Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 61 in total

  1. Azra MN, Ikhwanuddin M
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2016 Mar;23(2):257-67.
    PMID: 26981008 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.03.011
    Study of broodstock maturation diets is important in order to increase the quality of berried females, which indirectly improve the larval quantity in the hatchery production of cultured species. This paper reviewed the studies on the maturation diets for mud crab broodstock, genus Scylla and compared independently to identify their effect on reproductive performance and larval quality. The broodstock is usually caught from the wild and held in the spawning or maturation tank for further use of hatchery seed production. Mud crab broodstock was fed either natural diet, artificial diet or mixed diet. Trash fishes were commonly used as a natural feed for mud crab broodstock; meanwhile artificial diets are from formulated fish meal and various kinds of feed. The results indicated that mud crab broodstock has a high dietary requirement for lipids, fatty acids and protein which are to be used during the maturation and breeding processes. However, the natural diet produce better larval quality compared to the artificial diet. The mixed diet is the better diet which resulted in better reproductive performances such as growth, survival, fecundity and maturation processes. This review also discusses the problems in the previous studies for the potential future research to develop very high quality and cost-effective formulated diet for the enhancement of broodstock and seed production technology. Information from this review can be useful in developing a better quality of crustacean broodstock's diet for commercial hatchery production.
  2. Ghani Hilmi M, Ikhwanuddin M
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2020 Jan;23(5):708-714.
    PMID: 32363828 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2020.708.714
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The accumulation of lipofuscin (LF) is an alternative technique to identify age of crustacean species. However, the exact sites and the level of the LF concentration were unknown especially for different sexes of blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus. Thus, the present study was aimed to identify which part of the eyestalk of P. pelagicus contains more LF levels in order to establish a specific target part of samples.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thus, crab samples for this study were sampled from the wild habitat at Setiu wetlands, Terengganu, Malaysia. A total of 100 samples of with the same size (80±5 mm carapace width) were sampled and the eyestalk dissected for LF extraction. The determination of LF sites and levels in the eyestalks organ was taken from the area between the distal tangential layer (DTL) and proximal tangential layer (PTL). The lower part of the eyestalk was taken from the PTL until the end of the eyestalk.

    RESULTS: The upper part of the crab's eyestalk was higher in the males crabs compared to the females crabs. LF index also shown that the upper part of crab's eyestalk have higher concentration compared to the lower part.

    CONCLUSION: The left crab's eyestalk had the higher LF index especially in males compared to females but the total concentration was higher in female crabs. Knowing which part has highly dense accumulation of LF helps in LF detection of the tissue and further helps for age determination for this species.

  3. Amin-Safwan A, Muhd-Farouk H, Nadirah M, Ikhwanuddin M
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2016;19(5):219-226.
    PMID: 29023026 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2016.219.226
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Mud crab from the genus Scylla are considered as one of the most demanded seafood items nowadays as their flesh has high quality, tasty and higher growth rate thus support and boosted expansion in aquaculture sector especially in Malaysia. Present study was designed to focus on the effect of water salinity on the ovarian maturation of orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea based on morphological characteristics.

    METHODOLOGY: Samples were collected from Setiu wetlands, Terengganu, Malaysia from July-September, 2015. Ovarian maturation of S. olivacea was classified into four stages based on previous study which were: Immature (Stage 1), early mature (Stage 2), late mature (Stage 3) and fully mature (Stage 4).

    RESULTS: Morphologically as the ovary develop the colouration start to change from translucent or whitish in colour and sometimes creamy to pale yellow, follow by light orange and lastly reddish orange. Stage 1 ovary was translucent and whitish in colour, stage 2 ovary was pale yellow in colour, stage 3 was light orange and stage 4 ovary was reddish orange in colour. Gonad Somatic Index (GSI) of S. olivacea remained low at stage 1 and 2 and began to increase started at stage 3. This present study involved three different salinities treatments, which treatment 1 (10 ppt), treatment 2 (20 ppt) and treatment 3 (30 ppt). Treatment 2 produce the highest number of stage 4 ovarian maturation based on colouration and the highest GSI recorded, follow by treatment 1 and lastly treatment 3.

