α coefficient for internal consistency was 0.838. Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability was 0.957 and 0.950 respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The result shows that the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale - Malay Version has excellent reliability and validity for use with the Malay speaking elderly people in Malaysia. This scale could be used by professionals to assess functional ability of elderly who live independently in community.

  9. Kadar M, Wan Yunus F, Tan E, Chai SC, Razaob Razab NA, Mohamat Kasim DH
    Aust Occup Ther J, 2020 02;67(1):3-12.
    PMID: 31799722 DOI: 10.1111/1440-1630.12626
    INTRODUCTION: Handwriting skills play a significant role in all stages of an individual's life. Writing interventions should be considered at a younger age to ensure proper development of writing skills. Hence, the aims of this study is to evaluate the current evidence of occupational therapy interventions in handwriting skills for 4-6 year old children.

    METHODS: Published literature was systematically searched according to PRISMA guidelines using specific key terms. Initial search identified 785 studies; however only seven met the inclusion criteria and were assessed for final review. Studies were methodologically appraised using the McMaster Critical Review Form-Quantitative Studies.

    RESULTS: The review found no randomised control trial study design pertaining to the reviewed area. However, it can be seen that occupational therapy interventions for writing skills in 4-6 year old children managed to increase the targeted skills. The results were similar across samples with or without disabilities. An effective integration of occupational therapy interventions into educational curriculum was found to save both time and cost.

    CONCLUSION: The long-term benefit from these interventions and the effects of these interventions on a broader spectrum of fine motor abilities need to be explored further with stronger research designs. However, the lack of studies adopting high level study designs, i.e., RCT designs means, results need to be approached with caution by occupational therapists when implementing handwriting skills intervention in practice.

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