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  1. Masoumi HR, Basri M, Samiun WS, Izadiyan Z, Lim CJ
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2015;10:6469-76.
    PMID: 26508853 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S89364
    Aripiprazole is considered as a third-generation antipsychotic drug with excellent therapeutic efficacy in controlling schizophrenia symptoms and was the first atypical anti-psychotic agent to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Formulation of nanoemulsion-containing aripiprazole was carried out using high shear and high pressure homogenizers. Mixture experimental design was selected to optimize the composition of nanoemulsion. A very small droplet size of emulsion can provide an effective encapsulation for delivery system in the body. The effects of palm kernel oil ester (3-6 wt%), lecithin (2-3 wt%), Tween 80 (0.5-1 wt%), glycerol (1.5-3 wt%), and water (87-93 wt%) on the droplet size of aripiprazole nanoemulsions were investigated. The mathematical model showed that the optimum formulation for preparation of aripiprazole nanoemulsion having the desirable criteria was 3.00% of palm kernel oil ester, 2.00% of lecithin, 1.00% of Tween 80, 2.25% of glycerol, and 91.75% of water. Under optimum formulation, the corresponding predicted response value for droplet size was 64.24 nm, which showed an excellent agreement with the actual value (62.23 nm) with residual standard error <3.2%.
  2. Izadiyan Z, Basri M, Fard Masoumi HR, Abedi Karjiban R, Salim N, Shameli K
    Chem Cent J, 2017;11:21.
    PMID: 28293282 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-017-0248-6
    The aim of this study is the development of nanoemulsions for intravenous administration of Sorafenib, which is a poorly soluble drug with no parenteral treatment. The formulation was prepared by a high energy emulsification method and optimized by response surface methodology. The effects of overhead stirring time, high shear rate, high shear time, and cycles of high-pressure homogenizer were studied in the preparation of nanoemulsion loaded with Sorafenib. Most of the particles in nanoemulsion are spherical in shape, the smallest particle size being 82.14 nm. The results of the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a tetrazole reveal that the optimum formulation does not affect normal cells significantly in low drug concentrations but could remove the cancer cells. Finally, a formulation containing Sorafenib retained its properties over a period of 90 days. With characterization, the study of the formulated nanoemulsion has the potential to be used as a parenteral nanoemulsion in the treatment of cancer. Graphical abstractSchematic figure of high pressure homogenizer device.
  3. Izadiyan Z, Basri M, Fard Masoumi HR, Abedi Karjiban R, Salim N, Kalantari K
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Jan 01;94:841-849.
    PMID: 30423770 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.10.015
    Nanoemulsions have been used as a drug carrier system, particularly for poorly water-soluble drugs. Sorafenib is a poorly soluble drug and also there is no parenteral treatment. The aim of this study is the development of nanoemulsions for intravenous administration of Sorafenib. The formulations were prepared by high energy emulsification method and optimized by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Here, the effect of independent composition variables of lecithin (1.16-2.84%, w/w), Medium-Chain Triglycerides (2.32-5.68%, w/w) and polysorbate 80 (0.58-1.42%, w/w) amounts on the properties of Sorafenib-loaded nanoemulsion was investigated. The three responses variables were particle size, zeta potential, and polydispersity index. Optimization of the conditions according to the three dependent variables was performed for the preparation of the Sorafenib-loaded nanoemulsions with the minimum value of particle size, suitable rage of zeta potential, and polydispersity index. A formulation containing 0.05% of Sorafenib kept its properties in a satisfactory range over the evaluated period. The composition with 3% Medium-Chain Triglycerides, 2.5% lecithin and 1.22% polysorbate 80 exhibited the smallest particle size and polydispersity index (43.17 nm and 0.22, respectively) with the zeta potential of -38.8 mV was the optimized composition. The fabricated nanoemulsion was characterized by the transmission electron microscope (TEM), viscosity, and stability assessment study. Also, the cytotoxicity result showed that the optimum formulations had no significant effect on a normal cell in a low concentration of the drug but could eliminate the cancer cells. The dose-dependent toxicity made it a suitable candidate for parenteral applications in the treatment of breast cancer. Furthermore, the optimized formulation indicated good storage stability for 3 months at different temperatures (4 ± 2 °C, 25 ± 2 °C and 45 ± 2 °C).
  4. Rasouli E, Basirun WJ, Rezayi M, Shameli K, Nourmohammadi E, Khandanlou R, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2018;13:6903-6911.
    PMID: 30498350 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S158083
    Introduction: In the present research, we report a quick and green synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) in aqueous solution using ferric and ferrous chloride, with different percentages of natural honey (0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0% w/v) as the precursors, stabilizer, reducing and capping agent, respectively. The effect of the stabilizer on the magnetic properties and size of Fe3O4-NPs was also studied.