    CONCLUSION: This present study proved that salinity does affected the ovarian maturation of S. olivacea in captivity and provides important information regarding the effect of water salinity on ovarian maturation for further studies on reproductive biology of this species.
  4. Ikhwanuddin M, Abol-Munafi AB, Azra MN
    Data Brief, 2019 Aug;25:104196.
    PMID: 31321277 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2019.104196
    This data article includes raw and analyze data for molting duration and time of hardening of blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus instar at three different temperatures of 24 °C, 28 °C, and 32 °C. Two sets of experimental data are included: first, the recorded on time-lapse video of duration of successful molted crabs (from emergence of swimming legs to chelae); and second, the time interval of shell hardening up to before molting occurred. Shell hardening were calculated in 1 h interval with a unit of x hour molting crab-1, meanwhile the molting duration of the crabs were calculated in x second molting crab-1. Video files were then analyzed using the latest version of Solomon Coder software developed by A. Peter. Relationship between culture temperature and the time of molting and carapace hardening are also included in this article. The dataset is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.
  5. Zhang Y, Waiho K, Ikhwanuddin M, Ma H
    Animals (Basel), 2021 Jun 29;11(7).
    PMID: 34209957 DOI: 10.3390/ani11071946
    Crabs within the family Portunidae are important marine species in both aquaculture and fishery sectors. The current aquaculture status of most portunids, however, still relies on wild-caught fisheries due to the lack of essential knowledge regarding their reproductive biology and underlying governing mechanism. With the advancement of sequencing technology, transcriptome sequencing has been progressively used to understand various physiological processes, especially on non-model organisms. In the present study, we compared the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between sexes of Portunus sanguinolentus based on their gonadal transcriptome profiles and subsequently contrasted them with the gonadal DEGs of Charybdis feriatus, the other member of Family Portunidae. In total, 40,964 DEGs between ovaries and testes were uncovered, with 27,578 up- and 13,386 down-regulated in females. Among those, some sex-related DEGs were identified, including a dmrt-like (DMRT) gene which was specifically expressed in males. C. feriatus has approximately 63.5% of genes common with P. sanguinolentus, with 62.6% showing similar expression patterns. Interestingly, the DMRT gene was specifically expressed in male P. sanguinolentus while its homologous gene-doublesex (DSX)-was specifically expressed in male C. feriatus. The DEGs obtained from the gonadal transcriptome of P. sanguinolentus are a beneficial resource for future genetic and genomic research in P. sanguinolentus and its close species. The transcriptomic comparison analysis might provide references for better understanding the sex determination and differentiation mechanisms among portunids.
  6. Waiho K, Fazhan H, Glenner H, Ikhwanuddin M
    PeerJ, 2017;5:e3419.
    PMID: 28674645 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3419
    Screening of mud crab genus Scylla was conducted in four locations (Marudu Bay, Lundu, Taiping, Setiu) representing Malaysia. Scylla olivacea with abnormal primary and secondary sexual characters were prevalent (approximately 42.27% of the local screened S. olivacea population) in Marudu Bay, Sabah. A total of six different types of abnormalities were described. Crabs with type 1 and type 3 were immature males, type 2 and type 4 were mature males, type 5 were immature females and type 6 were mature females. The abdomen of all crabs with abnormalities were dented on both sides along the abdomen's middle line. Abnormal crabs showed significant variation in their size, weight, abdomen width and/or gonopod or pleopod length compared to normal individuals. The mean body weight of abnormal crabs (type 1-5) were higher than normal crabs with smaller body size, while females with type 6 abnormality were always heavier than the normal counterparts at any given size. Sacculinid's externa were observed in the abdomen of crabs with type 4 and type 6 abnormalities. The presence of embryos within the externa and subsequent molecular analysis of partial mitochondrial COI region confirmed the rhizocephalan parasite as Sacculina beauforti. Future in-depth descriptions of the life cycle and characteristics of S. beauforti are recommended as it involves a commercially important edible crab species and the effect on human health from the consumption of crabs is of crucial concern.
