Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 94 in total

  1. Chia YC
    Singapore medical journal, 2011 Feb;52(2):116-23.
    PMID: 21373738
    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in both developed and developing countries. While it is relatively easy to identify those who are obviously at high risk and those at the lowest risk for CVD, it is often the large group of individuals with what appears to be modestly abnormal risk factors who contributes most to the burden of CVD. This is where estimation of CVD risk is necessary. Many tools for risk assessment have been devised. All these risk scores have their own inherent advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, they may also not be directly applicable to a local population. Ideally, each country should have its own risk score that takes into account other factors as well. In the interim, it is worthwhile to be familiar with one of these scores, select one that is most appropriate for your patient and discuss treatment options based on the estimated risk.
  2. Chia YC
    PMID: 25606104 MyJurnal
    Poor patient adherence to medication is one of the major factors contributing to poor disease control, in particular in asymptomatic chronic diseases like hypertension and dyslipidaemia. The physical and economic burden on patients and the health care system as a result of non-adherence is great. It is estimated that poor adherence to hypertension medication accounts for as many as 7.1 million preventable deaths annually. Hence recognising and identifying non-adherence is the first step to addressing this problem. Medication adherence can be measured in various ways including self-report to electronic monitoring. In order to be more successful in managing non-adherence, attention must be paid to barriers to adherence, namely the interplay of patient factors, the health care providers themselves and the health care system itself. Taking these into account will probably have the greatest impact on improving medication adherence. Consequently strategies to help overcome these barriers are of paramount importance. Some of these strategies will include education of patients, improving communication between patients and health care providers, improving dose scheduling, providing drugs with less adverse effects, and improving accessibility to health care. Poor mediation adherence continues to be a huge challenge. While the patient is ultimately responsible for the taking of medication, good communication, involving the patient in decision making about their care and simplifying drug regimens go a long way in improving it.
  3. Chia YC
    PMID: 25606120 MyJurnal
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is a continuum across blood pressure. The term prehypertension was introduced because it is now recognized that blood pressure readings between what is deemed optimal and hypertension is associated with increased CVD risk. The prevalence of prehypertension is high and the progression to hypertension is also high. Prehypertension is also commonly associated with other CVD risk factors namely dyslipidaemia, dysgylcaemia and overweight/ obesity. Eighty-five percent of prehypertensives have one other or more CVD risk factor compared to normotensives. A recent study has shown a reduction in the development of hypertension from prehypertension with the use of an angiotensin receptor blocker. Unfortunately to date, the impact of treatment of prehypertension on CVD outcome is still unknown except in those with high CVD risk like diabetes or established CVD. However this does not mean nothing can be done for those with prehypertension. The aim of managing prehypertension is to lower the BP, prevent progression to hypertension and to prevent BP related CVD deaths. Lifestyle changes can reduce BP and this by itself can lower CVD risk. Until more evidence about other modalities of treatment become available this is a sensible and cost-effective way to manage prehypertension.
  4. Chia YC
    J. Hypertens., 2016 Sep;34 Suppl 1 - ISH 2016 Abstract Book:e16-e17.
    PMID: 27753834
    Conference abstract SY04-4: Many cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction tools have been developed in an attempt to identify those at highest risk in order for them to benefit from interventional treatment. The first CVD risk tool that was developed was the coronary heart disease risk tool by the Framingham Heart Study in 1998 (1). However the Framingham Risk Score could overestimate (or underestimate) risk in populations other than the US population. Hence several other risk engines have also been developed, primarily for a better fit in the communities in which the tools are to be used (2, 3). Having said that the Framingham Heart Study risk tool has been validated in several populations (4, 5) and found to work reasonably well after some recalibration.Most risk prediction tools predict short term risk ie over a period of 10 years but since more recently risk tools now attempt to predict life-time risk or at least risk over the next 30 years. (6-8). The practical use of these risk prediction tools is that it is able to separate those at high risk (ie > 20% risk of a CVD event fatal or non-fatal event in the next 10 years) from those with the lowest risk (< 10% risk over 10 years). It then helps practitioners to triage them to either receive preventive therapy (high risk group) or none at all (low risk group) respectively. However in those with medium risk ie between 10-20%, the decision to offer treatment or not is less clear. In such a situation, other CVD risk factors for example family history of premature coronary heart disease, other biomarkers like elevated hs-CRP, presence of chronic kidney disease or albuminuria can be employed to further stratify risk.It is known that risk prediction tools are very