Displaying all 15 publications

  1. Chan PL, Tan FHS
    Clin Hypertens, 2018;24:15.
    PMID: 30410790 DOI: 10.1186/s40885-018-0100-x
    Background: Hypokalemia in the presence of hypertension is often attributed to primary hyperaldosteronism as a cause of secondary hypertension, however secondary hyperaldosteronism may present similarly. Accessory renal arteries are variants in the vascular anatomy which are often thought to be innocuous but in some circumstances can cause renovascular hypertension leading to secondary hyperaldosteronism.

    Case presentation: We report 2 cases of hypertension with secondary hyperaldosteronism associated with accessory renal arteries. Both patients presented with hypokalemia and further investigations revealed hyperaldosteronism with unsuppressed renin levels. Imaging studies showed the presence of accessory renal artery.

    Conclusion: Accessory renal arteries are a potential cause renovascular hypertension which can be detected via CT angiography or magnetic resonance angiography. Hormonal evaluation should be undertaken to determine whether its presence contributes to hypertension in the patient as targeted treatment such as aldosterone antagonist can be initiated. Surgical intervention or renal denervation may be considered in resistant cases.

  2. Ng CG, Chan PL, Said MA
    Introduction: Second generation antipsychotic (SGA) was linked to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The risk varies between different SGA. We aim to study this risk by examining the co-prescription of antihypertensive, antidiabetic and lipid lowering drugs in patients prescribed with either aripiprazole, quetiapine or clozapine.
    Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study based on the prescription records of a teaching hospital. Prescription records between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014 for
    psychiatric unit were extracted. Patients with at least one prescription of any antipsychotic were included. The odds of antihypertensive, antidiabetic and lipid lowering drugs co-prescription in patients with either aripiprazole, quetiapine or clozapine were calculated.
    Results: Of the 1742 study subjects, 88 patients were prescribed with aripiprazole, 175 patients with clozapine and 124 patients with quetiapine. Patients prescribed with quetiapine had
    higher odds of co-prescribed with antihypertensive (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.11, 2.63), antidiabetic drugs (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.11, 2.95) and lipid lowering drugs (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.19, 3.16). There were higher odds of co-prescription of antihypertensive (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.05, 2.25), antidiabetic drugs (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.10, 2.59) and lipid lowering drugs
    (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.24, 2.91) in patients with clozapine. However, there were no increase odds of co-prescription of the three agents in patients with aripiprazole.
    Conclusion: We need to monitor the risk of metabolic syndrome in patients treated with SGA. Aripiprazole has lower risk of metabolic syndrome.
  3. Chan PL, Le LV, Ishikawa N, Easterbrook P
    Glob Health Med, 2021 Oct 31;3(5):253-261.
    PMID: 34782866 DOI: 10.35772/ghm.2021.01065
    Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection is a major global public health threat and in 2019 there were an estimated 58 million infected globally and 290,000 deaths. Elimination of viral hepatitis B/C as a public health threat by 2030 is defined as a 90% incidence reduction and a 65% mortality reduction. The Western Pacific region is one of the most affected regions with 10 million people living with HCV, one-fifth of the global burden. We review progress towards HCV elimination in the Western Pacific region since 2015. Key developments in the region, which comprises of 37 high-and-middle-income countries, include the following: 20 countries have national hepatitis action plans, 19 have conducted recent disease burden and investment cases, 10 have scaled-up hepatitis services at primary health care level, and in 11 countries, domestic financing including social health insurance support DAA costs. We highlight six countries' experience in navigating the path towards HCV elimination: Cambodia, China, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Future initiatives to accelerate elimination are expanding access to community-based testing using HCV point-of-care tests among at-risk and general populations; adopting decentralized and integrated HCV one-stop services at harm reduction sites, detention settings and primary care; expanding treatment to include children and adolescents; address stigma and discrimination; and ensuring sustainable financing through domestic resources to scale-up testing, treatment and prevention. The COVID-19 pandemic has a significant impact on hepatitis response across the region on community and facility-based testing, treatment initiation, monitoring and cancer screening, which is projected to delay elimination goals.