  7. Azra MN, Ikhwanuddin M, Abol-Munafi AB
    Data Brief, 2019 Feb;22:998-1002.
    PMID: 30740484 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2019.01.026
    This article investigated how crabs responded to different culture temperatures especially dislocation before molting using a combination of large recording files and computer software. In this novel approach of video recording portunid crab behavioral data, crab culture was recorded at five different acclimation temperatures of 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36 °C. Crabs were reared until the instar stage before being acclimatized for video recording. Large video files (MPEG-TS) were then analyzed using the latest version of Solomon Coder software developed by A. Peter and programmed with Embarcadero® Delphi® XE [1]. Recorded data was analyzed by calculating and marking movements of crabs using the time sequence tool. Additionally, a total movement was counted 30 min before crabs molted from instar stage 8 to instar stage 9. Part of the data is associated with the research article "Thermal tolerance and locomotor activity of blue swimmer crab Portunus pelagicus instar reared at different temperatures" (Azra et al., 2018) [2] and provided here as raw data of Supplementary materials.
  8. Syafaat MN, Muhammad T, Abol-Munafi AB, Ikhwanuddin M
    Data Brief, 2019 Oct;26:104438.
    PMID: 31528675 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2019.104438
    Population density, growth, survival, water quality and larval stage index of purple mud crab, Scylla tranquebarica at different feeding regimes and the data on ingestion rate of chosen microalgae, survival and larval development of blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus are presented. A twenty days of S. tranquebarica larval culture from zoeal 1 until megalopa stage under two different feeding regimes of A) Rotifer, Artemia nauplii and shrimp meat and B) Rotifer, Artemia nauplii and artificial feed is shared. A method on investigation of individual larvae of P. pelagicus capability to catch four different types of microalgae within 24 h is also shared. Direct eye observation, data collected through the larval rearing culture of S. tranquebarica and further statistical analysis were done daily until the crabs reached the megalopa stage. The result obtained from the optimum density of selected microalgae fed by individual larvae of P. pelagicus will be combined with the highest survival rate and larval stage index to develop feeding schedule for crab larvae P. pelagicus. This dataset has not previously been published and is of great potential for further comparison with other - and future investigation of various feeding regimes affected the crab culture. The collected information could be used as a standard feeding regime for nursery and hatchery seed production of others portunids crabs. The data described in this article are available as a supplementary file to this article.
  9. Muhammad T, Ismail S, Ikhwanuddin M, Abol-Munafi AB
    Data Brief, 2019 Aug;25:104205.
    PMID: 31338400 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2019.104205
    The data collected in the present work correspond to the behavioral, Hepatosomatic Index (HSI), Gonadosomatic Index (GSI) and total lipid analysis between male and female mud crabs, Scylla olivacea at different water velocities. A total of 56 immature male and female crabs were used in this data article. The important criteria for estimating the selective habitat facing by S. olivacea is a considerate of (1) the behavioral range in response to abiotic factors (and how it adapt ontogenetically) and (2) the movement of the crab under wild velocities situations. This work purposes to recognize the performance, locomotion rate and escaping capability of S. olivacea under stagnant and flowing water situations and to discuss the significance of horizontal walking to habitat choice. The collective outcomes clearly show that the locomotor activities and escaping capabilities of S. olivacea were influenced by water flow in the mangrove habitats. For the HSI data, velocities of 20 cm/s were the highest increased mean HSI percentage and highest mean HSI percentage in males and females was recorded on the end of the experiment. For GSI percentage of male and female crabs, 20 cm/s dominates the highest increases mean GSI, followed by 60, 40 and 0 cm/s. For total lipid percentage, the results showed that, the mean total lipid of hepatopancrease, muscle and gonad were increased at the beginning and decreased at the final in each water velocities except for 20 cm/s over a culture period of 60 days. Velocities of 20 cm/s were the highest increased mean total lipid percentage followed by 40, 60, and lastly 0 cm/s. The high flow velocities inhibit the production of hepatopancrease and gonad, in terms of nutrients from food used to endeavor the stress condition faced.