much age dependent and in a younger individual with mildly raised CVD risk factors, his global CVD risk may be grossly under-estimated. Here additional CVD risk factors beyond those traditionally used in risk engines should be sought in order to recalibrate that individual's seemingly low risk and earlier intervention introduced if indeed he is of higher risk than what has been predicted by the conventional risk tools. Here too the use of life-time risk is probably of more importance than the traditional 10 year risk tool, again in order to identify those seemingly at "low" risk 10 year risk to receive treatment if the life-time risk is greater compared to an individual of the same age with optimal parameters. Furthermore while it is known that those with highest risk benefit the most from intervention, it is the population at large with the low or lower risk which contributes most to total CV morbidity and mortality in a country or community.Hence while short term risk prediction to identify those at highest risk is useful particularly in the presence of limited resources, attention should also be paid to those with short term low risk if the aim is to reduce CVD morbidity and mortality in any substantial way.
  5. Chia YC
    J. Hypertens., 2016 Sep;34 Suppl 1 - ISH 2016 Abstract Book:e4-e5.
    PMID: 27753807
    Conference abstract:
    Hypertension is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. It is highly prevalent throughout the world. Even in regions liike South-East Asia (SEA) which has been perceived to be less prone to cardiovascular diseases, the prevalence of hypertension has been reported to be around 35% (1). Awareness and control of hypertension in SEA is also low, both being less than 50% each (2).Control of hypertension is an interplay between patients, doctors and system factors. One of the reasons for poor control of hypertension is resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension is defined as blood presure that remains above goal despite being on three concurrent anti-hypertensive medications preferbaly one of which is a diuretic (3).True resistant hypertension should be differiented from secondary hypertension and pseudo-resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension is almost always multi-factorial in aetiology. The exact prevalence of resistant hypertenion even in developed countries is not known It has been estimated that it is as high as 20-30% in clinical trial patients (4)Not many studies about resistant hypertension have been done in SEA but one done in an outpatient clinic in Thailand found it to be 7.82% Another study also done in a primary care clinc in Malaysia on 1217 patients with hypertension found the prevalence of resistant hypertension to be 8.8%. (6) Here it was found that the presence of chronic kidney disease was more likely to be associated with resistant hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56-5.35). Other factors like increasing age, female gender, presence of diabetes, obesity and left ventricular hypertrophyage which have been found to be predictors of resistant hypertension in other studies in the west were not seen in this study. There are various reasons for these findingsBut whatever the factors are that are associated with uncontrolled hypertension, the task is to sort out true resistant hypertension from pseudo-resistant hypertension and secondary casues of hypertension which may be treatable. A concerted effort is needed to reduce the BP in resistant hypertension. Failure to do so would mean a substantal increase in CV risk for the patient.
  6. Chia YC, Kario K
    J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich), 2020 03;22(3):497-500.
    PMID: 31693281 DOI: 10.1111/jch.13721
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for a third of all deaths in Malaysia. The background CV risk of Malaysia is much higher than that of developed countries in the west and in Asia. This high CV mortality is contributed by the high prevalence of CV risk factors especially hypertension which is very prevalent, coupled with low awareness and low control rates. This highlights the importance of home blood pressure measurements (HBPM). HBPM is an important adjunct in the management of hypertension, particularly to identify those unaware as well as white-coat hypertension which is high in treated hypertensive patients in Malaysia. Ownership of HBPM devices in Malaysia is high, and this is an opportunity as well as timely to encourage more use of HBPM. The Malaysian national guidelines do not require HBPM for the diagnosis of hypertension but do recommend HBPM for specific situations. The most commonly prescribed anti-hypertensives are calcium channel blockers, followed by renin-angiotensin system blockers. Despite the wide availability of anti-hypertensive agents, BP control rates remain low. It is important that strategies are in place to ensure that individuals are aware of the need to have their BP monitored regularly and this can be facilitated by the use of HBPM. Hence, there is a plan to develop a local HBPM consensus document. Strategies to reduce salt intake would also be beneficial. In summary, identification of those unaware and better control of BP with the help of HBPM would help reduce the burden of CV mortality and morbidity in Malaysia.
  7. Chia YC, Ching SM
    BMC Fam Pract, 2014;15:131.
    PMID: 24997591 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-15-131
    Patients with resistant hypertension are subjected to a higher risk of getting stroke, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure and renal failure. However, the exact prevalence of resistant hypertension in treated hypertensive patients in Malaysia is not known. This paper examines the prevalence and determinants of resistant hypertension in a sample of hypertensive patients.

