METHODS: Five fresh-pooled blood samples were sent to participating laboratories twice each year. The results were evaluated against target values assigned by the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program network laboratories; a passing criterion of +/-7% of the target value was used. Measurement uncertainty at Hb A(1c) concentrations of 7.0% and 8.0% were determined.
RESULTS: A total of 276 laboratories from 11 countries took part in the Hb A(1c) survey. At the Hb A(1c) concentrations tested method-specific interlaboratory imprecision (CVs) were 1.1%-13.9% in 2005, 1.3%-10.1% in 2006, 1.2%-8.2% in 2007, and 1.1%-6.1% in 2008. Differences between target values and median values from the commonly used methods ranged from -0.24% to 0.22% Hb A(1c) in 2008. In 2005 83% of laboratories passed the survey, and in 2008 93% passed. At 7.0% Hb A(1c), measurement uncertainty was on average 0.49% Hb A(1c).
CONCLUSIONS: The use of accuracy-based proficiency testing with stringent quality criteria has improved the performance of Hb A(1c) testing in the Asian and Pacific laboratories during the 4 years of assessment.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used 13 nuclear microsatellite loci (on 911 individuals) and mitochondrial COI sequences to gain a better understanding of the historical and contemporary movements of Ae. albopictus in the Indo-Pacific region and to characterize its population structure. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) was employed to test competing historical routes of invasion of Ae. albopictus within the Southeast (SE) Asian/Australasian region. Our ABC results show that Ae. albopictus was most likely introduced to New Guinea via mainland Southeast Asia, before colonizing the Solomon Islands via either Papua New Guinea or SE Asia. The analysis also supported that the recent incursion into northern Australia's Torres Strait Islands was seeded chiefly from Indonesia. For the first time documented in this invasive species, we provide evidence of a recently colonized population (the Torres Strait Islands) that has undergone rapid temporal changes in its genetic makeup, which could be the result of genetic drift or represent a secondary invasion from an unknown source.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There appears to be high spatial genetic structure and high gene flow between some geographically distant populations. The species' genetic structure in the region tends to favour a dispersal pattern driven mostly by human movements. Importantly, this study provides a more widespread sampling distribution of the species' native range, revealing more spatial population structure than previously shown. Additionally, we present the most probable invasion history of this species in the Australasian region using ABC analysis.