    Methods: The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Results: The XRD analysis indicated the presence of pure Fe3O4-NPs while the TEM images indicated that the Fe3O4-NPs are spherical with a diameter range between 3.21 and 2.22 nm. The VSM study demonstrated that the magnetic properties were enhanced with the decrease in the percentage of honey. In vitro viability evaluation of Fe3O4-NPs performed by using the MTT assay on the WEHI164 cells demonstrated no significant toxicity in higher concentration up to 140.0 ppm, which allows them to be used in some biological applications such as drug delivery.

    Conclusion: The presented synthesis method can be used for the controlled synthesis of Fe3O4-NPs, which could be found to be important in applications in biotechnology, biosensor and biomedicine, magnetic resonance imaging and catalysis.

  5. Rasouli E, Basirun WJ, Johan MR, Rezayi M, Darroudi M, Shameli K, et al.
    J. Cell. Biochem., 2019 04;120(4):6624-6631.
    PMID: 30368873 DOI: 10.1002/jcb.27958
    In the present research, we report a greener, faster, and low-cost synthesis of gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3 O4 /Au-NPs) by different ratios (1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 molar ratio) of iron oxide and gold with natural honey (0.5% w/v) under hydrothermal conditions for 20 minutes. Honey was used as the reducing and stabilizing agent, respectively. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The XRD analysis indicated the presence of Fe3 O4 /Au-NPs, while the TEM images showed the formation of Fe3 O4 /Au-NPs with diameter range between 3.49 nm and 4.11 nm. The VSM study demonstrated that the magnetic properties were decreased in the Fe3 O4 /Au-NPs compared with the Fe3 O4 -NPs. The cytotoxicity threshold of Fe3 O4 /Au-NPs in the WEHI164 cells was determined by using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. It was demonstrated no significant toxicity in higher concentration up to 140.0 ppm which can become the main candidates for biological and biomedical applications, such as drug delivery.
  6. Kalantari K, Moniri M, Boroumand Moghaddam A, Abdul Rahim R, Bin Ariff A, Izadiyan Z, et al.
    Molecules, 2017 Sep 30;22(10).
    PMID: 28974019 DOI: 10.3390/molecules22101645
    Zerumbone (ZER) is a phytochemical isolated from the subtropical Zingiberaceae family and as a natural compound it has different biomedical properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory anti-proliferative activity. ZER also has effects on angiogenesis and acts as an antitumor drug in the treatment of cancer, showing selective toxicity toward various cancer cell lines. Several techniques also have been established for extraction of ZER from the rhizomes of ginger. This review paper is an overview of recent research about different extraction methods and their efficiencies, in vivo and vitro investigations of ZER and also its prominent chemopreventive properties and treatment mechanisms. Most of the studies mentioned in this review paper may be useful use as a knowledge summary to explain ZER extraction and anticancer activities, which will show a way for the development of strategies in the treatment of malignancies using ZER.
  7. Izadiyan Z, Shameli K, Miyake M, Teow SY, Peh SC, Mohamad SE, et al.
    PMID: 30606561 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.11.008
    Core-shell Fe3O4/Au nanostructures were constructed using an advanced method of two-step synthesis from Juglans regia (walnut) green husk extract. Several complementary methods were applied to investigate structural and magnetic properties of the samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), electron diffraction, optical, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used for nanoparticle characterizations. As shown by HR-TEM, the mean diameter of core-shell Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles synthesized using co-precipitation method was 6.08 ± 1.06 nm. This study shows that the physical and structural properties of core-shell Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles possess intrinsic properties of gold and magnetite. VSM revealed that the core-shell Fe3O4/Au have high saturation magnetization and low coercivity due to the magnetic properties. The core-shell nanoparticles show the inhibitory concentration (IC)50 of 235 μg/ml against a colorectal cancer cell line, HT-29. When tested against non-cancer cells, IC50 was not achieved even up to 500 μg/ml. This study highlights the magnetic properties and anticancer action of core-shell Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles. This compound can be ideal candidate for cancer treatment and other biomedical applications.
  8. Kalantari K, Afifi AM, Moniri M, Moghaddam AB, Kalantari A, Izadiyan Z
    IET Nanobiotechnol, 2019 May;13(3):262-268.
    PMID: 31053688 DOI: 10.1049/iet-nbt.2018.5066
    In this study, the authors synthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using autoclave as a simple, unique and eco-friendly approach. The effect of Zingiber officinale extract was evaluated as a reducing and stabiliser agent. According to transmission electron microscopy results, the AgNPs were in the spherical shape with a particle size of ∼17 nm. The biomedical properties of AgNPs as antibacterial agents and free radical scavenging activity were estimated. Synthesised AgNPs showed significant 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical scavenging. Strong bactericidal activity was shown by the AgNPs on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A maximum inhibition zone of ∼14 mm was obtained for epidermidis at a concentration of 60 μg/ml for sample fabricated at 24 h. The AgNPs also showed a significant cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with an half maximal inhibitory concentration value of 62 μg/ml in 24 h by the MTT assay. It could be concluded that Z. officinale extract can be used effectively in the production of potential antioxidant and antimicrobial AgNPs for commercial application.