  10. Qiu B, Fang S, Ikhwanuddin M, Wong L, Ma H
    Mol Biol Rep, 2020 Apr;47(4):3011-3017.
    PMID: 32124169 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-020-05348-z
    In this study, we first conducted a genome survey assay for Sillago sihama by Illumina sequencing platform, and then developed 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci in a wild population. A total of 129.46 Gb raw data were obtained, of which 115.07 Gb were clean data, with a sequencing depth of 179.3-folds. This genome was estimated to be 522.6 Mb in size, with the heterozygosity, repeat content and GC content being 0.63%, 21% and 44%. A total of 630,028 microsatellites were identified from the genome, of which, dinucleotide repeat was the most abundant (56.80%), followed by mononucleotide repeat (30.23%). Furthermore, 60 pairs of primers were designed and synthesized based on microsatellite sequences, of which 15 were polymorphic in a wild population. A total of 91 alleles were found, with an average of 6.07 per locus. Number of alleles, observed and expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from two to 13, from 0.250 to 0.862, and from 0.396 to 0.901, respectively. Twelve loci were highly informative (PIC > 0.5), and the others were medium informative (0.25 
  11. Azra MN, Chen JC, Ikhwanuddin M, Abol-Munafi AB
    J Therm Biol, 2018 May;74:234-240.
    PMID: 29801633 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2018.04.002
    Owing to its potential market value, the blue swimmer crab Portunus pelagicus is of great economic importance. The temperature of water significantly affects the physiological function and production efficiency of these crabs. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the critical thermal minimum (CTMin), critical thermal maximum (CTMax), acclimation response ratio (ARR), escaping temperature (Tesc), and locomotor behavior of P. pelagicus instars at 20 °C, 24 °C, 28 °C, 32 °C, and 36 °C. The CTMax ranged from 39.05 °C to 44.38 °C, while the CTMin ranged from 13.05 °C to 19.30 °C, and both increased directly with temperature. The ARR ranged from 0.25 to 0.51. The movement of crabs (walking before molting) correlated positively with the acclimation temperature. These results indicate that the parameters evaluated varied with temperature. Furthermore, the high CTMax indicates the potential of this species to adapt to a wide range of temperatures. In addition, the implications of these findings for portunid crabs behavior and distribution in their natural habitat are also discussed.
  12. Hidir A, Aaqillah-Amr MA, Noordiyana MN, Ikhwanuddin M
    Anim. Reprod. Sci., 2018 Aug;195:216-229.
    PMID: 29861342 DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.05.026
    Recently, there has been a growing interest in the ovarian maturation of mud crabs, genus Scylla. Studies regarding the factors that affect ovarian maturation in mud crabs, however, are still lacking. This study, therefore, evaluates the relationship between diet and internal physiological changes of female orange mud crabs, Scylla olivacea. Sixty female adult S. olivacea were sampled from Setiu Wetland, Malaysia. Foreguts were sampled to study fullness and content. The hepatopancreas was sampled to study digestive enzyme activity, biochemical composition, and histology. Ovaries were sampled to study ovarian biochemical composition and histology. Foregut fullness data suggest that there is an increase in feeding with advancing ovarian maturation in mud crabs. Data for foregut contents indicated that when the ovary was in Stage 3 of maturation the diet was animal-based. The activity of amylase, cellulase, lipase, and trypsin during Stages 1 and 4 of ovarian maturation were less than during Stage 3 of ovarian maturation. Biochemical composition (protein and lipid) was greater during Stage 3 of ovarian maturation. Histological analysis of the hepatopancreas indicated an increase in hepatopancreas tubules, B and R cells during Stage 3 as compared with Stage 1 of ovarian maturation. Histological analysis of the ovary indicated increases in oocyte diameter due to concentrated large yolk globules. Based on these results, it is concluded that vitellogenesis mainly occurred during Stage 3 of ovarian maturation, based on evidence of increased feeding with the diet being predominantly animal-based. Likewise, digestive enzyme activities, proteins, lipids, B cells, and R cells were all greater during Stage 3 of ovarian maturation.
