Displaying all 8 publications

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  1. Indudharan R, Haq JA
    J Laryngol Otol, 1996 Oct;110(10):950-1.
    PMID: 8977860
    A simple, safe and effective procedure for improving the bacterial isolation in chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is described. It is most useful for the isolation of aerobes as well as anaerobes from the middle ear.
  2. Indudharan R, Haq JA, Aiyar S
    Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., 1999 May;108(5):440-5.
    PMID: 10335703
    Conservative medical management of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is an important step in achieving a dry ear. Topical antibiotic ear drops and aural toilet form the mainstay of medical management of noncholesteatomatous CSOM. This study analyzes the causal organisms and their sensitivity to various antibiotics. Out of 382 swabs examined, the major organisms isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27.2%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (23.6%). The sensitivity of P. aeruginosa was 100% to ceftazidime, 98.9% to ciprofloxacin, 96.3% to gentamicin, and 95.4% to polymyxin B, whereas the sensitivity of S. aureus was 98.6% to ciprofloxacin, 97.4% to cloxacillin sodium, 96.5% to cotrimoxazole, and 90.7% to gentamicin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was almost completely resistant to ampicillin (97.6%) and chloramphenicol (96.6%), whereas S. aureus was almost completely resistant to ampicillin (73.8%) and polymyxin B (98.3%). Among the available topical antibiotic preparations for use in the ear, we found that ciprofloxacin and gentamicin are the best choices.
  3. Halder D, Zainal N, Wah CM, Haq JA
    Ann Trop Paediatr, 1998 Jun;18(2):161-4.
    PMID: 9924578
    We report a case of meningitis and one of fatal septicaemia in neonates due to Burkholderia pseudomallei and review the literature on neonatal melioidosis. Pneumonia was the primary presentation and was complicated by shock in the latter case. The epidemiological findings suggest that the cases reported from Malaysia were community-acquired in contrast with those from the USA and Thailand.
  4. Raj SM, Yap K, Haq JA, Singh S, Hamid A
    Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2001 3 31;95(1):24-7.
    PMID: 11280057
    The Helicobacter pylori infection rate was determined in 124 consecutive patients with duodenal ulcers (DU), gastric ulcers (GU), duodenal erosions or gastric erosions diagnosed by endoscopy at a single institution in north-eastern peninsular Malaysia in 1996-97. Biopsies of the gastric antrum and body were subjected to the urease test, Gram staining of impression smears, culture and histopathological examination. Serology was undertaken on all patients using a locally validated commercial kit. Infection was defined as a positive result in at least one test. The infection rates were 20% (10/50), 21.2% (7/33), 16.7% (1/6) and 17.1% (6/35) in DU, GU, duodenal erosion and gastric erosion patients, respectively. The infection rate among Malays [7.0%, (6/86)] was lower than in non-Malays [47.4% (18/38)] (P < 0.001). There was a higher infection rate among males, who constituted 62.1% (77/124) of the sample. Seventy-eight patients (62.9%) were receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and 33 patients (26.6%) were neither receiving NSAIDs nor were infected with H. pylori. The H. pylori infection rate among peptic ulcer patients in this predominantly Malay rural population appears to be the lowest reported in the world thus far. Empirical H. pylori eradication therapy in peptic ulcer patients is clearly not indicated in this community. The possible reasons for the low prevalence of H. pylori infection are discussed.
  5. Rahmah N, Anuar AK, Ariff RH, Zurainee MN, A'shikin AN, Fadzillah A, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1998 Mar;3(3):184-8.
    PMID: 9593356
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of antifilarial IgG4 antibody assay in detecting B. malayi infection in a filaria endemic area in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A sandwich ELISA using B. malayi soluble antigen was employed to detect antifilarial IgG4 antibodies in serum samples of 330 individuals who comprised 88 healthy individuals from nonendemic areas, 15 B. malayi microfilaraemic cases, 22 individuals with soil-transmitted helminthiases, 9 elephantiasis cases and 196 residents from a B. malayi-endemic area. An O.D. value of > 0.420 at serum dilution of 1:400 was used as the cut-off point. This cut-off point was obtained by taking the mean optical density (0.252 + 4 S.E.) of 36 negative sera which had O.D. values greater than 0.1 at serum dilution of 1:400.