    Study site: Primary care clinic, Universiti Malaya Medical Centre
  8. Hanafi NS, Chia YC
    Med J Malaysia, 2002 Dec;57 Suppl E:74-7.
    PMID: 12733197
    The teaching of clinical communication skills to undergraduate medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya is described. It is a continuous process throughout the five-year medical curriculum which is divided into Phases I, II and III. Students are introduced to communication skills early in Phase I through an interactive session as well as a workshop on general communication skills. In Phase II, small-group two-day workshops cover the basic principles of clinical communication skills using videotapes, group discussion and role-plays. Direct contact between students and patients in actual clinical setting begin in Phase IIIA. Communication skills teaching with feedback training is carried out by videotaping the consultations. In Phase IIIB the two-way mirror is utilized as well as having workshops on certain difficult areas such as 'breaking bad news' and 'taking a sexual history'. Formal assessment is done by evaluating the behavior, language and actual interview content.
  9. Forsyth DR, Chia YC
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Mar;64(1):46-50.
    PMID: 19852321
    As Malaysia ages its health and social care systems will have to adapt to a changing pattern of disease and dependency. Improved public health measures extend life expectancy at the relative expense of increased prevalence of currently incurable conditions such as dementia and Parkinson's disease. In this article we discuss how these demographic changes will impact and suggest possible means of coping with the altered epidemiology of disease and disability. Malaysia will need to swiftly develop sufficient expertise in acute Geriatric Medicine, rehabilitation of older people; the management of long-term conditions in older people with multiple complex problems within Primary Care; as well as an infrastructure for home and institutional care.
  10. Chia YC, Ching SM
    BMC Nephrol, 2012;13:173.
    PMID: 23259489 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2369-13-173
    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the rate of progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD) among hypertensive patients, particularly at the primary care level. This study aims to examine risk factors associated with new onset CKD among hypertensive patients attending a primary care clinic.
    METHODS: This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study of 460 patients with hypertension who were on treatment. Patient information was collected from patient records. CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (Cockcroft-Gault equation). Multiple logistic regression statistics was used to test the association in newly diagnosed CKD.
    RESULTS: The incidence of new CKD was 30.9% (n = 142) with an annual rate of 3%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, factors associated with development of new onset of CKD among hypertensive patients were older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.123, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.078-1.169), presence of diabetes (OR 2.621, 95% CI 1.490-4.608), lower baseline eGFR (OR 1.041, 95% CI 0.943-0.979) and baseline hyperuricaemia (OR 1.004, 95% CI 1.001-1.007).
    CONCLUSIONS: The progression to new onset CKD is high among urban multiethnic hypertensive patients in a primary care population. Hence every effort is needed to detect the presence of new onset CKD earlier. Hypertensive patients who are older, with underlying diabetes, hyperuricaemia and lower baseline eGFR are associated with the development of CKD in this population.

    Study site: Primary Care Medicine Clinic at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
  11. Said AH, Chia YC
    BMJ Open, 2017 03 01;7(3):e013573.
    PMID: 28249849 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013573
    OBJECTIVES: Dyslipidaemia is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in Malaysia. This study assessed the awareness, knowledge and practice of lipid management among primary care physicians undergoing postgraduate training in Malaysia.

    DESIGN: Cross sectional study.

    SETTING: Postgraduate primary care trainees in Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: 759 postgraduate primary care trainees were approached through email or hard copy, of whom 466 responded.

    METHOD: A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess their awareness, knowledge and practice of dyslipidaemia management. The total cumulative score derived from the knowledge section was categorised into good or poor knowledge based on the median score, where a score of less than the median score was categorised as poor and a score equal to or more than the median score was categorised as good. We further examined the association between knowledge score and sociodemographic data. Associations were considered significant when p<0.05.

