There are an almost infinite number of states of health, all with differing qualities that can be affected by many factors. Each aspect of health has many components which contribute to multidimensionality. Cancer and its' related issues surrounding the treatment plan contribute to the variety of changes of quality of life of cancer patients throughout their life. The objective of this article was to provide an overview of some of the issues that can affect their quality of life and initiatives towards successful care in Malaysia by reviewing relevant reports and articles. The current strategies can be further strengthened by prevention of cancer while improving quality of service to cancer patients.
A prevalence study was conducted, measuring drug cost and prescribing patterns of clinicians treating cardiovascular patients in UKM Hospital (HUKM). One Hundred and thirty-five patients' case-notes were selected from the Case-Mix database of HUKM. The average and median number of drugs prescribed per patient was 7.56 (+/- 3.37) and 7.0 (+/- 3) respectively. Generic drug prescription rate was still low (45.2%). Significant relationship was observed between generic drug prescriptions with age of patients, types of wards and different levels of clinicians' training. Younger patients, admitted to Coronary Care Unit (CCU) and Cardiology Rehabilitation Ward (CRW) were more likely to be prescribed with branded drugs. Lower generic drugs prescription and higher cost of drugs were mostly practised by Consultants. CCU and CRW wards were the only predictor to having low generic drugs prescriptions. Ninety-nine percent of the total RM28,879.25 drug cost was used to purchase branded drugs. Mean drug cost for a patient is RM213.92 (+/- RM333.36) and median cost is RM102.46 (+/- RM240.51). Higher drug cost and its' predictors were patients with severity level II and III, length of stay of > or = 6 days, number of drugs types of > or = 7, generic drugs prescription rate < 50% and patients admitted in CCU and CRW wards. This study is important for short and long-term decision-making, controlling of providers behaviour and resources.
AIM: To study the association of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) with diabetic retinopathy.
METHODS: Serum IGF-1 levels were measured in 25 pregnant diabetic patients and 25 pregnant non-diabetic patients who were matched for age, ethnicity, parity and period of gestation. Fundus examination was performed in both groups at 28, 32 and 36 weeks of gestation.
RESULTS: The serum IGF-I level was significantly elevated in pregnant diabetics compared to pregnant non-diabetics (366±199μg/L vs 184±89μg/L, (P=0.0001) at 24 weeks, 535±251μg/L vs 356±89μg/L, (P=0.007) at 32 weeks and 404±166μg/L vs 264±113μg/L, (P=0.003) at 36 weeks of gestation). The pregnant diabetics with established diabetes had significantly higher IGF-1 level than gestational diabetes at 28, 32 and 36 weeks of gestation. The serum IGF-I level in pregnant diabetics with retinopathy was significantly higher than that in those without retinopathy at all periods of gestation.
CONCLUSION: Increased serum IGF-1 in pregnancy may increase the risks for retinopathy.
KEYWORDS: diabetic retinopathy; pregnancy; serum IGF-1 level
This paper seeks to determine the client's compliance level towards Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) and identify its associated factors. A cross sectional study was conducted from June to September 2007 where 288 samples were interviewed. The outcomes were divided into good compliance and partial compliance categories. Overall client's compliance level is good at 86.1%. There are significant difference between mean age of groups (t = -2.041, p = 0.04); and significant associations of job's status (chi2 = 9.54, p = 0.008); client's confident score (t = -3.12, p = 0.023), client'ssocial function score (t = -2.308, p = 0.002) and client's social function level (chi2 = 5.43, p = 0.02) with compliance toward program. With multivariate analysis, only client's age, client's confidence score and client's job status were related to compliance status. It was concluded that there is high compliance rate among client's who received the program. Younger clients, low scores on client's confident and social function, and clients with unsteady jobs are at risk not to comply with treatment.
Introduction : A cross sectional study was conducted among married women in Kg. Sasapan Kelubi, Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. The objective of the study was to identify the prevalence of Pap Smear practice and it`s influencing factors.
Methodology : Universal sampling was conducted from door to door to all married women who agreed to be involved in this study. Guided questionnaire was used as the main instrument in this study. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 12.0.
