Case presentation: We report 2 cases of hypertension with secondary hyperaldosteronism associated with accessory renal arteries. Both patients presented with hypokalemia and further investigations revealed hyperaldosteronism with unsuppressed renin levels. Imaging studies showed the presence of accessory renal artery.
Conclusion: Accessory renal arteries are a potential cause renovascular hypertension which can be detected via CT angiography or magnetic resonance angiography. Hormonal evaluation should be undertaken to determine whether its presence contributes to hypertension in the patient as targeted treatment such as aldosterone antagonist can be initiated. Surgical intervention or renal denervation may be considered in resistant cases.
Methods: A nationwide representative provider survey amongst community health centres (CHCs) using randomized stratified sampling methods was conducted between September and December 2015. One hundred and eighty CHCs and frontline primary care practitioners from 20 cities across three administrative regions of Western, Central and Eastern China were invited to participate.
Results: One hundred and forty-nine clinicians-in-charge (79%), 1734 doctors and 1846 nurses participated (86%). Majority of CHCs (80%, 95% CI: 74-87) offered hepatitis B testing, but just over half (55%, 95% CI: 46-65) offered hepatitis C testing. The majority of doctors (87%) and nurses (85%) felt that there were benefits for providing hepatitis testing at CHCs. The major barriers for not offering hepatitis testing were lack of training (54%) and financial support (23%). Multivariate analysis showed that the major determinants for CHCs to offer hepatitis B and C testing were the number of nurses (AOR 1.1) and written policies for hepatitis B diagnosis (AOR 12.7-27.1), and for hepatitis B the availability of reproductive health service.
Conclusions: Primary care providers in China could play a pivotal role in screening, diagnosing and treating millions of people with chronic hepatitis B and C in China.
AIM: To assess the level of job satisfaction and perception of Provisionally Registered Pharmacists (PRP) towards the internship training provided.
METHODS: A cross-sectional nationwide survey was conducted amongst all PRPs undergoing training between December 2015 and February 2016 to assess their level of job satisfaction and perception towards the training requirements stipulated by the Pharmacy Board of Malaysia.
RESULTS: A total of 733 PRPs participated in the survey and the response rate was 95.8%. On the basis of the response received, 92.5% (n = 678) felt that the one year training period was 'just nice', 30.5% (n = 223) felt that the logbooks were 'too complicated', and 33.2% (n = 241) said the targets set by the Pharmacy Board of Malaysia were 'too high'. On a scale of 1 to 5, respondents rated 3.32 (SD 0.54) for mean score of job satisfaction. Significant factors influencing mean score of job satisfaction were: perceived fairness at the work place; perceived self-competence after one year of training; preceptors' competence; and pharmacy as a chosen career pathway.
CONCLUSION: Intern pharmacists were fairly satisfied with the internship training in government facilities in the Ministry of Health, Malaysia. A review of the internship logbooks and the practicality of targets set by the Pharmacy Board warrant further improvement.