    RESULTS: The response rate achieved was 61.4%. The majority (98.1%) were aware of the national lipid guideline, and 95.6% reported that they used the lipid guideline in their practice. The median knowledge score was 7 out of 10; 70.2% of respondents scored 7 or more which was considered as good knowledge. Despite the majority (95.6%) reporting use of guidelines, there was wide variation in their clinical practice whereby some did not practise based on the guidelines. There was a positive significant association between awareness and the use of the guideline with knowledge score (p<0.001). However there was no significant association between knowledge score and sociodemographic data (p>0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: The level of awareness and use of the lipid guideline among postgraduate primary care trainees was good. However, there were still gaps in their knowledge and practice which are not in accordance with standard guidelines.

  12. Yusof A, Chia YC, Hasni YM
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(19):8095-9.
    PMID: 25338990
    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, over half a million women died of breast cancer in 2011 alone. Mammography screening is associated with a reduction of 20 to 35% in breast cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the awareness and practice of mammography screening and predictors of its uptake in Malaysian women attending a primary care clinic.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among women aged 40 to 74 years attending a primary care clinic in Selangor, Malaysia. An assisted structured questionnaire included questions on socio-demography, source of information and level of knowledge. An adapted version of the revised Champion Health Belief Model Scale plus other associated factors for mammography screening up-take were also included as part of the questionnaire. Predictors for mammography screening uptake were only determined in those who were aware about mammography screening. Significant predictors were determined by logistic regression.

    RESULTS: 447 women were recruited for this study; 99.1% of them (n: 411) were aware about breast cancer. Only 50.1% (n: 206) had knowledge about mammography screening. Prevalence of clinical breast-examination (CBE) was 23.3% (n: 104) and mammography screening up-take was 13.2% (n: 59). The predictors for the latter were those who have had clinical breast-examination (aOR=17.58, 95%CI: 7.68-39.82) and those aged between 50 to 59 years (aOR=3.94, 95%CI: 1.61-9.66) as well as those aged 60 years and above (aOR=6.91, 95%CI: 2.28-20.94). Good knowledge and positive beliefs about mammography screening were not associated with mammography screening uptake.

