Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 26 in total

  1. Prasannan S, Kumar S, Gul YA
    Acta Chir. Belg., 2005 1 25;104(6):739-41.
    PMID: 15663288
    Pneumoperitoneum is almost always pathognomonic of a perforated abdominal viscus requiring urgent surgical intervention. Spontaneous or non-surgical pneumoperitoneum is a rare clinical condition arising secondary to abdominal, thoracic, gynaecologic or idiopathic causes. In addition to good clinical judgement, an important component in the management process is to rule out other causes of pneumoperitoneum by performing appropriate investigations. We describe a 60-year-old man who presented with clinical features of pseudo-obstruction, following an injury to his back which was compounded by hypokalaemia. Roentgenography revealed massive pneumoperitoneum and colonic distension. As there were no overt clinical features of peritonitis, the patient was managed conservatively with parenteral nutrition and close observation. A water-soluble contrast enema and computed tomography of the abdomen were of no help in identifying the cause of his pneumoperitoneum but were helpful in eliminating the presence of hollow viscus perforation or an obvious inflammatory focus. The aetiology of pneumoperitoneum in our patient was most likely due to dissection of air through the distended colonic wall, secondary to large bowel pseudo-obstruction. The diagnosis of spontaneous or non-surgical pneumoperitoneum is one of exclusion and we stress the importance of relying on clinical parameters when managing such patients conservatively.
  2. Gul YA, Prasannan S, Hairuszah I
    Acta Chir. Belg., 2003 Aug;103(4):420-2.
    PMID: 14524166
    Primary malignant melanoma arising in the oesophagus is a rare condition with a dismal prognosis. The diagnosis is often made following surgical resection even though the endoscopic features may be pathognomonic. The classical treatment is oesophagectomy even though the advanced disease stage at the time of presentation and aggressive biological behaviour of the tumour usually results in a fatal outcome. We report the case of a male patient initially diagnosed with squamous oesophageal carcinoma and treated with conventional neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy. Poor clinical and radiological response resulted in a review of the original histology confirming a diagnosis of primary malignant melanoma of the oesophagus. The subsequent alteration in management conferred the patient an improved quality of life. A short review of the literature on primary malignant melanoma of the oesophagus supplements this case report.
  3. Kumar S, Talib A, Gul YA
    Occult mucosal prolapse syndrome, also known as the solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is uncommon. Due to its rarity, a misdiagnosis of rectal cancer is occasionally made as the clinical features may closely mimic those of rectal malignancy. We hereby report a case of SRUS in an elderly Malay gentleman who had primary symptoms of rectal bleeding with associated anaemia and anorectal pain. Even though the clinical features and specific investigations suggested the presence of rectal cancer, preoperative histological analysis failed to confirm this. In view of the intractable symptoms and rectal bleeding, a low anterior resection was performed. A detailed examination of the resected specimen intraoperatively, together with the histological report and awareness of this condition avoided the performance of an abdomino-perineal resection. Incidently coexisting malrotation of the sigmoid colon to the right side was discovered during surgery. This finding, which may be coincidental, has not been reported thus far in the medical literature. The patient's symptoms improved postoperatively with a subsequent uneventful recovery. A brief literature review supplements this case report.
    Keywords: Mucosal prolapse syndrome, solitary rectal ulcer syndrome, rectal cancer
  4. Hisham RB, Thuaibah H, Gul YA
    Asian J Surg, 2006 Apr;29(2):95-7.
    PMID: 16644510
    We present the case of a 32-year-old woman who, 10 months after abdominoperineal resection and total mesorectal excision for a locally advanced mucinous adenocarcinoma of the rectum, presented with local recurrence and metastases to the breast, spine, the left eye and orbit. Following surgery, due to the patient's personal reasons, adjuvant chemoradiation was not given. The patient died 2 months later, with disseminated cancer. To the best of our knowledge, breast as well as ocular metastasis in a patient with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the rectum has never been reported and, therefore, needs to be documented.