  4. Teh CL, Cheong YK, Ling HN, Chan PL, Chan T, Ling GR
    Rheumatol Int, 2013 Apr;33(4):1079-82.
    PMID: 22101556 DOI: 10.1007/s00296-011-2245-8
    We performed a prospective study of all patients diagnosed with gout and who received treatment in Sarawak General Hospital from 1 July 2010 to 31 December 2010. There was a total of 138 patients in our study of which 92 (66.7%) were from the indigenous populations. They have a mean age of 56.5 ± 12.5 years with a mean duration of illness of 11.6 ± 8.7 years. The mean lag time between symptom onset to the diagnosis of gout was 2.8 ± 4.8 years and a mean lag time to appropriate treatment of gout of 8.8 ± 8.4 years. Sixty-six (47.8%) patients have family history of gout. The common complications of gout in our patients were tophi (47.1%), joint deformities (39.1%), kidney stones (16.7%), and uric acid nephropathy (0.7%). Hospitalization occurred in 93 (67.4%) patients. Gout is a serious medical problem in our centre. Gout affects middle-aged men, especially the indigenous populations. Almost half of our patients have a family history of gout and have tophi formations. Our gout patients have a significant delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment, thus contributing to more complications and hospitalizations in our centre. There is an urgent need to educate both patients and healthcare workers on gout and its treatment to reduce the burden of chronic gout in Sarawak.
  5. Nizan IEF, Kamaruddin K, Ong PW, Ramli Z, Singh R, Rose RJ, et al.
    Mol Biotechnol, 2022 Feb 02.
    PMID: 35107753 DOI: 10.1007/s12033-022-00450-y
    EgENOD93 was first identified in a cDNA microarray study of oil palm tissue culture where it was highly expressed in leaf explants with embryogenic potential. Functional characterization via an RNA interference study of its orthologue in Medicago truncatula demonstrated a significant role of this gene in somatic embryo formation. In this study, EgENOD93 was overexpressed in the important model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to investigate the embryogenic potential of EgENOD93 transgenic Arabidopsis explants compared to explants from control plants (pMDC140 and WT). Experiments using leaf explants revealed higher numbers of regenerated shoots at day 27 in all the homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis cultures (Tg01, Tg02 and Tg03) compared to controls. The expression level of EgENOD93 in Arabidopsis cultures was quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). The results supported the overexpression of this gene in transgenic Arabidopsis cultures, with 6 and 10 times higher expression of EgENOD93 in callus at Day 9 and Day 20, respectively. Overall, the results support the role of EgENOD93 in the enhancement of shoot regeneration in transgenic Arabidopsis. This together with the previous results observed in oil palm and Medicago truncatula suggests that ENOD93 plays a key role in the induction of somatic embryogenesis. A similarity to early nodulation-like ontogeny is possible.
  6. Chan PL, Rose RJ, Abdul Murad AM, Zainal Z, Low ET, Ooi LC, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(6):e99774.
    PMID: 24927412 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099774
    The somatic embryogenesis tissue culture process has been utilized to propagate high yielding oil palm. Due to the low callogenesis and embryogenesis rates, molecular studies were initiated to identify genes regulating the process, and their expression levels are usually quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). With the recent release of oil palm genome sequences, it is crucial to establish a proper strategy for gene analysis using RT-qPCR. Selection of the most suitable reference genes should be performed for accurate quantification of gene expression levels.
  7. Wong WCW, Lo YR, Jiang S, Peng M, Zhu S, Kidd MR, et al.
    Fam Pract, 2018 12 12;35(6):731-737.
    PMID: 29741661 DOI: 10.1093/fampra/cmy032
    Objective: The study aimed to decentralize hepatitis testing and management services to primary care in China.

    Methods: A nationwide representative provider survey amongst community health centres (CHCs) using randomized stratified sampling methods was conducted between September and December 2015. One hundred and eighty CHCs and frontline primary care practitioners from 20 cities across three administrative regions of Western, Central and Eastern China were invited to participate.