    CONCLUSIONS: Half of our Malaysian women were aware about mammography screening. However, the uptake of mammography was low. Previous CBE and older age were significant predictors of mammography screening uptake. Increasing CBE services may increase compliance with guidelines.
  13. Chia YC, Lim HM, Ching SM
    BMC Fam Pract, 2014;15:172.
    PMID: 25388219 DOI: 10.1186/s12875-014-0172-y
    BACKGROUND: Initiation of statin therapy as primary prevention particularly in those with mildly elevated cardiovascular disease risk factors is still being debated. The 2013 ACC/AHA blood cholesterol guideline recommends initiation of statin by estimating the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk using the new pooled cohort risk score. This paper examines the use of the pooled cohort risk score and compares it to actual use of statins in daily clinical practice in a primary care setting.
    METHODS: We examined the use of statins in a randomly selected sample of patients in a primary care clinic. The demographic data and cardiovascular risk parameters were captured from patient records in 1998. The pooled cohort risk score was calculated based on the parameters in 1998. The use of statins in 1998 and 2007, a 10-year interval, was recorded.
    RESULTS: A total of 847 patients were entered into the analysis. Mean age of the patients was 57.2 ± 8.4 years and 33.1% were male. The use of statins in 1998 was only 10.2% (n = 86) as compared to 67.5% (n = 572) in 2007. For patients with LDL 70-189 mg/dl and estimated 10-year ASCVD risk ≥7.5% (n = 190), 60% (n = 114) of patients were on statin therapy by 2007. There were 124 patients in whom statin therapy was not recommended according to ACC/AHA guideline but were actually receiving statin therapy.
    CONCLUSIONS: An extra 40% of patients need to be treated with statin if the 2013 ACC/AHA blood cholesterol guideline is used. However the absolute number of patients who needed to be treated based on the ACC/AHA guideline is lower than the number of patients actually receiving it in a daily clinical practice. The pooled cohort risk score does not increase the absolute number of patients who are actually treated with statins. However these findings and the use of the pooled cohort risk score need to be validated further.
    Study site: Primary care clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  14. Chia YC, Lim HM, Ching SM
    BMC Cardiovasc Disord, 2014 Nov 20;14:163.
    PMID: 25410585 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-14-163
    BACKGROUND: The Pooled Cohort Risk Equation was introduced by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) 2013 in their Blood Cholesterol Guideline to estimate the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. However, absence of Asian ethnicity in the contemporary cohorts and limited studies to examine the use of the risk score limit the applicability of the equation in an Asian population. This study examines the validity of the pooled cohort risk score in a primary care setting and compares the cardiovascular risk using both the pooled cohort risk score and the Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk score.
    METHODS: This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study of randomly selected patients aged 40-79 years. Baseline demographic data, co-morbidities and cardiovascular (CV) risk parameters were captured from patient records in 1998. Pooled cohort risk score and Framingham General CVD risk score for each patient were computed. All ASCVD events (nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease (CHD) death, fatal and nonfatal stroke) occurring from 1998-2007 were recorded.
    RESULTS: A total of 922 patients were studied. In 1998, mean age was 57.5 ± 8.8 years with 66.7% female. There were 47% diabetic patients and 59.9% patients receiving anti-hypertensive treatment. More than 98% of patients with pooled cohort risk score ≥7.5% had FRS >10%. A total of 45 CVD events occurred, 22 (7.2%) in males and 23 (3.7%) in females. The median pooled cohort risk score for the population was 10.1 (IQR 4.7-20.6) while the actual ASCVD events that occurred was 4.9% (45/922). Our study showed moderate discrimination with AUC of 0.63. There was good calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test χ2 = 12.6, P = 0.12.
    CONCLUSIONS: The pooled cohort risk score appears to overestimate CV risk but this apparent over-prediction could be a result of treatment. In the absence of a validated score in an untreated population, the pooled cohort risk score appears to be appropriate for use in a primary care setting.
  15. Tan SF, Chia YC, Chinna K
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):NP640-9.
    PMID: 23761589 DOI: 10.1177/1010539513490193
    This study examines the rate of decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over a 10-year period and the associated risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Medical records of T2DM patients were randomly selected. The rate of fall in eGFR (simplified modification of diet in renal disease formula) was used as a measure of decline. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to determine the factors associated with decline of kidney function. A total of 504 patients were selected. Mean age was 57.8 ± 9 years; 65.3% were females. The mean decline rate of eGFR was 0.89 ± 2.16 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/y. Baseline proteinuria, glycosylated hemoglobin level, duration of T2DM, and Malay race were associated with faster decline in eGFR. The expected greater deterioration in kidney function in this cohort was not seen. Treatment of proteinuria and glycemia should be optimized early to retard the decline in kidney function in patients with T2DM.
    Study site: Primary care clinics, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  16. Chew BH, Khoo EM, Chia YC
    Ment Health Fam Med, 2011 Mar;8(1):21-8.
    PMID: 22479289
    Background To determine the relationships between religiosity, religions and glycaemic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D).Methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted at an urban, university-based, teaching outpatient clinic. Religiosity was assessed with the Beliefs and Values Scale (BV), which contains 20 items each with a Likert scale of five possible responses. The range of scores is 0 to 80, with a higher score indicating stronger religious belief. Glycaemic control was taken as the mean value of the latest three fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and HbA1c readings documented in each patient's case records.Results A total of 212 patients participated (a response rate of 79%). Two-thirds were female, mean age was 62.7 (SD 10.8) years and mean duration of T2D was 11.7 (SD 6.7) years. The mean BV score was 57.4 (SD 10.97, CI 55.9, 59.0). Religiosity had a negative correlation with lower FPG (r = -0.15, p = 0.041) but no such correlation was found with HbA1c. Moslem religiosity had a significant negative correlation with HbA1c (r = -0.34, p = 0.007, n = 61) even after controlling for covariates. Christians and non-religious group had significantly lower mean rank HbA1c than other religions (p = 0.042).Conclusions Those with higher religiosity amongst the Moslem population had significantly better glycaemic control. Patients who had church-going religions had better glycaemic control compared with those of other religions.

    Study site: UMMC, a university based primary care clinic
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