Displaying all 6 publications

  1. Dinshaw IJ, Ahmad N, Salim N, Leo BF
    Pharmaceutics, 2021 Jul 06;13(7).
    PMID: 34371716 DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13071024
    Psoriasis is a skin disease that is not lethal and does not spread through bodily contact. However, this seemingly harmless condition can lead to a loss of confidence and social stigmatization due to a persons' flawed appearance. The conventional methods of psoriasis treatment include taking in systemic drugs to inhibit immunoresponses within the body or applying topical drugs onto the surface of the skin to inhibit cell proliferation. Topical methods are favored as they pose lesser side effects compared to the systemic methods. However, the side effects from systemic drugs and low bioavailability of topical drugs are the limitations to the treatment. The use of nanotechnology in this field has enhanced drug loading capacity and reduced dosage size. In this review, biosurfactants were introduced as a 'greener' alternative to their synthetic counterparts. Glycolipid biosurfactants are specifically suited for anti-psoriatic application due to their characteristic skin-enhancing qualities. The selection of a suitable oil phase can also contribute to the anti-psoriatic effect as some oils have skin-healing properties. The review covers the pathogenic pathway of psoriasis, conventional treatments, and prospective ingredients to be used as components in the nanoemulsion formulation. Furthermore, an insight into the state-of-the-art methods used in formulating nanoemulsions and their progression to low-energy methods are also elaborated in detail.
  2. Pulingam T, Thong KL, Appaturi JN, Nordin NI, Dinshaw IJ, Lai CW, et al.
    Eur J Pharm Sci, 2020 Jan 15;142:105087.
    PMID: 31626968 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejps.2019.105087
    Graphene oxide (GO) has displayed antibacterial activity that has been investigated in the past, however, information on synergistic activity of GO with conventional antibiotics is still lacking. The objectives of the study were to determine the combinatorial actions of GO and antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the toxicological effects of GO towards human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). Interactions at molecular level between GO and antibiotics were analyzed using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Changes in the antibacterial activity of antibiotics towards bacteria through the addition of GO was investigated. Toxicity of GO towards HaCaT cells were examined as skin cells play a role as the first line of defense of the human body. The ATR-FTIR characterizations of GO and antibiotics showed adsorption of tested antibiotics onto GO. The combinatorial antibacterial activity of GO and antibiotics were found to increase when compared to GO or antibiotic alone. This was attributed to the ability of GO to disrupt bacterial membrane to allow for better adsorption of antibiotics. Cytotoxicity of GO was found to be dose-dependent towards HaCaT cell line, it is found to impose negligible toxic effects against the skin cells at concentration below 100 μg/mL.
  3. Pulingam T, Thong KL, Ali ME, Appaturi JN, Dinshaw IJ, Ong ZY, et al.
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2019 Sep 01;181:6-15.
    PMID: 31103799 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2019.05.023
    The antibacterial nature of graphene oxide (GO) has stimulated wide interest in the medical field. Although the antibacterial activity of GO towards bacteria has been well studied, a deeper understanding of the mechanism of action of GO is still lacking. The objective of the study was to elucidate the difference in the interactions of GO towards Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The synthesized GO was characterized by Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Raman and Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Viability, time-kill and Lactose Dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays were carried out along with FESEM, TEM and ATR-FTIR analysis of GO treated bacterial cells. Characterizations of synthesized GO confirmed the transition of graphene to GO and the antibacterial activity of GO was concentration and time-dependent. Loss of membrane integrity in bacteria was enhanced with increasing GO concentrations and this corresponded to the elevated release of LDH in the reaction medium. Surface morphology of GO treated bacterial culture showed apparent differences in the mechanism of action of GO towards Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria where cell entrapment was mainly observed for Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis whereas membrane disruption due to physical contact was noted for Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ATR-FTIR characterizations of the GO treated bacterial cells showed changes in the fatty acids, amide I and amide II of proteins, peptides and amino acid regions compared to untreated bacterial cells. Therefore, the data generated further enhance our understanding of the antibacterial activity of GO towards bacteria.