  5. Kumar S, Yushak AW, Gul YA
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Aug;59(3):425-7.
    PMID: 15727393
    Haemangiopericytoma (HPC) is a rare tumour with a predilection for the central nervous system. Though previously thought to originate from the meninges and ventricular walls, HPC's are currently accepted as distinct mesenchymal neoplasms unrelated to meningiomas. Haemangiopericytomas have been previously reported to be associated with the production of insulin like growth factor II (IGF-II) and hypoglycaemia. A case of a 61-year-old poorly controlled diabetic lady with a rare presentation of an abdominal haemangiopericytoma is discussed. A laparoscopic assisted resection of the massive lobulated tumour arising from the parietal peritoneum with dense attachment to the diaphragm and the liver was performed with an uncomplicated postoperative recovery. Control of the patient's diabetes improved dramatically following surgery and the rare association of hyperglycaemia and HPC, which has not been previously described, is elaborated upon in this report.
  6. Jabar MF, Prasannan S, Gul YA
    Asian J Surg, 2005 Jan;28(1):58-61.
    PMID: 15691802
    Adult intussusception is a rare entity that may present in the acute and subacute setting principally related to the degree of bowel obstruction. Preoperative diagnosis of this condition may be difficult. The intussusception is usually due to a definable intraluminal lesion, most probably neoplasia, unlike intussusception in children. We present the cases of two adult male patients with intussusception. The first presented with acute small-bowel obstruction secondary to a retrograde ileojejunal intussusception with a pseudopolyp as the lead point. This was possibly due to a retrograde ball-valve effect. The intussuscepting segment was resected. The second patient presented with unexplained chronic diarrhoea and an intussusception occurring within the caecum, as demonstrated at colonoscopy, with a terminal ileal pedunculated fibroid polyp as the lead point. A limited right hemicolectomy was performed. Both patients recovered uneventfully and have remained well. A brief literature review of adult intussusception complements the case reports, with an emphasis on the pathogenesis of inflammatory polyps and recommended surgical management.
  7. Prasannan S, Jabar MF, Gul YA
    Acta Chir. Belg., 2004 Oct;104(5):591-2.
    PMID: 15571031
    An inguinal hernia that suddenly becomes irreducible may be secondary to a variety of other underlying conditions which can occasionally mislead the attending surgeon. Benign, inflammatory or neoplastic processes, as well as surgical emergencies such as intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal haemorrhage, have all been previously reported to mimic an inguinal hernia that suddenly becomes irreducible with or without clinical features of strangulation. We add an additional interesting presentation to this list in the form of a ruptured ectopic pregnancy, which is the first such case reported in the literature. A swelling in the groin may be much more complicated than it seems on superficial consideration and good clinical acumen is constantly required in managing such cases if a satisfactory outcome without any morbidity is to be expected.
  8. Prasannan S, Zhueng TJ, Gul YA
    Asian J Surg, 2005 Oct;28(4):246-51.
    PMID: 16234073
    A prospective study was performed over a 3-month period in a tertiary referral centre to evaluate the appropriateness and contribution of plain abdominal radiographs (PAR) in the diagnosis and management of adult patients presenting with acute abdominal pain.
  9. Gul YA, Hong LC, Prasannan S
    Asian J Surg, 2005 Apr;28(2):104-8.
    PMID: 15851363
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the appropriateness of antibiotic prophylaxis in selected elective surgical procedures in a tertiary referral centre.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study using retrospective data from January 2000 to May 2002 was performed pertaining to elective colorectal surgery, cholecystectomy and inguinal hernia repairs. Appropriateness of antibiotic administration was determined based on compliance with national and internationally accepted guidelines on prophylactic antibiotic prescribing policy. A single dose or omission of antibiotic administration was judged appropriate for cholecystectomy and inguinal hernia repair, while up to 24 hours' dosing was considered appropriate practice for colorectal surgery.