    Results: One hundred and forty-nine clinicians-in-charge (79%), 1734 doctors and 1846 nurses participated (86%). Majority of CHCs (80%, 95% CI: 74-87) offered hepatitis B testing, but just over half (55%, 95% CI: 46-65) offered hepatitis C testing. The majority of doctors (87%) and nurses (85%) felt that there were benefits for providing hepatitis testing at CHCs. The major barriers for not offering hepatitis testing were lack of training (54%) and financial support (23%). Multivariate analysis showed that the major determinants for CHCs to offer hepatitis B and C testing were the number of nurses (AOR 1.1) and written policies for hepatitis B diagnosis (AOR 12.7-27.1), and for hepatitis B the availability of reproductive health service.

    Conclusions: Primary care providers in China could play a pivotal role in screening, diagnosing and treating millions of people with chronic hepatitis B and C in China.

  8. Rosli R, Chan PL, Chan KL, Amiruddin N, Low EL, Singh R, et al.
    Plant Sci, 2018 Oct;275:84-96.
    PMID: 30107884 DOI: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2018.07.011
    The diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) (diacylglycerol:acyl-CoA acyltransferase, EC are a key group of enzymes that catalyse the final and usually the most important rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in plants and other organisms. Genes encoding four distinct functional families of DGAT enzymes have been characterised in the genome of the African oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. The contrasting features of the various isoforms within the four families of DGAT genes, namely DGAT1, DGAT2, DGAT3 and WS/DGAT are presented both in the oil palm itself and, for comparative purposes, in 12 other oil crop or model/related plants, namely Arabidopsis thaliana, Brachypodium distachyon, Brassica napus, Elaeis oleifera, Glycine max, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus, Musa acuminata, Oryza sativa, Phoenix dactylifera, Sorghum bicolor, and Zea mays. The oil palm genome contains respectively three, two, two and two distinctly expressed functional copies of the DGAT1, DGAT2, DGAT3 and WS/DGAT genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the four DGAT families showed that the E. guineensis genes tend to cluster with sequences from P. dactylifera and M. acuminata rather than with other members of the Commelinid monocots group, such as the Poales which include the major cereal crops such as rice and maize. Comparison of the predicted DGAT protein sequences with other animal and plant DGATs was consistent with the E. guineensis DGAT1 being ER located with its active site facing the lumen while DGAT2, although also ER located, had a predicted cytosol-facing active site. In contrast, DGAT3 and some (but not all) WS/DGAT in E. guineensis are predicted to be soluble, cytosolic enzymes. Evaluation of E. guineensis DGAT gene expression in different tissues and developmental stages suggests that the four DGAT groups have distinctive physiological roles and are particularly prominent in developmental processes relating to reproduction, such as flowering, and in fruit/seed formation especially in the mesocarp and endosperm tissues.
  9. Chan PL, Rose RJ, Abdul Murad AM, Zainal Z, Ong PW, Ooi LC, et al.
    Plant Cell Rep, 2020 Nov;39(11):1395-1413.
    PMID: 32734510 DOI: 10.1007/s00299-020-02571-7
    KEY MESSAGE: Transcript profiling during the early induction phase of oil palm tissue culture and RNAi studies in a model somatic embryogenesis system showed that EgENOD93 expression is essential for somatic embryogenesis. Micropropagation of oil palm through tissue culture is vital for the generation of superior and uniform elite planting materials. Studies were carried out to identify genes to distinguish between leaf explants with the potential to develop into embryogenic or non-embryogenic callus. Oil palm cDNA microarrays were co-hybridized with cDNA probes of reference tissue, separately with embryo forming (media T527) and non-embryo (media T694) forming leaf explants sampled at Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21. Analysis of the normalized datasets has identified 77, 115 and 127 significantly differentially expressed genes at Day 7, Day 14, and Day 21, respectively. An early nodulin 93 protein gene (ENOD93), was highly expressed at Day 7, Day 14, and Day 21 and in callus (media T527), as assessed by RT-qPCR. Validation of EgENOD93 across tissue culture lines of different genetic background and media composition showed the potential of this gene as an embryogenic marker. In situ RNA hybridization and functional characterization in Medicago truncatula provided additional evidence that ENOD93 is essential for somatic embryogenesis. This study supports the suitability of EgENOD93 as a marker to predict the potential of leaf explants to produce embryogenic callus. Crosstalk among stresses, auxin, and Nod-factor like signalling molecules likely induces the expression of EgENOD93 for embryogenic callus formation.
  10. Rosli R, Amiruddin N, Ab Halim MA, Chan PL, Chan KL, Azizi N, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(4):e0194792.