  13. Aaqillah-Amr MA, Hidir A, Noordiyana MN, Ikhwanuddin M
    Anim. Reprod. Sci., 2018 Aug;195:274-283.
    PMID: 29910008 DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.06.005
    This study describes the fatty acids, total carotenoids, and cell diameter characteristics of the female ovary and hepatopancreas of the mud crab, Scylla olivacea, with comparisons at different ovarian maturation stages. Seventy-one S. olivacea individuals at all stages of ovarian maturation were sampled from the Setiu wetlands, Terengganu, Malaysia. The ovary and hepatopancreas of each crab were used for morphological studies, histological and biochemical analyses (fatty acid composition and total carotenoids). Morphological observations indicated there was an increase in ovarian gonado-somatic index (GSI), with color changes from translucent to dark red; however, a relatively consistent hepato-somatic index (HSI) in the hepatopancreas, with the color ranging from yellow to yellowish-brown. Histological analysis indicated that oocyte diameter was positively correlated with GSI. Hepatopancreatic tubules had a relatively constant diameter from Stage 2 to 4, with increased proportions of R- and B-cells. Biochemical analysis indicated there was a significant increase in total carotenoids in the ovary during maturation. The hepatopancreas, however, had relatively consistent total carotenoid concentrations that were greater than those of the ovary. Overall, the lipid analysis results indicated there were lesser concentrations of fatty acids in the hepatopancreas, while in the ovary there were increasing concentrations during maturation. The lesser concentrations of fatty acids in the hepatopancreas than ovary suggested that energy was transferred to the ovary for future embryonic and larval development. The relationship between the hepatopancreas and the ovary in nutrient content is an important finding in providing a baseline to formulate an optimal diet for improved mud crab hatchery practices.
  14. Ikhwanuddin M, Amin-Safwan A, Hasyima-Ismail N, Azra MN
    Data Brief, 2019 Oct;26:104477.
    PMID: 31667242 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2019.104477
    The present paper contains two datasets; i) the growth band count (GBC) of mud crab, Scylla olivacea collected from Setiu Wetlands, Terengganu coastal water, East coast of Peninsular Malaysia and ii) the increment sizes of body weight (BW) and carapace width (CW) of immature S. olivace after molting. The datasets presented here were associated with the research articles entitled i) "Study on carapace width growth band counts relationship of orange mud crab, S. olivacea (Herbst, 1796) from Terengganu Coastal Waters, Malaysia" (Hasyima-Ismail et al. 2017) [1] and ii) "Relationship between the carapace width and body weight increments and the confirmation of Stage 1 ovary after the molting of immature orange mud crabs, S. olivacea (Herbst, 1796), in captivity" (Amin-Safwan et al. 2019-2020) [2], and provided here as raw data of Supplementary materials. Raw datasets for GBC in the wild were generated by examination of the thin cross sectioning process of the gastric mill of S. olivacea. The GBC were measured for each individual crab wherein band counts ranged from 1 to 3. The analysis provides evidence that the GBC of the crabs can be determined through both mesocardiac and zygocardiac ossicles. This data is of importance to researchers for estimation of stock assessment and improvement of fisheries management to further improve policy. For the BW-CW increment data, a total of 135 immature crabs were sampled from Setiu Wetlands, Terengganu, Malaysia, and were introduced to limb autotomy technique in order to induced molt. Crabs were reared until successful molting and immediately prior to hardened shell, before final measurement of body weight and carapace width determination. Recorded data was analyzed by calculating the increment sizes, along with correlation and regression analysis between body weight and carapace width of mud crabs.
  15. Kasan NA, Ghazali NA, Ikhwanuddin M, Ibrahim Z
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2017;20(6):306-313.