Result : A total of 154 respondents gave their feedback. Mean age in this study was 23.3±4.4.years. Only 66 respondents (42.9%) have had the pap smear with only 6 respondents (3.9%) practiced as per recommended schedule. The reasons for the respondents never practicing pap smear were no knowledge (n=46,52.3%), scared (n=22, 42.5%), shyness (n=21,23.9%), no free time(n-6,6.8%), unconcerned (n=3,3.4%), no female doctors (n= 6,6.8%), not bother, health clinic too far and high cost (n=1,1.1%). The only factor that showed significant association with pap smear practice was the score of knowledge about smear whereby respondents who underwent pap smear showed higher score compared to those respondents who never underwent pap smear.
Conclusion : The study showed that more efforts is required to improve knowledge and awareness among married women in rural area in order to overcome the knowledge gap, wrong perception and other reasons that prevent acceptance pap smear practice among them.
Keywords : married women, pap smear practice, rural area, Malaysia
Introduction : Selangor’s private clinic registry system had been introduced in 2006 following gazettment of The Private Healthcare Facilities and Services Act. Through the act, data’s from the private clinics can be obtained and its characteristics can be compared between the urban and rural private clinic. An overview of the services can be known and an appropriate action can be planned.
Methodology : A cross-sectional study was done on private clinics registered in state of Selangor. Using databased known as MedPCs (Medical Practice Control System), a purposive sampling was used to select four districts – two urban and two rural. All private clinics in the selected districts were studied and all details shall be collected online.
Result : District of Gombak and Klang were selected as urban and Sabak Bernam and Kuala Selangor represented rural area. Of a total 625 clinics selected, 90.0% (562) from urban and 10.0% (63) rural. Distributions of clinic were in line with the act. The most prominent services were general treatment (89.4%) and ability to serve more than eight hours daily (89.4%). Medical clinic still dominated at 84.0% compared to dentistry at 16.0%. About 70.6% were operated by male doctors. Though clinic services in rural were relatively as good as urban, the different were significantly observed to the ethnicity of the doctor. Indian doctors more in rural (46.03%), whilst in urban, Malay doctors were more dominant (39.50%). Followed closely by seniority, where rural doctors were much senior (51.02 years old), however, most of the doctors in rural private clinics experienced less exposure in government sectors, compared to those in urban areas.
Conclusion : There were obvious difference in terms of distribution, where more clinics were located in urban compared to rural, but all were still in line to the act and their services were comparable. Most noticeable differences were ethnicity, seniority and past experience working in the public sector. Indian doctors were dominant in rural and Malay in urban. Although rural doctors were more senior, relatively they were less experienced working in the government sector.
The main objective of palliative treatment for cancer patients has been to maintain, if not improve, the quality of life (QoL). There is a lack of local data on satisfaction and QoL among cancer patients receiving palliative treatment in Malaysia. This study covers patients with incurable, progressive cancer disease receiving palliative treatment in a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, comparing the different components of QoL and correlations with patient satisfaction. A cross-sectional survey using Malay validated SF36 QoL and PSQ-18 (Short Form) tools was carried out between July 2012 -January 2013 with 120 cancer patients receiving palliative treatment, recruited into the study after informed consent using convenient sampling. Results showed that highest satisfaction were observed in Communication Aspect (50.6±9.07) and the least in General Satisfaction (26.4±5.90). The Mental Component Summary (44.9±6.84) scored higher when compared with the Physical Component Summary (42.2±7.91). In this study, we found that patient satisfaction was strongly associated with good quality of life among cancer patients from a general satisfaction aspect (r=0.232). A poor significant negative correlation was found in Physical Component (technical quality, r=-0.312). The Mental Component showed there was a poor negative correlation between time spent with doctor (r=-0.192) and accessibility, (r=-0.279). We found that feeling at peace and having a sense of meaning in life were more important to patients than being active or achieving good physical comfort. More studyis needed to investigate patients who score poorly on physical and mental component aspects to understand their needs in order to achieve better cancer care.