    PMID: 29672525 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194792
    Comparative genomics and transcriptomic analyses were performed on two agronomically important groups of genes from oil palm versus other major crop species and the model organism, Arabidopsis thaliana. The first analysis was of two gene families with key roles in regulation of oil quality and in particular the accumulation of oleic acid, namely stearoyl ACP desaturases (SAD) and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (FAT). In both cases, these were found to be large gene families with complex expression profiles across a wide range of tissue types and developmental stages. The detailed classification of the oil palm SAD and FAT genes has enabled the updating of the latest version of the oil palm gene model. The second analysis focused on disease resistance (R) genes in order to elucidate possible candidates for breeding of pathogen tolerance/resistance. Ortholog analysis showed that 141 out of the 210 putative oil palm R genes had homologs in banana and rice. These genes formed 37 clusters with 634 orthologous genes. Classification of the 141 oil palm R genes showed that the genes belong to the Kinase (7), CNL (95), MLO-like (8), RLK (3) and Others (28) categories. The CNL R genes formed eight clusters. Expression data for selected R genes also identified potential candidates for breeding of disease resistance traits. Furthermore, these findings can provide information about the species evolution as well as the identification of agronomically important genes in oil palm and other major crops.
  11. Badai SS, Rasid OA, Masani MYA, Chan KL, Chan PL, Shaharuddin NA, et al.
    J Plant Physiol, 2023 Sep 03;289:154080.
    PMID: 37699261 DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2023.154080
    Modification of lipid composition in the mesocarp tissue of oil palm involves genetic manipulation of multiple genes. More than one mesocarp-preferential promoter is necessary for the expression of individual transgenes in the same plant to obviate transcriptional gene silencing. This study aimed to identify genes that are preferentially expressed in the mesocarp tissue and characterize selected candidate mesocarp-preferential promoters. Ten transcripts that were preferentially expressed in the mesocarp tissue were identified from the analysis of 82 transcriptome datasets of 12 different oil palm tissues. The expression of two candidate genes, MSP-C1 and MSP-C6, was verified to be preferentially expressed in the mesocarp tissues and shown to have a low expression level in non-mesocarp tissues by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). MSP-C6 promoter fragments of different lengths were transformed into tomato plants for further characterization. Both unripe and ripe fruits of transgenic tomato plants transformed with a construct harboring the MSP-C6-F1 (2014 bp) promoter were shown to have high beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activities. The findings of this study suggest the potential applications of the MSP-C6 promoter as a molecular tool for genetic engineering of novel traits in fruit crops.
  12. Ting NC, Sherbina K, Khoo JS, Kamaruddin K, Chan PL, Chan KL, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 10 01;10(1):16296.
    PMID: 33004875 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-73170-5
    Evaluation of transcriptome data in combination with QTL information has been applied in many crops to study the expression of genes responsible for specific phenotypes. In oil palm, the mesocarp oil extracted from E. oleifera × E. guineensis interspecific hybrids is known to have lower palmitic acid (C16:0) content compared to pure African palms. The present study demonstrates the effectiveness of transcriptome data in revealing the expression profiles of genes in the fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis processes in interspecific hybrids. The transcriptome assembly yielded 43,920 putative genes of which a large proportion were homologous to known genes in the public databases. Most of the genes encoding key enzymes involved in the FA and TAG synthesis pathways were identified. Of these, 27, including two candidate genes located within the QTL associated with C16:0 content, showed differential expression between developmental stages, populations and/or palms with contrasting C16:0 content. Further evaluation using quantitative real-time PCR revealed that differentially expressed patterns are generally consistent with those observed in the transcriptome data. Our results also suggest that different isoforms are likely to be responsible for some of the variation observed in FA composition of interspecific hybrids.
  13. Syed M Haq AH, Md Yusof FA, Chan PL, Chok MCF, Phua GSY, Teoh CJ, et al.
    Curr Pharm Teach Learn, 2018 07;10(7):854-874.
    PMID: 30236423 DOI: 10.1016/j.cptl.2018.04.005
    BACKGROUND: The pharmacy internship program is designed to provide comprehensive training for interns to perform various roles in pharmacy practice. In Malaysia, the current internship program has been in place since 2004 in public health facilities, but has never been extensively evaluated.