    PMID: 29023055 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2017.306.313
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A new green technology to reduce environmental damages while optimizing production of Pacific Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei was developed known as "Biofloc technology". Microbial communities in biofloc aggregates are responsible in eliminating water exchange and producing microbial proteins that can be used as supplemented feed for L. vannamei. This study aimed to isolate and identify potential bioflocculant-producing bacteria to be used as inoculum for rapid formation of biofloc.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the purpose of this study, bacterial communities during 0, 30 and 70 days of culture (DOC) of L. vannamei grow-out ponds were isolated and identified through phenotypic and 16S rDNA sequences analysis. Phylogenetic relationships between isolated bacteria were then evaluated through phylogenetic tree analysis. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the differences of microbial communities at each DOC.

    RESULTS: Out of 125 bacterial isolates, nine species of bacteria from biofloc were identified successfully. Those bacteria species were identified as Halomonas venusta, H. aquamarina, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus infantis, B. cereus, B. safensis, Providencia vermicola, Nitratireductor aquimarinus and Pseudoalteromonas sp., respectively. Through phylogenetic analysis, these isolates belong to Proteobacteria and Firmicutes families under the genera of Halomonas sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus sp., Providencia sp., Nitratireductor sp. and Pseudoalteromonas sp.

    CONCLUSION: In this study, bioflocculant-producing bacteria were successfully identified which are perfect candidates in forming biofloc to reduce water pollution towards a sustainable aquaculture industry. Presence of Halomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. in all stages of biofloc formation reinforces the need for new development regarding the ability of these species to be used as inoculum in forming biofloc rapidly.

  16. Ikhwanuddin M, Azra MN, Siti-Aimuni H, Abol-Munafi AB
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2012 Aug 01;15(15):720-8.
    PMID: 24171257
    Blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus is widely study and research throughout the Indo-West Pacific, but little is known of its reproductive biology in Malaysia. The present study describes the fecundity, embryonic development and ovarian development stages of the P. pelagicus from Johor coastal water, Malaysia. Carapace width range of berried crabs sampled was from 9.64 to 13.32 cm, while the body weight range was from 75 to 235 g. The mean number of egg produced by females in different sizes ranged from 105443.333 +/- 35448.075 per eggs batch. Mean egg size during embryonic development at stage 1 was 0.307 +/- 0.037, while 0.386 +/- 0.039 and 0.396 +/- 0.033 for stage 2 and stage 3, respectively. Study showed that there was significant (p < 0.05) relationship between the number of eggs and carapace width/body weight. Mean diameter oocyte during ovarian development at stage 1 was 97.732 +/- 12.391 while for stage 2 was 149.516 +/- 23.287. Stage 3 showed increasingly of size with mean diameter was 158.506 +/- 27.616 and 181.013 +/- 24.339 for stage 4.
  17. Okomoda VT, Isah S, Solomon SG, Ikhwanuddin M
    Fish Physiol Biochem, 2024 Apr;50(2):605-616.
    PMID: 38165562 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-023-01293-3
    This study was designed to evaluate the tolerance of Clarias gariepinus juveniles to a gradual and abrupt increase in salinity over time. To this effect, C. gariepinus juveniles were exposed to three salinity incremental protocols namely 1 g L-1 day-1, 5 g L-1 day-1, and 10 g L-1 day-1. Changes in the hematological parameters and the gill histology of fish were analyzed to determine the impact of osmotic stress on the health status of the fish and its osmoregulatory ability. The result obtained showed that juveniles of C. gariepinus can tolerate salinity stress up to 14 g L-1. At 15 g L-1 and beyond, all samples died regardless of gradual (i.e., 1 g L-1 day-1 administered for 15 days) or abrupt salinity exposure (i.e., 5 g L-1 day-1 administered for three days and 10 g L-1 day-1 administered for two days). Interestingly, more than 90% of the fish survived a direct 10 g L-1 exposure for 24 h without prior acclimation. The hematological parameters accessed in the fish exposed to 10 g L-1 (either gradually or abruptly) showed a significant increase in the white blood cells and a decrease in the red blood cells, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, and all derived blood parameters. The results of the serum biochemistry show a lower total protein and albumin in the salinity-treated fish compared to the control group. However, the serum glucose and the plasma electrolytes (i.e., K+, Na+, and Cl-) were higher in the former group than in the latter. Aside from the stress response expressed in the blood parameters, severe gill degenerations were seen in the histological micrograph obtained for the salinity-treated fish, while the control had a near-normal gill architecture. It was concluded that C. gariepinus could tolerate salinity exposure of 10 g L-1 day-1 (administered gradually or abruptly) and below without killing the fish within 24 h.