    RESULTS: Of 419 cases, there were 55 (13.1%) colorectal procedures, 97 (23.2%) cholecystectomies and 267 (63.7%) inguinal hernia repairs. Antibiotics were administered in a total of 306 (73%) cases, with single-dose prophylaxis in only 125 (41%) of these. Prophylaxis was inappropriately prolonged in 80%, 52% and 31% of colorectal, cholecystectomy and inguinal hernia cases, respectively. The corresponding mean duration of anti-biotic administration was 2.4+/-2.2, 1.6+/-1.8 and 1.1+/-1.3 days, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Antibiotic prophylaxis in elective surgery continues to be administered haphazardly. This study supports close surveillance of antibiotic utilization by a dedicated team, perhaps consisting of microbiologists or pharmacists, to minimize inappropriate administration.

  10. Prasannan S, Chin LN, Gul YA
    Asian J Surg, 2005 Apr;28(2):125-30.
    PMID: 15851367
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the current practice of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis among general surgeons in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted among general surgeons attending the annual Malaysian College of Surgeons meeting in 2002. A total of 110 questionnaires were distributed to specialist-grade general surgeons with varying subspecialty interests.

    RESULTS: Seventy-seven (70%) surgeons returned the questionnaire. Of these, 43% were of the opinion that VTE was as common in Asian patients as in the West. Selective VTE prophylaxis was used by 99% in their practice. The indications for use, in order of frequency, were: previous VTE disease, risk grading, prolonged surgery, obesity, malignancy and age. Low molecular weight heparin was the most common type of prophylaxis used. VTE-related morbidity was reported by 44 surgeons (57%) over the past year, and 39% of these cases were fatal.

    CONCLUSION: The high incidence of VTE-related complications indicates that the use of thromboprophylaxis is either insufficient or not matched to the level of risk. Updated guidelines on VTE prophylaxis should be used so that a standardized approach can ensure that patients receive adequate prophylaxis where indicated.

  11. Gul YA, Jabbar MF, Moissinac K
    Acta Chir. Belg., 2001 Nov-Dec;101(6):312-4.
    PMID: 11868511
    Primary or idiopathic greater omental torsion remains a rare cause of acute surgical abdomen in adults and children. The aetiology is as yet unknown and the treatment of choice, once diagnosis is established, is resection of the torted omentum. We report our experience with three such cases encountered over the last five years, two of which were diagnosed and subsequently managed laparoscopically. The performance of diagnostic laparoscopy for acute abdominal pain of an undetermined origin may lead to an increased detection of this condition and subsequent therapeutic intervention.
  12. Zairul-Nizam ZF, Gul YA
    J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong), 2003 Dec;11(2):178-83.
    PMID: 14676344
    To survey Malaysian orthopaedic surgeons' attitudes to and use of venous thromboembolic disease prophylaxis.
  13. Gee T, Hisham RB, Jabar MF, Gul YA
    Tech Coloproctol, 2013 Apr;17(2):181-6.
    PMID: 22983551 DOI: 10.1007/s10151-012-0894-6
    Idiopathic chronic anal fissure is believed to be a consequence of a traumatic acute anodermal tear followed by recurrent inflammation and poor healing due to relative tissue ischaemia secondary to internal sphincter spasm. This pilot trial compared the efficacy of a novel manufactured ano-coccygeal support attached to a standard toilet seat (Colorec) to the standard procedure of lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) for chronic anal fissure.
  14. Jabar MF, Shaker AR, Gul YA
    Acta Chir. Belg., 2004 Oct;104(5):596-8.
    PMID: 15571033
    Meckel's diverticulum is a relatively common gastrointestinal entity which occasionally causes complications. Meckel's diverticulum is classically described to mimic acute appendicitis when inflamed as well as being a cause of unexplained luminal gastrointestinal bleeding. An unusual cause of spontaneous non traumatic haemoperitoneum found during surgery performed for a suspected acute appendicitis in a 22-year old female is described. The patient was found to have a significant haemoperitoneum due to a bleeding serosal vessel of a Meckel's diverticulum. The diverticulum was routinely excised. It was macroscopically and histologically devoid of inflammation. The bleeding vessel was not found to be abnormal or part of an arteriovenous malformation.
  15. Gul YA, Jabar MF, Mo'min N, Hon SK
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Mar;59(1):65-71.
    PMID: 15535338
    A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out in a tertiary referral centre to determine the appropriateness of usage of emergency upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (EUGIE) with reference to the guidelines set by the American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE). EUGIE was defined as early, non-elective endoscopy performed for in-patients within 48 hours of acute hospital admission. The median age of the 668 patients was 55 years (age range 12- 90), 31% of whom had a previous upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Bleeding in the form of haematemesis, melaena or anaemia was the most common indication (40.7%) for EUGIE. Eighty one percent of the procedures were judged appropriate by the ASGE guidelines. There was a statistically significant relationship between appropriateness and significant diagnostic yield (P<0.05). Procedures performed for melaena, symptomatic anaemia and haemetemesis led to greater significant diagnostic yield (P<0.05) and there was no difference in the yield between working-hours and after-hours EUGIE.
  16. Khor TO, Gul YA, Ithnin H, Seow HF
    Int J Colorectal Dis, 2006 May;21(4):291-300.
    PMID: 16041507
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is well accepted that activation of Wnt signalling occurs in colorectal carcinoma (CRC), but the correlation amongst the various proteins involved in primary tumours are still unclear. The expression of the inducer of this pathway, Wnt-1, and the downstream effectors, WISP-1, cyclin-D1 and survivin proteins, was compared in a series of CRC tissues with the apparently normal adjacent tissues to determine the relationship of these proteins.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 47 CRCs surgically resected at the Kuala Lumpur Hospital (KLH) between 1999 and 2000 were used. Immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibodies against cyclin-D1 and survivin and polyclonal antibodies against Wnt-1 and WISP-1 was performed. Results of immunohistochemistry were analysed for correlation between biomolecules and histopathological data of the patients.