    RESULTS: All 15 microfilaraemic persons were positive for antifilarial IgG4 antibody. Non-endemic normals, soil-transmitted helminth infected persons and chronic elephantiasis cases were negative for antifilarial IgG4 antibody. Of the 196 individuals from the filaria endemic area, 37 (18.8%) demonstrated presence of antifilarial IgG4 antibodies; and only eight individuals (4.1%) were positive for microfilariae. All eight microfilaraemic individuals were also positive for antifilarial IgG4 antibodies.

    CONCLUSION: Antifilarial IgG4-ELISA could detect 4.6 times more positive cases than the microfilaria detection method. With appropriate cut-off values that eliminate cross-reactivities, this serological tool is very useful for Brugia malayi prevalence surveys and diagnosis.

  6. Menon BS, Shuaib IL, Zamari M, Haq JA, Aiyar S, Noh LM
    Ann Trop Paediatr, 1998 Mar;18(1):45-8.
    PMID: 9692001
    We describe a Malay girl with disseminated cryptococcosis affecting the lungs, liver, lymph nodes and bones. The diagnosis was made by culture of the bone marrow. Tests of immune function showed that she was HIV-negative but the CD4 percentage was persistently low. Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia was diagnosed. The child died despite two courses of anti-fungal therapy.
  7. Khatun M, Alam SMS, Khan AH, Hossain MA, Haq JA, Alam Jilani MS, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2017 Aug;10(8):753-759.
    PMID: 28942823 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.08.002
    OBJECTIVE: To establish a suitable method of diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) using peripheral blood, spleen or bone marrow aspirates.

    METHODS: Peripheral blood, bone marrow and spleen aspirate samples were collected from clinically suspected VL patients (n = 26). A new PCR primer pair (MK1F/R) was designed targeting kinetoplast mini circle DNA sequences of Leishmania donovani, and Leishmania infantum, and was used to diagnose VL along with some other established primers for VL in polymerase chain reactions. Test was validated by comparing with several other diagnostic methods.

    RESULTS: The designed primer set showed 100% specificity and 98% sensitivity in detecting VL using blood samples, when compared with more invasive samples: bone marrow or spleen aspirates.

    CONCLUSIONS: The newly designed primer MK1F/R could be a better alternative for PCR based diagnosis of VL using less invasive sample, peripheral blood instead of bone marrow or spleen aspirates.

  8. Wong WK, Mohd-Nor N, Noordin R, Foo PC, Mohamed Z, Haq JA, et al.
    Parasitol. Res., 2019 Sep;118(9):2635-2642.
    PMID: 31363922 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-019-06406-7
    The geographical distribution of tuberculosis (TB) overlaps with various parasitic infections. Uncovering the characteristics of coinfecting parasites that potentially affect the host susceptibility to TB is pertinent as it may provide input to current TB therapeutic and prophylactic measures. The present study was aimed at examining the types of parasitic infections in TB patients and healthy TB contacts (HC) in Orang Asli, Malaysian aborigines, who dwelled in the co-endemic areas. Stool and serum samples were collected from Orang Asli who fulfilled the selection criteria and provided written informed consents. Selected parasitic infections in the two study groups were determined by stool examination and commercial serum antibody immunoassays. The prevalence of parasitic infections in TB and HC participants were 100% (n = 82) and 94.6% (n = 55) respectively. The parasitic infections comprised toxocariasis, trichuriasis, amoebiasis, toxoplasmosis, hookworm infection, ascariasis, strongyloidiasis, and brugian filariasis, in decreasing order of prevalence. Overall, helminth or protozoa infection did not show any significant association with the study groups. However, when the species of the parasite was considered, individuals exposed to trichuriasis and toxoplasmosis showed significant odds reduction (odds ratio (OR) 0.338; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.166, 0.688) and odds increment (OR 2.193; 95% CI 1.051, 4.576) to have active pulmonary TB, respectively. In conclusion, trichuriasis and toxoplasmosis may have distinct negative and positive associations respectively with the increase of host susceptibility to TB.
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