  9. Jahangirian H, Kalantari K, Izadiyan Z, Rafiee-Moghaddam R, Shameli K, Webster TJ
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2019;14:1633-1657.
    PMID: 30880970 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S184723
    Conventional cancer treatment techniques show several limitations including low or no specificity and consequently a low efficacy in discriminating between cancer cells and healthy cells. Recent nanotechnology developments have introduced smart and novel therapeutic nanomaterials that take advantage of various targeting approaches. The use of nanotechnology in medicine and, more specifically, drug delivery is set to spread even more rapidly than it has over the past two decades. Currently, many nanoparticles (NPs) are under investigation for drug delivery including those for cancer therapy. Targeted nanomaterials bind selectively to cancer cells and greatly affect them with only a minor effect on healthy cells. Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs), specifically, have been identified as significant candidates for new cancer therapeutic modalities because of their biocompatibility, easy functionalization and fabrication, optical tunable characteristics, and chemophysical stability. In the last decade, there has been significant research on Au-NPs and their biomedical applications. Functionalized Au-NPs represent highly attractive and promising candidates for drug delivery, owing to their unique dimensions, tunable surface functionalities, and controllable drug release. Further, iron oxide NPs due to their "superparamagnetic" properties have been studied and have demonstrated successful employment in numerous applications. In targeted drug delivery systems, drug-loaded iron oxide NPs can accumulate at the tumor site with the aid of an external magnetic field. This can lead to incremental effectiveness in drug release to the tumor site and vanquish cancer cells without harming healthy cells. In order for the application of iron oxide NPs in the human body to be realized, they should be biodegradable and biocompatible to minimize toxicity. This review illustrates recent advances in the field drug and small molecule delivery such as fluorouracil, folic acid, doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and daunorubicin, specifically when using gold and iron oxide NPs as carriers of anticancer therapeutic agents.
  10. Kalantari K, Mostafavi E, Afifi AM, Izadiyan Z, Jahangirian H, Rafiee-Moghaddam R, et al.
    Nanoscale, 2020 Jan 28;12(4):2268-2291.
    PMID: 31942896 DOI: 10.1039/c9nr08234d
    Infections are the main reason why most people die from burns and diabetic wounds. The clinical challenge for treating wound infections through traditional antibiotics has been growing steadily and has now reached a critical status requiring a paradigm shift for improved chronic wound care. The US Centers for Disease Control have predicted more deaths from antimicrobial-resistant bacteria than from all types of cancers combined by 2050. Thus, the development of new wound dressing materials that do not rely on antibiotics is of paramount importance. Currently, incorporating nanoparticles into scaffolds represents a new concept of 'nanoparticle dressing' which has gained considerable attention for wound healing. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have been categorized as metal-based nanoparticles and are intriguing materials for wound healing because of their excellent antimicrobial properties. Ag-NPs embedded in wound dressing polymers promote wound healing and control microorganism growth. However, there have been several recent disadvantages of using Ag-NPs to fight infections, such as bacterial resistance. This review highlights the therapeutic approaches of using wound dressings functionalized with Ag-NPs and their potential role in revolutionizing wound healing. Moreover, the physiology of the skin and wounds is discussed to place the use of Ag-NPs in wound care into perspective.
  11. Yusefi M, Soon ML, Teow SY, Monchouguy EI, Mooneerah BNH, Izadiyan Z, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2022 Jan 05.
    PMID: 34998882 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.12.189
    Polysaccharide nanocrystals have great potential to be used as improved drug carriers due to their low cost, high biodegradability, and biocompatibility. This study reports the synthesis of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) loaded with 5-fluorouracil (CNC/5FU) to evaluate their anticancer activity against colorectal cancer cells. X-ray and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that acid hydrolysis successfully degraded the amorphous cellulose to liberate the crystal regions. From transmission electron microscopy, CNC/5FU appeared as rod-like nanocrystals with an average length and width of 69.53 ± 1.14 nm and 8.13 ± 0.72 nm, respectively. The anticancer drug 5FU showed improved thermal stability after being loading onto CNC. From UV-vis spectroscopy data, the drug encapsulation efficiency in CNC/5FU was estimated to be 83.50 ± 1.52%. The drug release of CNC/5FU was higher at pH 7.4 compared to those at pH 4.2 and 1.2. From the cytotoxicity assays, CNC did not affect the viability of CCD112 colon normal cells. On the other hand, CNC/5FU exhibited anticancer effects against HCT116 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells. The anticancer actions of CNC/5FU against HCT116 cells were then confirmed using an in vitro tumor-on-chip model and clonogenic assay. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that CNC/5FU killed the cancer cells by mainly inducing cell apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane damage. Overall, this study indicated that CNC/5FU could be a potential nanoformulation for improved drug delivery and colorectal cancer treatment.
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