    AIM: To assess the level of job satisfaction and perception of Provisionally Registered Pharmacists (PRP) towards the internship training provided.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional nationwide survey was conducted amongst all PRPs undergoing training between December 2015 and February 2016 to assess their level of job satisfaction and perception towards the training requirements stipulated by the Pharmacy Board of Malaysia.

    RESULTS: A total of 733 PRPs participated in the survey and the response rate was 95.8%. On the basis of the response received, 92.5% (n = 678) felt that the one year training period was 'just nice', 30.5% (n = 223) felt that the logbooks were 'too complicated', and 33.2% (n = 241) said the targets set by the Pharmacy Board of Malaysia were 'too high'. On a scale of 1 to 5, respondents rated 3.32 (SD 0.54) for mean score of job satisfaction. Significant factors influencing mean score of job satisfaction were: perceived fairness at the work place; perceived self-competence after one year of training; preceptors' competence; and pharmacy as a chosen career pathway.

    CONCLUSION: Intern pharmacists were fairly satisfied with the internship training in government facilities in the Ministry of Health, Malaysia. A review of the internship logbooks and the practicality of targets set by the Pharmacy Board warrant further improvement.

  14. Amiruddin N, Chan PL, Azizi N, Morris PE, Chan KL, Ong PW, et al.
    Plant Cell Physiol, 2020 Apr 01;61(4):735-747.
    PMID: 31883014 DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcz237
    Acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) are involved in binding and trafficking acyl-CoA esters in eukaryotic cells. ACBPs contain a well-conserved acyl-CoA-binding domain. Their various functions have been characterized in the model plant Arabidopsis and, to a lesser extent, in rice. In this study, genome-wide detection and expression analysis of ACBPs were performed on Elaeis guineensis (oil palm), the most important oil crop in the world. Seven E. guineensis ACBPs were identified and classified into four groups according to their deduced amino acid domain organization. Phylogenetic analysis showed conservation of this family with other higher plants. All seven EgACBPs were expressed in most tissues while their differential expression suggests various functions in specific tissues. For example, EgACBP3 had high expression in inflorescences and stalks while EgACBP1 showed strong expression in leaves. Because of the importance of E. guineensis as an oil crop, expression of EgACBPs was specifically examined during fruit development. EgACBP3 showed high expression throughout mesocarp development, while EgACBP1 had enhanced expression during rapid oil synthesis. In endosperm, both EgACBP1 and EgACBP3 exhibited increased expression during seed development. These results provide important information for further investigations on the biological functions of EgACBPs in various tissues and, in particular, their roles in oil synthesis.
  15. Singh R, Low ET, Ooi LC, Ong-Abdullah M, Nookiah R, Ting NC, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2014 Jun 30;5:4106.
    PMID: 24978855 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5106
    Oil palm, a plantation crop of major economic importance in Southeast Asia, is the predominant source of edible oil worldwide. We report the identification of the virescens (VIR) gene, which controls fruit exocarp colour and is an indicator of ripeness. VIR is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor with homology to Lilium LhMYB12 and similarity to Arabidopsis production of anthocyanin pigment1 (PAP1). We identify five independent mutant alleles of VIR in over 400 accessions from sub-Saharan Africa that account for the dominant-negative virescens phenotype. Each mutation results in premature termination of the carboxy-terminal domain of VIR, resembling McClintock's C1-I allele in maize. The abundance of alleles likely reflects cultural practices, by which fruits were venerated for magical and medicinal properties. The identification of VIR will allow selection of the trait at the seed or early-nursery stage, 3-6 years before fruits are produced, greatly advancing introgression into elite breeding material.
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