  4. Muniandy S, Dinshaw IJ, Teh SJ, Lai CW, Ibrahim F, Thong KL, et al.
    Anal Bioanal Chem, 2017 Nov;409(29):6893-6905.
    PMID: 29030671 DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0654-6
    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has emerged as a promising nanomaterial for reliable detection of pathogenic bacteria due to its exceptional properties such as ultrahigh electron transfer ability, large surface to volume ratio, biocompatibility, and its unique interactions with DNA bases of the aptamer. In this study, rGO-azophloxine (AP) nanocomposite aptasensor was developed for a sensitive, rapid, and robust detection of foodborne pathogens. Besides providing an excellent conductive and soluble rGO nanocomposite, the AP dye also acts as an electroactive indicator for redox reactions. The interaction of the label-free single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) aptamer with the test organism, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry analysis, and this aptasensor showed high sensitivity and selectivity for whole-cell bacteria detection. Under optimum conditions, this aptasensor exhibited a linear range of detection from 108 to 101 cfu mL-1 with good linearity (R 2 = 0.98) and a detection limit of 101 cfu mL-1. Furthermore, the developed aptasensor was evaluated with non-Salmonella bacteria and artificially spiked chicken food sample with S. Typhimurium. The results demonstrated that the rGO-AP aptasensor possesses high potential to be adapted for the effective and rapid detection of a specific foodborne pathogen by an electrochemical approach. Graphical abstract Fabrication of graphene-based nanocomposite aptasensor for detection of foodborne pathogen.
  5. Thiha A, Ibrahim F, Muniandy S, Dinshaw IJ, Teh SJ, Thong KL, et al.
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2018 Jun 01;107:145-152.
    PMID: 29455024 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2018.02.024
    Nanowire sensors offer great potential as highly sensitive electrochemical and electronic biosensors because of their small size, high aspect ratios, and electronic properties. Nevertheless, the available methods to fabricate carbon nanowires in a controlled manner remain limited to expensive techniques. This paper presents a simple fabrication technique for sub-100 nm suspended carbon nanowire sensors by integrating electrospinning and photolithography techniques. Carbon Microelectromechanical Systems (C-MEMS) fabrication techniques allow fabrication of high aspect ratio carbon structures by patterning photoresist polymers into desired shapes and subsequent carbonization of resultant structures by pyrolysis. In our sensor platform, suspended nanowires were deposited by electrospinning while photolithography was used to fabricate support structures. We have achieved suspended carbon nanowires with sub-100 nm diameters in this study. The sensor platform was then integrated with a microfluidic chip to form a lab-on-chip device for label-free chemiresistive biosensing. We have investigated this nanoelectronics label-free biosensor's performance towards bacterial sensing by functionalization with Salmonella-specific aptamer probes. The device was tested with varying concentrations of Salmonella Typhimurium to evaluate sensitivity and various other bacteria to investigate specificity. The results showed that the sensor is highly specific and sensitive in detection of Salmonella with a detection limit of 10 CFU mL-1. Moreover, this proposed chemiresistive assay has a reduced turnaround time of 5 min and sample volume requirement of 5 µL which are much less than reported in the literature.
  6. Muniandy S, Teh SJ, Thong KL, Thiha A, Dinshaw IJ, Lai CW, et al.
    Crit Rev Anal Chem, 2019;49(6):510-533.
    PMID: 30648398 DOI: 10.1080/10408347.2018.1561243
    The development of easy to use, rapid and sensitive methods for direct detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens has become significantly important due to their impact on human health. In recent years, carbon nanomaterials have been adapted in the fabrication of electrochemical biosensors due to their exceptional combination of intrinsic properties such as high conductivity, stability and biocompatibility that render them as a promising candidate for bio-sensing material. The scope of this review is to provide a brief history of the current methods and different types of electrochemical biosensors used for the detection of bacterial pathogens. We primarily focus on the recent progress and applications of graphene, carbon nanotubes and their derivatives in electrochemical biosensors for foodborne bacterial pathogens detection. Finally, the status and future prospects of carbon-based electrochemical biosensors are also reviewed and discussed.
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