    RESULTS: Of the 47 CRCs, 26 (55.3%), 15 (31.9%), 5 (10.6%) and 28 (59.6%) of the tumours exhibited positivity for Wnt-1, WISP-1, cyclin D1 and survivin, respectively. A lower percentage of the 40 apparently normal adjacent tissues were found to be positive for Wnt-1 (7, 17.5%), WISP-1 (+/-5, 12.5%) and survivin (13, 32.5%), but cyclin D1 was not detected in any of them. Interestingly, the total scores of Wnt-1, WISP-1 and survivin were significantly higher in CRC tissues (p=0.001, 0.034 and 0.044, respectively). Using the Spearman rank correlation test, a positive linear relationship was found between total Wnt-1 score with total WISP-1 score (rho=0.319, p=0.003) and total survivin score (rho=0.609, p=or<0.001). The expression of WISP-1 in the CRC tissues was found to be positively correlated with patients older than 60 years old (p=0.011). In addition, nuclear cyclin-D1 expression was found to be associated with poorly differentiated CRC tissues (p<0.001, Table 5) and right-sided CRC tumour (p=0.019, Table 6). Total WISP-1 score was associated with well-differentiated CRC tissues (p=0.029).

    CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression and interplay between Wnt-1, WISP-1, survivin and cyclin-D1 may play a role in tumorigenesis, possibly by promoting cell cycle checkpoint progression, accelerating cell growth and inhibiting apoptosis. Our data may provide useful information towards the search for potent therapeutic targets towards the development of novel treatment strategies for CRC.

  17. Gul YA, Jabbar MF, Karim FA, Moissinac K
    Acta Chir. Belg., 2002 Jun;102(3):199-200.
    PMID: 12136541
    Dieulafoy's lesion is an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal haemorrhage. It may present with massive and life threatening bleed and although more common in the upper gastrointestinal tract, it is being increasingly reported as affecting the lower gastrointestinal tract. Diagnosis is usually achieved during proctoscopic and endoscopic visualization. In cases where there is profuse and torrential hemorrhage, angiography may help to confirm the diagnosis. There are a few treatment options available, all of which have a varying degree of success. More commonly than not, a combination of treatment is warranted as illustrated by our case. Recurrent bleeding may occur just as in cases of Dieulafoy's lesion affecting the upper gastrointestinal tract. Even though endoscopic visualization of the lower gastrointestinal tract in the presence of profuse lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage may not be possible, this important procedure should not be omitted as the bleeding source may be lying in a low and accessible location for prompt interventional haemorrhage control.
  18. Moissinac K, To BC, Gul YA, Liew NC
    Trop Doct, 2001 Oct;31(4):217.
    PMID: 11676058
  19. Gul YA, Lian LH, Jabar FM, Moissinac K
    ANZ J Surg, 2002 Apr;72(4):275-8.
    PMID: 11982514
    Antibiotics are often administered in elective colorectal surgery to prevent wound infection. The tendency for surgeons to prolong the administration of prophylactic antibiotic therapy in the postoperative period is a well-known fact. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pattern of prophylactic antibiotic utilization in elective colorectal surgery and to determine if evidence-based medicine is employed in relation to this practice.
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