  18. Faiz ZM, Mardhiyyah MP, Mohamad A, Hidir A, Nurul-Hidayah A, Wong L, et al.
    Anim. Reprod. Sci., 2019 Oct;209:106143.
    PMID: 31514941 DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2019.106143
    Understanding Macrobrachium rosenbergii ovarian maturation control at the genome level is an important aspect for increasing larvae production. In this study, an ovarian maturation related gene, M. rosenbergii vWD domain and three Kazal-type domains of a gene (MrvWD-Kazal) have been studied. The MrvWD-Kazal gene was isolated using a rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method and the relative abundances of MrvWD-Kazal mRNA in the ovary, hepatopancreas, stomach, intestine and gill were determined by using the quantitative PCR technique. The MrvWD-Kazal gene is composed of 2194 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1998 bp encoding 665 amino acids and has great similarity to the M. nipponense vWD-Kazal gene (91%). The qPCR analyses indicated the relative abundance of MrvWD-Kazal mRNA transcript varied among different stages of ovarian function (P < 0.05), but there were no differences abundance in hepatopancreas, stomach, intestine and gill (P> 0.05). In the ovary, relative abundance of MrvWD-Kazal mRNA transcript gradually increased with ovarian maturation from Stages 1 (Spent; 1.00-fold), to 2 (Proliferative; 3.47-fold) to 3 (Premature; 6.18-fold) and decreased at Stage 4 (Mature; 1.31-fold). Differential relative abundances of MrvWD-Kazal mRNA transcript in the ovary indicate the MrvWD-Kazal protein may have an important function in ovarian maturation of M. rosenbergii. The results of this study also indicate the MrvWD-Kazal is not involved in regulation of the reproductive related function of the hepatopancreas, digestive system (stomach and intestine) and respiratory system (gill).
  19. Fazhan H, Waiho K, Fujaya Y, Rukminasari N, Ma H, Ikhwanuddin M
    PeerJ, 2021;9:e10936.
    PMID: 33954025 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.10936
    Sexual dimorphism is a common phenomenon in the animal kingdom. To test the consistency of sexual dimorphism patterns among sympatric species of the same genus, ten morphometric characteristics of mud crabs Scylla olivacea, S. tranquebarica and S. paramamosain were measured and compared using Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA). The descriptive analysis revealed that in all three species, body size dimensions and cheliped dimensions were significantly larger in males whereas the abdomen width was female-biased. Also, we described a morphological variation (carapace width, CW ≤ CW at spine 8, 8CW) that is unique to S. olivacea. Discriminant function analysis revealed that all nine morphometric characteristics were sexually dimorphic in S. olivacea, S. tranquebarica (except right cheliped's merus length, ML) and S. paramamosain (except 8CW). The obtained discriminant functions based on the morphometric ratios (with CW as divisor) correctly classified 100% of adults of known sex of all three species. Further, based on the selected body traits, DFA was able to almost completely distinguish males (94%), but not females (74%), among the three Scylla species. This study highlights that congeneric species of portunids (e.g., Scylla spp.) show similar sexually dimorphic characteristics (body size and secondary sexual characteristics).
  20. Guan M, Tan H, Fazhan H, Xie Z, Shi X, Zhang Y, et al.
    Mitochondrial DNA B Resour, 2018 Oct 26;3(2):1244-1245.
    PMID: 33474478 DOI: 10.1080/23802359.2018.1532345
    The mitochondrial genome plays an important role in studies on phylogeography and population genetic diversity. Here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Lupocycloporus gracilimanus (Stimpson, 1858) which is the first mitochondrial genome reported in genus Lupocycloporus by now. The mitogenome is 15,990 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a putative control region. The phylogenetic analysis showed that L. gracilimanus was closest to genus Scylla. The present research should provide valuable information for phylogenetic analysis and classification of Portunidae.
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